Skip to main content

Full text of "Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers: Based on a Series of Articles Originally Published in ..."

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 



HOME INSTRUCTION 

FOR 

SHEET METAL WORKERS 



Home Instruction 

FOR 

Sheet Metal Workers 



BAHED DM A SERIES OF AHTICLSa ORIGINALLY 

METAL WORKER, PLUMBEK AND STEAM FITTER 



WILLIAM NEUBECKER 

EDITED BY 

FRANK X. MORIO 



First Edition 



Jfc^U. p. C. BOOK COMPANY. Isc. 

""^A 839 WEST SSTH STREET, NEW YORK 
1922 




Copyright, 1922 by the 
U. P. C. Book Company, Inc. 



PREFACE 

For the benefit of those who are using this work, it is well to 
give, at the outset, a general statement of the plan upon which it 
is written, together with some advice for the use and study ot 
the same, being a Practical Instruction Manual for the Apprentice, 
Helper, and Mechanic. It includes Detailed Instructions on Cut- 
ting, Forming, Soldering, Preparing FuU-Size Details from 
Architects' Blue Prints, Developing the Patterns, Laying Out the 
Work on Sheet Metal, Forming and Bending on the Brake and 
Assembling. It also covers forms of Architectural Cornice and 
Skylight work, including Instructions on Preparing Details, De- 
veloping the Patterns and constructing the work whether in the 
shop or on the building. A glance at the t.ible of contents will 
give, at once, a clear idea of its scoi)e and arrangement. 

From tliis it will be seen that the book is for the most part 
composed of practical problems. The aim of the book is not 
only to assist the apprentice, helper, and the mechanic to under- 
stand the theory of the subject, but chiefly to help him master 
the practical side of sheet metal work. A student, who will study 
the problems and make up the models either at home or in the 
shop, where he is employed, will be as well off as if he had taken 
a course at a trade school. 

The chapter on cutting curves and circles, and also the chapters 
on soldering are very important to the beginner, and must not be 
overlooked by him. These chapters make up the fundamentals of 
the practical side of sheet metal work. The student who thor- 
oughly masters them will have a splendid foundation for the more 
advanced work which follows. 

Chapters V and VI on drawing tools and their uses, and draw- 
ing geometrical problems have been prepared to enable the student 
to become familiar with certain geometrical problems. These 
will help him understand the underlying principles of sheet metal 
pattern drafting. The student will do well to study these chapters 
carefully, as they form the groundwork for the more advanced 
drawings, of which a good part of the book is composed. 

Those problems, which call for detail and scale drawings, will 
be of special value to the sheet metal worker and pattern drafts- 
man. They will familiarize him with the reading of original 
drawings, such as those received from architects, from which he 
is required in many cases to make new drawings adapted to his 
own pecuhar wants. 



4 Preface 

To make it easier for the reader to follow out the details of 
the more complex drawings, large folders have been added to the 
book, which arc fxnind separate in handy reference form. These 
enable him to follow out the smallest details with greater ease 
than if these drawings were reduced to page size and printed in 
the book. 

Important features in the book are the chapters on skylight and 
louvre work, the subject being covered completely, including flat, 
hipped and pitched skylights, stationary and movable louvres, 
turret sash, gearing, etc. The student will find this work of 
especial interest, because it is a branch of the sheet metal trade 
which requires, in addition to skilful workmanship, considerable 
constructive knowledge. 

The practical problems throughout the book have been arranged 
in sequential order according to their difficulty, and while each 
problem is complete in itself, some are necessarily carried farther 
into detail than others. References are made from one problem 
to another, pointing out the similarity of methods employed or of 
principle used. 

The Editor. 



CONTENTS 

Pari I 

CHAPTER I 

Intboductoky 

CHAPTER H 
Cutting Curves and Cirtles .... 

CHAPTER III 
Tools and Preparations for Soldering 

CHAPTER IV 

SnTn».iMn Ki.A3:_mi. IjFgjr.HT Svtus . 



ERRATA 

All refiecencea to Rgure 2 sfwuU read Folder A. 
Page 7: Index reference Page 475 ihtndd read Page 405. 
Page 177: Figure 236 — This illustration is upside down. 



CHAPTER IX 
Scale and Detail Drawings of Molded Gutter with a Miter • 

CHAPTER X 
Scale and Detail Drawings of Square Leader Head .... 

CHAPTER XI 
Octagon Leader Head ! 

CHAPTER XII 
Scale anii Detail Drawings of Plain Window Cap .... 76 

CHAPTER XIII 
Scale and Detail Drawings for Making an Ornamental Window 
Cap 82 

CHAPTER XIV ■ 
Making a Raised Panel 90 



4 Preface 

To make it easier for the reader to follow out the details of 
the more complex drawings, large folders have been added to the 
ifjok, which are bound separate in handy reference form. These 
vnn\t\t: him to follow out the smallest details with greater ease 
tlian if these drawings were reduced to page size and printed in 
the (xwk. 

Im]x^rtanl features in the book are the chapters on skylight and 
IffUvre work, the subject being covered completely, including flat, 
hipttetl and pitched skylights, stationary and movable louvres, 
turret sash, gearing, etc. The student will find this work of 
especial interest, because it is a branch of the sheet metal trade 
which retjuires, in addition to skilful workmanship, considerable 
constructive knowledge. 

The practical problems throughout th 
in sequential order according to their 
problem is complete in itself, some are 
into detail than others. References an 
to another, pointing out the similarity c 
principle used. 



CONTENTS 

Pmrt I 

CHAPTER I 

Inthoductoky 

CHAPTER n 
Cutting Cuives and Ciscler 

CHAPTER HI 
Tools and Preparations for SoLnEKiNC . . . . 

CHAPTER IV 
Soldering Flat and Upright Seams 

CHAPTER V 
Drawing Tools and Uses 

CHAPTER VI 
Drawing Geometrical Problems 

Pari II 

CHAPTER Vri 
Scale Drawings for Plain Capital 

CHAPTER VIII 
Making Full-Si^e Drawings and Patterns riiK Cai'it. 

CHAPTER IX 
Scale and Detail Drawings ok Moi.iihi Gutter with a 

CHAPTER X 
Scale and Detail Drawings of Sui'ahk Leader Head . 

CHAPTER XI 
Octagon Leader Head 

CHAPTER XII 
Scale and Detail Dmawings of Plain Window Cap . 

CHAPTER XIII 
Scale and Detail Drawisgs for Making an Ornamen 
Cap 

CHAPTER XIV - 
Making a Raised Panel 



6 Contents 

chapter xv 

PAGB 

Making a Plain Qmnice 94 

CHAPTER XVI 
Makin'c an Orkauental CoiNiCE 101 

CHAPTER XVn 
Uaking a Sqcare Turbet 124 

CHAPTER XVIII 
Making an Obnamental Finial 130 

CHAPTER XIX 
Making a Paneled Cross . 146 

CHAPTER XX 
Scale and Detail Drawings for Making a Pediment on a Wash . 154 

CHAPTER XXI 
CoNsnucriNG a Dobuer Window 160 

CHAPTER XXII 
Making a Hexagonal Ventilatob 178 

CHAPTER XXIII 
Construction of Flat Skylights 190 

CHAPTER XXIV 
Consthuction of Raising Sash fob Flat Skylights .... 224 

CHAPTER XXV 
Making Hipped Skylights 240 

CHAPTER XXVI 
Developing the Vaij-ky Bah in Pitched Skylights . . . .276 

CHAPTER XXVII 
Construction of Stationary and Mo\'aiile Louvkes .... 285 

CHAPTER XXVIII 
Pattehns and Consthuction of Stationary and Movable Sashes . 300 

CHAPTER XXIX 
Drawing Details in the Construction of Bay Windows . . . 326 

P>rt III 

CHAPTER XXX 
Construction and Patterns of a Ten-Inch Ball .... 360 



Contents 
chapter xxxi 

CONSTKUCTION AND PaTTEBNS FOR A RoUND FiNIAL . 

CHAPTER XXXn 
Pattebns for a Center Piece 

CHAPTER XXXUI 
Making Curved Moldings and Window Caps . 

Index 



HOME INSTRUCTION FOR 
SHEET METAL WORKERS 

CHAPTER I 

Introductory 

The aim in presenting this course of instruction on archi- 
tectural sheet metal work is to benefit the apprentice, the helper, 
as well as the mechanic, and to give assistance to those who are 
unable to take a course at a trade school, no matter where they 
are located. At the present time when a boy is taken in the shop 
to iearn a trade, neither the master mechanic nor the workman 
has the time to give him the practical and technical instruction 
he ought to receive, and therefore what he learns is only what 
he can pick up himself. With the instruction given in this course, 
which is similar to that at the New York Trade School, a young 
man by close application can master his trade with such shop 
help as will be given if he is worthy of it. Sometimes the 
mechanic with whom he is working is not as bright as he might 
be, and the information obtained is not any too intelligent. The 
boy will have to pick up a little here and there, and at the expira- 
tion of his apprenticeship is supposed to be a mechanic, to whom 
other apprentices will look for information, and it does not 
require very deep thinking as to the kind of mechanics we will 
have years hence. While a course in a trade school does not 
make a mechanic, it does give the student practical and technical, 
knowledge which- he would be unable to obtain in the shop, and 
this knowledge, gained through studying this course, he can apply 
to the practical every-day work arising in the shop, and it is only 
a matter of time when he will climb ahead of the boy who lacks 
this information. 

The following from the catalogue of the New York Trade 
School will explain the position taken by that school : 

"A comparison between the shop method of learning a trade 
and the trade school system clearly shows the advantages which 
the latter offers young men. Generally a young man is em- 
ployed simply to make himself useful about the shop, and neither 
the master nor the workman has the time to give the young man 
9 



10 Home Instxvction fok Sheet Metal Wokkess 

the instmction he should receive. What knowledge is obtained 
the lad himself acquires by observation, and as a result of the 
neglect of proper teaching, his progress is slow, and he can get 
at best but a limited knowledge of his trade. In a trade school 
every endeavor is made to advance the student in the trade he is 
learning, and by reason of the care that is devoted to his instruc- 
tion it is not long before he understands how to use his tools 
and is capable of doing work that makes him of value to his 
employer. An important feature of the trade school system, too, 
i» that a young man can quickly determine whether he possesses 
an aptitude for mechanics and along what particular line he is 
gifted. In most trades little or no opportunity is afforded the 
b^inner (o work with tools or to practice, and it is frequently 
the case that a young man does not discover until after a long 
tcim of service, and when it is, perhaps, too late to make a 
change, that a mistake has been made in the selection of a trade." 
This course, prepared for those who cannot attend a school, 
cfjvcrs 21 exercises in practical shop work, starting with cutting 
curves and irregular figures, etc., so as to teach the use of the 
shears ; then the use of the soldering copper is taught. The draw- 
ing of geometrical problems follows, showing the use of the draw- 
ing tools, and then the exercises mentioned, which are practical 
and technical, ^ving what no apprentice, hel[)er or mechanic has 
a chance to obtain in the shop — namely, instructions to prepare 
details or shop drawings from scale drawings, develop the pat- 
terns, transfer the patterns to the metal, allow edges, cut, form 
up on the brake and solder the article at the bench. While the 
above gives a general outline of the course and the benefits to be 
derived the following shows the full course of instruction: 



1. Cutting Curves and Circles. 

2. Filing and Tinning the Soldering Copper, 

3. Soldering Flat Seams. 

4. Soldering Upright Seams. 

5. Geometrical Drawings. 

PART II 
Drawing details, obtaining patterns from details, and setting 
tc^thcr the following work : 

1. Plain Capital. 

2. Molded Gutter. 



Introductory 



3. 


Square Leader Head, 


4. 


Octagon Leader Head. 


5. 


Plain Window Cap. 


6. 


Ornamental Window Cap. 


7. 


Raised Panel. 


8. 


Plain Cornice. 


9. 


Ornamental Cornice. 


10. 


Square Turret. 


11. 


Ornamental Finial. 


12. 


Paneled Cross. 


13. 


Pediment on a Wasli. 


14. 


Dormer Window. 


15. 


Hexagon Ventilator. 


16. 


Flat Slcylight. 


17. 


Hipped Sltyliglit. 


18. 


Bay Window. 




PART III 




Hammer Worlt by Hand 


1. 


Ten-incli Hall. 


2. 


Round Finial. 


3. 


Center Piece. 



Hamintr Work by Machine 

4. Circular Panel. 

5. Circular Molding, 

6. Segmental Pediment. 

Before starting the work tlic home student should be in poces- 
sion of a full set of hand tools for the practical work, and a 
drawing outfit for the pattern and layout work, as follows: 

HAND TOOLS, 

Hammer Shears 

Soldering Coppers (pair) Mallet 

Dividers File 

Scratch Awl Prick Punch 

Rivet Punch Rivet Set 

Several Size Giisels Flat Nose Pliers 

Ruler Straight Edge 

Try Square Hand Groover 



DRAWING OUTFIT. 

Large Drawing Board T Square 

Set of Drawing Instruments Drawing Pencil 

45 Degree Triangle 30-60 Degree Triangle 

Scale Ruler Eraser 

Detail Drawing Paper Thumb Tacks 

For the use of such machinery as the cornice brake, roll former, 
etc., the student will have to rely on the shop equipment in the 
shop where he is employed. With this enumeration of working 
and drawing tools any ambitious young man can take up this 
course and follow it in detail in the shop where he is employed 
just as if he attended a trade school, and his employer, the fore- 
man, or some friendly workman can give him instructions on any 
points that might perplex him . 

In Fig. 1 is shown one end of the sheet metal department of 
the New York Trade School, 



CHAPTER II 
Cutting Curves and Circles 

Taking up the first work in the course, the home student should 
prick the set of full size patterns in Folder A upon thin sheet 
metal not heavier than No. 28 gauge, and use these patterns for 
cutting four of each piece. The way to prick these patterns on 
to the sheet metal is as follows : To obtain the pattern marked 
No. 1 set the wing dividers equal to 1 J4 in., or the distance from a' 
to b' using any scrap piece of metal, press one leg of the dividers 
slightly into the metal to keep it from slipping, and describe the 
circle with the other. Pattern No. 2 must be pricked through the 
paper pattern on to the metal, using a hammer and prick punch. 
A mistake often made is to use a center punch similar to that 
shown by A, while the prick punch should be forged long and 
pointed, as at B. Using the center punch A, the prick marks be- 
come too large, because the point at A spreads too quickly ; but by 
using the prick punch B small prick marks give an accurate 
pattern. Lay pattern No. 2 on a piece of metal, not in the center, 
but in the comer, as indicated by the shaded portion, E, F, H, 
representing the metal, placing a weight on the pattern to keep 
it from moving, using the prick punch B and hammer, prick 
marks are made through the paper into the sheet metal by slightly 
tapping the punch with the hammer, the prick marks being indi- 
cated by the heavy dots. Remove the paper and, using a straight- 
edge and prick punch, scribe lines on the metal from dot to dot, 
from L to M and N to O. 

Where the curved line is pricked use a lead pencil to draw the 
curve over the dots in the mclal. Care must be taken in prick- 
ing off any curved line not to place the dots too far apart, shown 
by b, c, d, c, f, h, i, pattern No. 3, for if this is done the student 
would be at a loss to know how to draw the proper curve or sweep, 
and the result would be an inaccurate pattern. The prick marks 
should be close, as from a to A"". In pattern No. 4 it is not nec- 
essary to prick around the circle in the center; all that is required 
are the dots / and k ; set one leg of the dividers in j and the other 
in k; describe the circle on the metal. This applies, as well, to 
^ and k', pattern No. 5. The heavy dots In No. 4 and No. 5 show 
* the prick marks should be made. 
14 



Cutting Curves and Circles 15 

Pattern No. 6 shows the side of a modillion, to which laps are 
allowed, as at 8, 9 and 10. Note that the scroll from A° to B" 
has a double cut and is pricked on the outer curve from 1 to 2 
and on the inner curve from 3 to 4, being careful to have the 
dots centered between each opposite pair. This double cut is only 
placed on the pattern to allow the prick punch or scribe awl to 
be inserted when scribing the line for the single cut on the four 
pieces to be cut. As in previous patterns, a lead pencil is used 
to draw the curves, while a straight-edge is for the straight lines. 
The small holes in the patterns are cut with the hollow punch, 
so that they can be hung on a small wire hook for use later on. 
With care the paper patterns may be preserved with the text 
for future reference. 

The hollow punch used to punch these holes, as well as the 
larger circles in patterns No. 4 and No. 5, shown in Fig. 3, A 
and B, can be obtained from dealers in tinners' supplies. For 
accurate work the spring center hollow punch B is recommended, 
because when the centers ; and j' in patterns No. 4 and No. 5, Fig. 
2, are known, it is only necessary to place the spring point a of B, 
Fig. 3, in this center, and having the proper size punch, b, screwed 
to c, the hole is accurately punched where wanted ; laying the 
sheet metal on a block of lead or on the trunk of a tree 
and hitting the punch with a heavy hammer. The shears 
for cutting the patterns and the pieces which will be cut after 
the patterns are as follows : The shears generally used is the left 
hand shears, illustration C. Note that when the shears are taken 
in the right hand they cut at the left side of the upper jaw ;', 
so that the line on the material to be cut is in full view. 

Another shears used to advantage in cutting curves, scrolls 
and irregular shapes is shown at D. The blades are shaped in a 
peculiar manner, which allows the material to pass freely when 
cutting curves or changing the direction of the cut. When a cut 
must be right handed, a right hand snips, or shears, is used. These 
snips have the handle shaped for the right hand, but they cut at the 
right side of the upper jaw the same as the bench shears at E. 
Note the difference of the upper blades in the left hand shears 
at C and the right hand shears at E. The bench shears, when 
in use, are fastened in the bench by inserting the prong at 
the end of the lower arm in a hole cut in the bench for 
the purpose. A circular snips, F, is used to cut moldings, 
curves, etc. Double cutting shears, H, is a labor saving 
tool for cutting pipes. A hole is punched into the pipe, and 



Cutting Curves and Circles 



number have been marked on the metal, X, cut through a b and 
c d, thus obtaining squares, after which, using the left hand 




shears in the right hand and the square of metal in the left, a cut 
is made on the scribed line in the direction of the arrow a b. 
A circle seems a very simple piece to cut, but it requires a 
little practice to get each piece true. 
Some students cut over a dozen before 
one is true and accurate, but as the 
school instructors insist that true circles 
must be furnished, no matter how many: 
are cut, the home student must be an 
honest critic of his work in order to 
acquire accuracy and expertness.. The 

second templet or pattern, from which four arc to be cut, is shown 
reduced in Fig. 5. When cutting this [taltern the expert work- 
man will cut in the direction of the arrows, and the student will 





do well to follow this practice. When the straight cuts a b, c d, 
etc., are long, they are cut on the squaring shears, using foot 
power. 



18 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



After this pattern has been cut true, the method used in scrib- 
ing the rest on the sheet, no matter what pattern is used, is as 
follows ; 

Lay the pattern upon the metal; place a weight upon it to 
keep it from moving, and, using a scribe awl, scribe a line around 
the pattern. If the pattern is small, the weight can be omitted, 
holding the pattern with the thumb and first finger of the left 
hand and scribing with the right. Arrange the templet in various 
positions to have as little waste as possible. Fig. 6. When cutting 
this pattern, a rough cut is 'made along a b, then through c d and 
e f, after which the curves are cut as in Fig. 5. 

The third templet taken up by the student, Fig, 7, gives prac- 
tice in cutting concave and convex curves. In scribing this pat- 
tern upon the sheet metal, waste is avoided by placing the pattern 
in the position in Fig. 8. When cutting, start at the concave 
curve a. Fig. 7, making one continuous cut around b, ending at c. 




Fics. 7 and S. Third Templil and Method of Cutii 




When cutting curves of this kind, the cut should be continuous, 
for when the cutting is stopped, and started again, at different 
parts of the curve, there are apt to be small hooks or pins, shown 
enlarged at A, whereas the cut should be so smooth that the 
finger can be passed around the entire curve without cutting the 
skin. The fourth templet is Fig. 9, in which the center A is cut 
out, using a hollow punch. The templet is laid on the sheet and 
the pattern scribed as in Fig. 10, cut apart, the leaves then being 
cut in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 9. The cutting should 
be started at a, to b, to c; then starting at d, cut to c, in the direc- 
tion of arrow c While the cut could be made from a to & to 
c to d, the metal is liable to tear at r, when tlie shears is turned 
in the angle c, and the cut made from c to d. Sometimes instead 
of using the Ifft hand shears, the circular shears, F, Fig. 3, is 
employed in cutting the curves in Figs. 9 and II. 



Cutting Curves and Circles 



When scribing the templet No. S on the sheet, place it so as to 
avoid waste of material, as in Fig, 12; then when cutting the 




pieces separately cut, roughly 
along a b and c d, after which the 
circles A and A in Fig, 11 are 
cut out with the hollow punch, 
then cut the leaves in the direc- 
tion of the arrows at a and b. 





notching at c and d, making one continuous cut, starting at e 
and ending at / on the upper curve. The last templet, No. 6, to 
be cut. Fig. 13, shows the side of a modiUion with a scroll. The 



20 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



scroll has a double cut, as before described, or a slot wide enough 
to enable the scribe awl to pass in. These sides are scribed on ^ 
the metal sheet. Fig. 14, to obtain two sides from one square. 
The shaded portion is waste, which can be used for small articles .' 
if cut out carefully. -The cutting is accomplished as in Fig. 13, 
starting at a, making a continuous cut to fc to c to d. The quarter 
round is cut in the direction of the arrow e. The straight cuts 




14. Sixth Tempkt 



d Method of Cuti 



h i and i ; are made on the squaring shears. To preserve the 
waste piece in Fig. 14, cut along a b, through c in the direction 
of the arrow and out at e. When the waste is small, a rough 
cut is made through the center and the scrolls cut as before 
described. The home student must keep on this cutting practice 
work until each piece is true to the templet, as the expertness 
which he gains is applied to the various pieces which he will cut 
throughout the course. 



CHAPTER III 

Tools and Preparations for Soldering 

There are many ways of heating the soldering copper. Some 
shops employ charcoal pots, others gasoline or gas furnaces. 
These latter furnaces are a great convenience to the home stu- 
dent. When lighting the gas furnace a word of caution is given. 
Before turning on the stop cock have the lighted match ready 
and light from the bottom of the furnace. A mistake often made 
in lighting the gas in the gas furnace is to hold the match at the 
opening into which the coppers are placed. The gas usually 
ignites only when this chamber is full of gas and causes a little 
explosion, hence the lighting at the bottom is recommended. 
The soldering coppers are inserted after lighting, and when 
heated to a dark cherry color a rasp is used to remove all the 
dross and scales. In the larger shops an emery wheel is used, 
which saves time and copper, it only being necessary to hold the 
copper against the swiftly revolving wheel until the dross is 
removed. Some careless workmen fail to remove the dross and 



Fis. 15. Copp*r Preoirtd for 

forge the copper, thus driving the dross into the copper, with 
the result that the copper starts to "pit" or gets full of holes 
after being heated a number of times, the dross burning out and 
leaving the holes. 

The dross being carefully removed by means of the emery 
wheel or file, the copper is forged on an iron block by means of a 
heavy hammer to a pointed shape, Fig. 15, which shape is 
always employed when soldering ornaments or other bench 
work. Having forged the coppers smooth, they are filed bright 
on four sides, not higher than about ^j in., as indicated by the 
shaded portion A, and in filing no more should be filed off than 
enough to give a bright surface ready for tinning. A thought- 
less mistake is often made in filing the copper as high as 13, and 
21 



22 Home Instruction fob Sheet Metal Workers 

then the filing is further continued without thinking that the 
copper is being wasted. If the material to be soldered is galvan- 
ized iron, zinc, copper or brass the coppers are tinned, using sal 
ammoniac, whereas, if the material were tin and also bright 
copper, they are tinned with rosin. The rosin, sal ammoniac or 
acid can be purchased in any drug store in 10-cent quantities. 
Using either rosin or sal ammoniac, the tinning is accomplished . 
as follows; After the coppers have been heated sufficient to 
melt solder, a piece of sal ammoniac about 3 in. square is placed 
upon the bench, and, taking the solder in the left hand and the 
copper in the right, the point of the copper is rubbed gently on 
the sal ammoniac until the four sides of the copper show a clean 
surface; then a drop of solder is melted on the sal ammoniac 
from the bar in the left hand, and by gently rubbing the copper 
on the sal ammoniac it will become coated with solder or tinned 
and ready for soldering. 

Whether using charcoal, gas or gasoline for the heating, the 
tinned part of the copper usually becomes discolored, and to 
clean it before soldering a dipping solution is made as follows: 
Using an old glass pot or large tumbler, mix a solution composed 
of one quart of water and one-half ounce of powdered sal 
ammoniac, and when dissolved it is ready for use. Then, when 
taking the coppers from the lire, they are first dipped quickly 
into this solution, which makes the tinned surface bright and 
clean and facilitates soldering. When the material to be soldered 
is galvanized iron or zinc the flux used is muriatic acid, or if the 
material is brass, copper or even zinc, "killed acid" is employed, 
which is prepared by putting zinc clippings into muriatic acid, 
until the acid stops boiling. When tin, bright copper or lead is to 
be soldered, rosin is used as a flux. As the materials used 
in this course are galvanized iron and zinc, muriatic acid is 
used as a flux. To transfer the flux from the glass tumbler 
to the work to be soldered a small brush is employed. These 
brushes are made from scrap strips of tin formed so that 
into one end some hair from an old brush can be placed 
and the tin rolled up over it and flattened at the end, Fig. 16, 
the brush being 4 or 5 in. long when completed. In this connec- 
tion it is well to remark that soldering coppers can be obtained 
in any weight from 1 lb. to 10 lb. to the pair. Those used in the 
work under consideration arc 4 lb. to the pair. The larger the 
coppers the more heat they will retain without being put into 
the furnace every few minutes lo be reheated. 



24 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

B by slightly turning the handle, which is attached to the roll A, 
then strip D is pressed upward as at £, and by turning the handle 
the strip is formed until curve F is obtained, raising or lowering 
the rear roll as often as necessary to produce a circle the proper 
diameter. 

Upon a piece of black sheet iron, glass or stone slab, place the 
ornament to be stripped, and solder the strips on the inside, so 
that they will set on top, as at A, Fig. 18, and not against the 
edge as at B, so that when viewed toward the face no strip edge 



FAct or aimAMotr 

Fig. IB. Improper and Proper Meihoda ol Slcippmi OiTiBments. 

will show. The piece of black sheet iron, marble or stone slab 
prevents discoloring the work when soldering, which would 
result if soldered on a wooden bench. When soldering hold the 
strip on top of the ornament with the left hand, transfer a little 
acid with the brush to the joint, and, using the copper, take a 
drop of solder from the bar and tack the strip. Make these tacks 
at intervals of ^ to 1 in. apart, then solder the entire joint, being 
careful not to open the tacks. A mistake often made in soldering 
after the work is tacked is to solder in one run, which loosens 
the entire joint, whereas the soldering should be done from tack 
to tack, watting for the place just soldered to cool before new 
soldering is commenced. 

When pattern No. 1 is stripped, pattern No. 2, Fig. 2, is next 
stripped. It is stripped in two pieces : One from L to M around 
the curve to N to O at the bottom, and from L to a° to h" to c" 
to d° to O at the top, making joints L and O, and the bends on 
the hatchet stake, with the pliers or on the small brake. Pattern 
No. 3 is stripped in one piece all around with a joint at a. In 
pattern No. 4 each leaf, as well as the circle, is stripped separately, 
making the small curves on the blow horn stake. The same 
applies to pattern No. 5. Stripping the scroll in pattern No. 6 
or raising it to any desired hight is more difficult and requires 
a tapering strip (shown full size by Y). four of which must be 
cut. The straight side, s w (, should be soldered on the inside of 
the modillion side, on the inner curve 4 3 B°, the scroll then 



Tools and Preparation for Soldering Work 25 

pressed outward until the curved part s Y t sets on the outside 
curve 1 2 B". In the brake, laps 8 and 9 are bent outward, and 
lap 10 bent toward the inside all at right angles, bending two sets 
of sides, (our in alh, each set right and left, as at T. 

After these 24 pieces have been stripped it is the custom at 
the school to mark them with the student's initial and class 
number for future examination and use. The marking solution 
is prepared by putting some copper filings in muriatic acid, which 
in a day or two will turn to a dark blue color, and is ready for 
use. It is applied with a piece of hard wood sharpened to a 
point, and dipped into the solution. The home student should 
be sure that his final work is as good as if made by a journey- 
man, and should keep it for future use in connection with 
more advanced work. The home worker is at a disad- 
vantage in having no personal instruction and criticism, and in 
its absence must be a severe critic of his own work if no shop- 
mate will do it for him. 



CHAPTER IV 

Soldering Plat and Upright S«ams 

SoUloriiiK flat seams is the next work in order. Pieces of 
galvanized iron are cut about 3 x 10 in. with which the stu- 
dent obtains practice in soldering and sweating flat seams having 
}i to 1 in. lap. In soldering seams of this kind the flux must 
be placeil diiwlly U-twecn the metal strips the entire width of the 
lap, and not on the outsiile edges only, for it is a fact that 
although the st»ldering copper is goo«l and hot the solder will 
fail to sweat all (he wav into the seam, because there is no flux 



Fid. 14. WoUc Shaped CxKvr. 

to ai*l the fusion ot the metal, the acid being run only along the 
eilges and not all the way into the sjiace forming the seam. Bear- 
ing this in niitid. the lirst step, is to torge the s<.>Ulering copper to 
a wevl^e sl»a|v, as at A, Fig. W. tinning only the under side 
and (X»int. Knowing the anivtunt that piece .V. Fig. 20. »-ill 
overU(> H as at j. put acid over and Ivtween the seanis and 



7' 



j^ ' / ^a 



uci. a: iitieria's »-:h s».'Edcr. as a: :. :, etc. W-en so''ieHa« 
:h;s sea::; :"-n>U|£Vi:: si-Lxr f'w:: ulcv ;».> laci.. jei :; cwJ. ar:.l so 
ijK -,:::;•*. ;>e e::;;zx xjirti ;s s>.\viered. Ir. ;'-■* —inner a rgh; sein: 
■s js.*;;-i.vl. wSf-cas. •: v~< :acxs j-i( .-txr-ed •:•, s<-i;.e— r^; arc 
:S.' >!:ri:r- > "■.•£ >c''.i ^v»" we"', i- ■.— <%«•; itk'. ^.w:^^.-.■•.■i • -'rr.z 
:s ;'-< -ITS--.': S-.-vVMt di; s^-.-c^J Sr rx\er -r. i-iacirr^ ;'-e s.; ;<r- 
:n< vv;-(vr .•;■ :"-e seas; w-^nr, sci^riirg. Ib oc:-er w.-ris :he 
Sk'.'sfe— 's --,i.i.ie- s.'->.'c'..; Sf ;Ll>■x^i so as ^? co««- :'■!< .rrtir; iea=: 



Soldering Flat and Upright Seams 



27 



to insure the sweating, and to do this a hot iron is required. An 
improper way of placing the copper on the seam is shown in 
Fig, 21. It will be noticed that the copper A sets mostly on 
sheet C, while only a slight p^rt sets on sheet B, hence most of 
the solder flows on sheet C, allowing but little to sweat into the 
seam and between the sheets or only as much as shown by 
dotted line a. Compare Fig. 22, where the soldering copper B 




Fio. 22. Proper Foiilioii 



Shape of Copper for I 
ri(ht S»ni Work. 



is set directly over the seam, thereby drawing the solder between 
the seam formed by lapping sheets D and £, insuring a tight 
joint as wide as b. Some students have no trouble in grasping 
the idea and following this method, while those who do not must 
practice until proficient, and the home student must be sure he 
has acquired a proper mastery of this work before he takes up 
the next exercise. 
The soldering of upright seams is the next work taken up and 







requires a little more skill than the flat seam. A wedge shaped 
copper is employed similar to that in Fig. 19, excepting chat 
the point in Fig. 23 is more blunt, forging ihc wtdgc sliapc about 
Ji in. wide and J4 '"■ i^^Kk at the point, as shown by b and c. 
When soldering upright seams the copper is tinned on the top 
side about ^ in. and on end only at a. The home student must 
now prepare from tin or galvanized iron the stay and face pat- 



28 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



terns arranged as in Fig 24, the stay being about 8 in. high with 
edges all around the angle at a being 60 and at 6 90 degrees. 
The face is cut about 3 in wide and of sufficient length to form 
a i b oi the stay ; the dots a' i' b' 
in A are made with the prick 

/^r punch and hammer, indicating 

a _/^Lis-- •^•r where the bends take place. 

' 1j^^ ' ' These dots are the shee metal 

worker's marks for bending, the 
same as the pencil mark is the 
carpenter's for cutting or saw- 
ing. Four of each are cut, set- ■ 
ting the squaring shears to cut 
the face strips. 

Those who have had 
no experience in the use 
of the small cornice 
brake needed to bend 
the stay and face pieces, 
can get instruction from 
the shop foreman, who 
will superintend the 
bending of the stays and 
faces. The edges on the 
stay are all bent one 
while the bends in the face 
A are bent as in Fig. 25, which 
,'j X shows the three operations of 

// ^v ' ^ the brake. The first shows the 

iM \ y^; strip of metal b' i' placed be- 

tween the jaws I! C of the brake, 
the top jaw or clamp n closed 
on the dot b'. Fig. 24, and by 
raising the bending leaf A, Fig. 
25, y is turned in the direction 
of the arrow, making the right 
angle a i'. The strip is now 
"'"the' Brake. """'" '" taken out of the machine, re- 
versed and placed in the brake, 
in the [Msilion shown in the second operation, by b' a' and 
the top clamped closed on /', the bottom leaf A° swung all 
the way around in the arrow's direction until b' is brought 




way, 



THIRD OPERATIOK 



Soldering Flat and Upright Seams 29 

over to D. This makes the angle at i' 45 degrees, while it 
ought to be 30 degrees, as at i. Fig. 24. This is accomplished 
by pressing tt^ther P in the second operation in Fig. 25 until 
the proper angle is obtained. Then D i' a' is removed 
from the brake, reversed and placed in the position K in 
the third operation, the top clamp closed on dot a', the bend- 
ing leaf raised to bring E in the position of F, which completes 
the bends. Particular care must be taken that the knife edge 
of the top clamp closes directly over the center of the dots, as 
indicated by L, and not to one side, as at M, Fig. 25, which is 
often the cause of inaccurate work, for if one end of the strip or 




sheet is bent directly in the center of the dot and the other end 
away from the center the work is apt to be lopsided. 

After the stays and faces are bent and have the sha|)c shown 
in Fig. 26 a stay is tacked with solder near the ends, one at A 
and the other at B in each, and then, giving -^-in. laj). C, two 
faces are tacked together at top and bottom on the side 
where the soldering of upright seams is to be practised. 
Pieces A and B are nailed to the bench with roofing nails 
through the lower flanges and placed between the laps form- 
ing the seam. The seam is then tacked with solder at 
intervals of lj4 in., as at a, b, c, etc. Using the hot copper and 
solder the seam is thoroughly sweated with solder, being careful 
not to open the tacks until the previous soldering has cooled, 
and to hold the soldering copper in the position D, which allows 
the solder to flow forward in the direction of the arrow at e, 
and not as shown by E, which would allow the solder to flow 
away from the seam toward /. 



30 Home Instbuction fob Sheet Metal Wokkebs 

When soldering the seam the copper is held in the right hand, 
with the tinned surface upward, and the solder in the left; the 
solder is placed on the copper as often as required, or until the 
proper amount has been transferred to the seam. After it has 
been thoroughly sweated small ridges of solder are carried to the 
seam with the point of the copper, until it has the comigated 
appearance in A, B, Fig. 27. In sweaiii^ and placing the ridges 




Fi.i. >7. Tit .\rf<uv:n df ihc SoUrr on a Pr.iPcrb' SaU«Al C»i«ftt Scaa. 

the solder should be placed on the seam as at C. bearing in mind 
whac was said in connection with Fig^s. 21 and 22. To make a 
neat tint$h the copper is run down each side of the finidied seam 
to make a straight line, as indicated In* a b. Fig. 27. At the 
school in Xew York one of these seams b made by the instructor 
for a sample and other is matie by the student until a perfect 
seam is prodaced. The home student most be careful to jtK^ 
his work or have a competent workman do it for him to be sure 
it is property done. At the school after this work has been passed 
and in;:taU are marked on it. all working cools are put in the 
locker and rrvparacions made to Nrgtn pattern drafting. 



CHAPTER V. 
Drawing Tools and Uses. 

If the home student has no drawing instruments he should 
obtain those illustrated in Fig. 28, which shows the drafting 
tools required and the method of using them. The drawing 
board A should measure 24 x 36 in., be made of soft pine and 
well seasoned. The grain should run lengthwise of the board, 
and at the two ends, s and t, there should be pieces about 2 in. 
wide joined by tongue and groove to the board and fastened by 
screws ; sometimes the ends are fastened by a glued matched joint 
and screwed. Two cleats, M and N, fastened on the bottom 
across the entire width of the board make it easier to move or 
raise it from the table and also prevent the board from warping. 
The entire board must be perfectly straight and true so that the 
T-square can be accurately used on it. 

The T-square B consists of a thin straight edge called the 
blade, fastened at right angles to it is the head. The head 
is so formed that it fits against the edge of the board, while the 
blade extends over its surface, the blade being as long as the 
length of the board. The T-square having an adjustable head 
is frequently very convenient, as it is sometimes necessary to 
draw lines parallel to each other, not at right angles to the edge 
of the board. This form of T-square is similar to diagram B, 
excepting that the head is swiveled, so that it may be changed 
with a set screw to any desired angle. The ordinary T-square 
with a fixed head, however, is best adapted to most drawing work. 

In diagram C and D are shown a 45, a 30, and a 60-degree 
triangle. They are usually made of wood or can be had of 
celluloid, which, being transparent, allows the draftsman to see 
the lines underneath, even when covered by the triangle. Their 
size should be about 10 or 12 in. from o to b, or o' to (>'. The 
dividers F should be about 5 in. long. They are used for laying 
off distances, either from scales or other parts of the drawings, 
and are also employed when dividing a line into equal parts, or 
dividing a curve or mold into equal divisions, as in pattern draft- 
ing, about which more will be said farther along in the course. 

When dividing a line or curve into equal parts with the 
31 



32 IIoHU Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 




Drawing Tools and Uses 33 

dividers they should be operated with the right hand, pressing 
them apart or together with the thumb and fingers, to do 
which will require a little practice to become proficient. The 
point of the dividers should be very sharp, so that the hole they 
make in the paper will be small ; if large holes are made the 
distances between the points cannot be accurate. The "spacer" 
or bow spring dividers E, the entire length of which should be 
4 in. is a handy little tool for spacing curves in pattern cutting. It 
has the advantage of being adjusted to a hair's width by turning 
the nut f. If the change in the width is considerable the two 
points should be pressed together, thus removing the pressure 
from the nut /, which can then be turned in either direction, with 
little wear on the threads. 

The compasses G have pencil points, and the method of using 
them is shown in H, h being the needle point and i the pencil 
point The length of the compasses should be about 5 in. The 
ordinary compasses are not large enough to draw circles having 
a greater diameter than 8 or 10 in., and a convenient instrument 
for larger circles is found in the beam compasses, J and K ; J 
having the needle point and K the pencil point. The two parts, 
L and M, called the channels, are clamped to the wooden or 
steel rod 2, by set screws at L and M. The distance between the 
points J and K is equal to the desired radius. Accurate adjust- 
ment is obtained by means of the adjustment screw or nut. In 
addition to these articles a rubber pencil mark eraser, a No. 3 
pencil, drawing paper and thumb tacks nmst he iirovidcd. 

The sheet is tacked with thumb tacks upon the board, as in 
diagram N by a fc c d, and the T-square used from the left side 
and bottom of the board, as at O. There are occasions when this 
cannot be done, but as a rule the T-square siioukl be used as 
recommended. By holding the head of the T-square O against 
the left-hand side of the board, parallel lines can be drawn, as 
at P. The use of the triangle is shown in diagram R, Hold the 
T-square in position with the left hand, place the triangle S upon 
the edge of the blade R, and hold it with the left hand with the 
pencil in the right hand. Make the parallel lines T. The same 
method is applied in diagram U for drawing parallel angle lines 
Y and X at 45 and 30 degree angles, as shown by V and \\. 



CHAPTER VI 
Drawing Geometrical Problems 

The next step for the student who has become familiar with 
his drawing instruments is to put them to practical use by draw- 
ing 33 geometrical problems. The best size of drawing paper 
to use is 22 x 34 in. sheets. There is something added to the 
appearance of the work if an outline 20 x 30 in. is drawn as a 
border, and the inside space divided by lines into 5 in. squares 
within which the problems are drawn. The mastery of these 
problems will simplify much of the work of a sheet metal worker 
all through his life and particularly in pattern drafting. 

The student should study each problem carefully till he under- 



^» 



Fin. 2K. Fig. 30. 

Fig. 29. BiKciing i SlTaigU Line or Tcstini ■ Square. Fic 30. BiHCtins Anr 

Given Anile or Diivriui a Mrier Line. 

Stands every question regarding any point which may come to 
his mind, and consult his shopniates on any problem he cannot 
master. The first to be drawn is to bisect a straight line as 
in Fig, 29. Let A B be the given line ; using the compasses, 
place the point of one leg in A, and with a radius greater than 
one-half of A B, describe the arcs a and b with the pencil 
point in the other teg. In similar manner, with B as center, using 
the same radius, intersect arcs previously drawn at a and b. 
Draw a line from the exact point of the intersection of the arcs 
from a to b, which will bisect the line A B at C at a right angle, 
and divide it into two equal parts. As each of the four angles 
contains 90 degrees, the problem can be used in testing or con- 
structing any right angle or square. Fig 30 shows how to bisect 
any given angle. This problem shows how to obtain the miter 



Drawing Geometrical Problems 



35 



line or the line of intersection between the two parts of an elbow 
or a piece of cornice work. Draw the given angle, ABC; with 
B as center, and with any convenient radius describe arc b a and 
with a and b as centers, describe arcs intersecting each other at c. 
Draw a line from c to B, dividing ABC into two equal angles, and 
is known as the miter line in pattern drafting. The application of 
this rule is shown in D and E, the former being the miter hne in 
part of a molding for a bay window, and the latter for an elbow. 



;? 



"^ 



Fic 31. 

.-„ ... DriwinR > ; 
dicular Nfar End at i 



When a perpendicular must be drawn from a point near the 
center of a given line. Fig. 31, in which A B is the given line 
and C the given point from which the perpendicular is to be 
erected, use C as center and with any convenient radius draw 
the arcs a and bj using a and b as centers with any radius, draw 
arcs intersecting at c, and through c draw the line C D, which 
proves the right angle shown by E. 
When the line to be erected is near the 
end of a given line, as at C on the line 
A B, Fig. 32, the method to use is as fol- 
lows: With C as center and any conven- 
ient radius draw the arc a b; using the I 
same radius, step oS this distance from 
a to f and c to d. Using the same on any pm. jj. Pindinu ihe Cmitr 
other radius, with c and d as center, de- "' ' ''"""«'''■ 

scribe arcs intersecting at e. Draw a line from C through e as 
shown by C E. This rule as well as the one in Fig. 31 shows 
how any perpendicular can be erected on a sheet of metal without 
using a square, or when out on a job with no square handy. 

Fig. 33 shows how a perpendicular is drawn from a point out- 
side of a given line. Let A B be the given line and C the given 




36 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

point. With C as center and a radius large enough to bring the 
arc below the line A B, draw the arc a b, intersecting the given 
line at c and d. Then, with c and d as centers and any radius, 
describe arcs intersecting at e. Draw the desired perpendicular 
C e. Fig. 34 shows the method of finding the center and miter 
lines in a given triangle. Let A B C be the given triangle ; bisect 
each of the angles A, B and C as follows: With A as center 
draw the arc a b; with a and b as centers intersect arcs at c. 
Draw the line A c d. In a similar manner bisect the angles B 



' 


Fro. 


„ 




i ' 


ind at (?v( 
Another Lii 


at Thrt 


.ugh , 


."Cii 


ars. 



/'^^Si 7^ 



Fia. 15. Slcaiibt Line Drawn I 
Fic. 36. Drawing i Line F 

and C by the lines B e and C /, and where they intersect or cross 
will be the center point from which the circle ABC can be 
drawn. This rule is apphcable in finding the miter lines, when 
making up triangular panels in cornice work as in D, in which 
E shows the section of the mold. Fig. 35 shows how to draw a 
straight line parallel to a given straight line at a given distance 
from it. Let A B be the given line and C the given distance. 
With radius equal to C using a and b at pleasure, as centers, 
draw the arcs c d and e f; then 
tangent to these two arcs draw the 
desired line D E. This rule is 
used when parallel distances are 
to be laid off on sheet metal, using 

the compasses for spacing and 

then drawing lines tangent to the * ' 
arcs. 

Another method of drawing 
parallel lines is shown in Fig. 36. When a line is to be drawn 
parallel to a given line through a given point, proceed with A B 
as the given hne and C the given point. With C as center and 
any radius, draw the arc a b crossing A B at c, using the same 
radius and c as center, draw the arc d e. Take the distance e C 




Drawing Geometrical Problems 



37 



and set it off from c to D on the arc b a and draw the 
line D C. 

A method for dividing a given distance into any number of 
equal parts without spacing is given in Fig. 37. Let A B be the 
given length, which is to be divided into eight or any number of 
equal parts. From A draw the line A C at any angle, and on it 
mark eight equal spaces of any width by using the dividers 
or the rule and marking off the spaces, from a to h. From h 
draw h B and from the various points a to j draw lines parallel 
to h B, cutting the line A B, which it will be found is divided 
into eight equal parts. This applies when dividing any line on a 




sheet of metal, no matter how many spaces are required in a 
given length. 

A method for bisecting an angle whose apex is inaccessible is 
given in Fig. 38. Let A B C D be a portion of the given angle. 
At right angles to A B and C D draw the perpendiculars a b and 
c d, of any desired height, and through b and d draw lines parallel 
to A B and C D, until they 
meet at the apex £. With 
E as center and any radius 
draw the arc e f. With any 
other radius, using e and / 
as centers, intersect arcs at 
('. Draw 3 line through i E, 
which gives the desired 
bisection. 

A method of drawing 
from any given point on a given line, three equal angles of 60 
degrees each is given in Fig. 39. Let A B be the given line 
and C the given point. With C as center and any radius draw 
the arc a b; using the same radius step off on the semicircle 
from aio d and d to e, and draw the lines C D and C E. This 




38 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



method is used when constructing a semihexagonal figure, which 
would be obtained if lines were drawn from a to d, d to e and 
e to b. 

The problem in Fig. 40 is from a point on a given straight line 
to transfer a given angle. Let A B be the given line, C the given 
point and D the given angle. With E in the given angle as center 
draw any arc as a b; using the same radius, and the given point 
C as center, describe the arc c d. Take the distance from a to & 
in D and place it from c to d, and draw a line from C through 
rf, as shown by C F. Then F C A is equal to & E a. This method 
is employed in transferring any angle, whether acute or obtuse. 

A method for constructing a triangle whose three sides are 
equal to a given side is given in Fig. 41. Let A B be the given 
side, which use as a radius and with A and B as centers, describe 




Fic 43. Drawing Triangle with Venical Hinh Only C,\vt 
angle Wh»n Angle and lengths of Two Sidri are Given, 
wilh Lrngth uC Side Given. 



the arcs a and b, intersecting at D. Draw lines from A to D to 
B, which is the desired triangle. When a similar triangle is to 
be drawn whose three sides are equal, the vertical height A B, 
Fig. 42, only being given, proceed as follows: Across the ends 
of A and B draw the horizontal lines C D and E F. With A 
as center and any convenient radius, draw the semicircle a b. 
Using the same radius with a and b as centers intersect the semi- 
circle at c and d. From A draw lines through c and d meeting 
the horizontal line through B at H and J, which completes the 
triangle A H J. 

In Fig. 43 the explanation is given for drawing a triangle 
when the length of two sides and one angle are given. Let A 
and B represent the lengths of the two sides and C the angle. 
Draw D E equal to the length A. With F hi the angle C as 
center; draw any arc as a 6 using this same radius, with D as 
center: draw similar arc, c d, making the distance from c to d 
equal to a & in C. Draw a hne from D through d, as shown by 



Drawikc Geometrical Probleus 



39 



D H, which should be equal to the length of the line B. Then 
connect H to E, which completes the triangle. 

When a square is to be drawn, the length of the side being 
given, by means of the compasses and straight edge, this is accom- 
plished, as in Fig. 44, in which A B is the length of the side. 
With A as center draw any arc as a b. With the same radius, 
starting from o, step off to c to d. With c and d as centers, and 
any desired radius, draw arcs intersecting at e. Draw a line 
from A through e, making A C equal to A B. With A B as 
radius and B and C as centers, describe arcs, cutting each other 
at D. A line drawn from C to D to B comjjletes the square. 

A method for finding the center of a given circle is given in 




ight Line. 



Fig, 45. First, draw any chord as A B. Using A and B as 
centers, with any radius, intersect arcs at a and b, through which 
draw the line a D, cutting the circumference at C and D. Bisect 
C D by the arcs c d, through which draw a line 
crossing C D at E, which is the desired cen- 
ter. At this stage of the drawing the home 
student is reminded to keep the points on both 
pencil and compasses in good condition and re- 
sharpen when necessary, using a small whet- 
stone for the steel and fine sandpaper for the 
pencil points. 

When a circle is to be drawn through two ~~" . 

given points to a given radius, it can be done, citiie when onijr 
as in Fig. 46, where A and B are the two 
given points and C the length of the radius. Simply use the 
ladius C, and with A and B as centers, intersect arcs at D. Tlien 




40 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



D is the center from which to draw a circle, passing through 
points A and B. 

A method is given in Fig. 47 for finding the center from which 
to describe a circle passing through three given points not in a 
stra^ht line. Let A, B and C be the three given points. Bisect 




A B by the arcs a and b and B C by c and d. Draw lines through 
a b and c d intersecting at D, which is the desired center to de- 
scribe the circle A B C E. 

Fig. 48 shows how to complete a circle when only the arc A C 
B is given. Draw a line from A to B and establish at pleasure 
any point on the arc as C and draw A C. Bisect A B by the line 
c d and bisect A C by a 6. From where these two lines a b and 
c d intersect, D, complete the circle A E B. 

The rule in Fig. 49 is for obtaining the center to complete 
the arc, when the chord and height of a segment are given. Let 
A B be the chord and C D the height. Extend D C toward E, 
draw a line from A to D, 
and bisect this by the 
line a b, extending it until it 
meets D E at F. With F as 
center the arc A D B can be 
drawn. This rule is of value 
in taking measurements for 
metal windows or door 
caps, as in diagram G. 
Without a knowledge of this 
rule a stay would have to be 
cut to correspond to the arc I 4 2. Knowing the rule, all that is 
required is to measure the distance from 1 to 2, and the height 
at the center Mne from 3 to 4 and proceed to find the center 5. 
To draw a circle inside of a given triangle, Fig. 50, let A B C 




Drawing Geometrical Problems 



41 



be the given triangle. Bisect angle B by line B a and the angle 
C by C 6, extending the two lines until they meet at D, which 
is the desired center from which to describe the circle, using D e 
as radius. 

When the circle is to be drawn around the outside of a given 




triangle, let A E C in Fig. 51 be the given triangle. Bisect two 
sides, C A and A B, by the lines b a and d c, and where they 
intersect, D, is the center from which to draw the circle as shown. 

Fig. 52 shows how to draw a square in a given circle. Through 
the center A draw diameter B C. Use B and C as centers and 
with any radius describe arcs intersecting at a and b, through 
which draw a line meeting the circumference at E and D. Draw 
lines from B to E to C to D to B, which completes the square. 
When the square is to be drawn outside of a given circle, Fig. 53, 
draw the two diameters as in Fig. 52, then in Fig. 53 draw lines 
through D and B parallel to C A, and through 
A and C parallel to D B, Where these lines 
meet at the comers the square will be complete. 

A hexagon may be drawn within a given 
circle, as in Fig. 54, and the method is useful 
when laying out finials, etc. Let A be the 
center from which the given circle is struck. 
Through A draw the diameter B C. With a 
space equal to the radius of the circle using 
B and C as centers, draw arcs intersecting ociigon wiiiim.iJivm 
the circle at o 6 and c d. Connect the inter- 
sections by lines, which complete the figure. When a hexagon is 
to be drawn whose sides must be equal to a given side, this is 
accomplished as in Fig. 55, in which A B is the given length 
of one of the sides. Extend A B as C D, making A D and B C 




42 HouE Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

each equal to A B. With D and C as centers and D C as radius 
draw arcs intersecting at E and draw D E and C E. With D, 
E and C as centers and radius equal to A B, draw arcs meet- 
ing the triangle, as at F H J L. Draw A F, H J and L B to 
complete the figure. 

An octagon is drawn within a given circle, as in Fig. 56. 
Through the center of the circle A draw diameters B C and D E 
and bisect the quarter circles B D, D C, C E, and E B at H, G, F 
and J. Connect the points by lines to complete the octagon. To 
draw an octagon within a given square, Fig. 57, draw the two 
diagonals A C and B D crossing each other at E. With each 
corner as center and one-haH the diagonal as radius, describe 
arcs cutting the sides of the square at F, G, H, I, J, K, L and M. 
Connect intersections by lines to complete the octagon. 

When one of the sides of the octagon is given, the figure can 
be drawn as in Fig. 58, in which A B is the given side. The 




side line may be extended indefinitely, as shown by b c. From 
A and B erect indefinite perpendiculars as A d and B a. With 
A and B as centers, using any radius, draw arcs b e and / c, and 
bisect the angles b A e and / B c by fe A and B i. On these two 
lines set off A C and B D equal to A B. From C and D erect 
the perpendiculars C F and D E equal to A B. With F and E as 
centers and A B as radius draw arcs H and J intersecting the 
perpendiculars A d and B a. Connect F to H to J to E to com- 
plete the figure. 

A method of drawing an ellipse, when the length and width 
are given without using centers, is shown in Fig. 59, and is of 
value when laying out heating and ventilation pipes. Let A B 
be the length, bisect and obtain E, through which draw the width 



Dhawikg Geometrical Problems 43 

C D. With E as center and E C and E A as radii draw the 
inner and outer circles. Divide the one-quarter outer circle into 
any convenient number of spaces, in this case S, as at o, b, c, d, e; 
also the one-quarter inner circle into the same number, from a' 
to $'. From the points on the outer circle drop vertical lines, 
which intersect by horizontal lines from similar lettered points 
on the inner circle, through which trace the one-quarter ellipse 
A C. If desired the four quarters can be drawn as shown, or 
each quarter can be traced separately, as at C B, B D and D A, 
completing the ellipse. In tracing this quarter ellipse or any 
other shape which will arise as the student proceeds with the 
course, tracing paper should be used to save time and labor. 
This is a transparent paper, placed over the drawing, and with a 
No. 3 pencil reproduces the outlines of the drawing. Then, 
reversing the tracing paper and laying it where a duplicate of 
the outline is to appear, go over the outlines of the drawing 




again, and an impression of the drawing will be conveyed on the 
paper beneath. Over this impression a heavy line is drawn, as 
at C B D A. This is a simple method of reproducing any outline 
or shape. Tracing paper can be purchased or possibly would be 
furnished by the employer cut from the roll used in the shop. 
A method for drawing an ellipse with the length and width 
given and when centers must be used, as in flaring pan or panel 
work is shown in Fig. 60. First draw the lenfjih .\ 1'., liistcl same 
and obtain X, through which draw the width D C. Set off the 
width on the length from B to a, and divide he balancct A a into 
three parts, as shown by a & c; with two parts as radius and X 
as center draw arcs d and r. With rf c as radius, and d an<l c 
as centers intersect arcs at h and i. Draw lines from h through 



44 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

e and d ^s h j and h k and through e and d from t, as i / and t m. 
With A and i as centers and h D and ( C as radii draw the arcs 
H G and E F. In similar manner with e and d as centers and 
radii equal to ^ A and d B, draw arcs completing the ellipse, 
as shown by E A H and F B G. 

The last problem in geometrical drawing, given in Fig. 61, is 
that of an egg shaped oval, when the width B D is given. Bisect 
B D and obtain A, which use as center and describe the circle 
B C D E. From B and D draw lines through E (the intersec- 
tion of the circle and vertical line through A), as at B ji and D a. 
With B and D as centers and B D as radius, draw the arcs D G 
and B F. With E as center and E F as radius draw the arc 
F H G, completing the figure. 

At the New York Trade School on the completion of these 
drawings, the student's name, class number and date are put 
along the lower edge; the drawings are then rolled, put into 
a galvanized iron tube 4 inches in diameter and about 24 inches 
long and put away for future use. It may encourage the home 
student to know that both in the day and evening classes the 
students are allowed, during the season, to take their drawings 
home and redraw the problems so as to become more proficient. 
Many of the day students purchase a separate board, T-square, 
etc., in order to study up the patterns and problems in their 
evenings at home, a practice which is to be recommended. 



PART 11 

DRAWING DETAILS, OBTAINING PATTERNS AND 
EXECUTING WORK 



CHAPTER VII 
Scal« Drawings for Plain Capital 

The student who has done all of his preliminary work cor- 
rectly is now ready to start the first exercise of the course, which 
consists of drawing details from scale drawings, obtaining pat- 
terns from the details and putting together the work in sheet 
metal. Scale drawings are given to the pupil and he must 
study them so as to understand the various scales and how to 
use them. At the school boxwood scales are furnished, but they 
can be bought or drawn when not at hand, as in Fig. 62, if care 
is taken to make them correctly. Several scales are given in Fig. 
62 on a basis of Yz, 1, 2 and 3 in. to the foot. It will be noticed 
that whatever scale is used that amount is divided into 12 equal 
parts, each part representing a full inch. Thus with a 3'in. 
scale, 3 in. represents 12 in. on actual work or the detail ; Ij/j-in, 
on the scale, 6 in. ; ^-in. on the scale, 3-in. ; ^-in. on the scale, 
1^-in., and so on, while each of the small subdivisions repre- 
sents 1 in. 

It will be noticed that whatever scale is used that amount is 
divided into 12 equal parts, when each one of these parts will 
represent a full inch on the full size detail or shop drawing. 
Thus, with a 3-in. scale, 3 in. on the scale drawing represents 
12 in. in the full size detail. 

The scale drawing of a plain capital is the first work for the 
student's consideration, and is drawn to a scale of 2 in. to the foot 
in Fig. 63, which gives the front and side elevations, and a, b, c, d 
and e indicate the center points in describing the various molds 
and circle, which will be explained when drawing the detail. 
On receiving the scale drawing the student measures off the 
heights of the members on the wall line, also their projections, 
recording them on a slip of paper, so that they can be proved 
or checked up by his foreman or some friendly workman in 
the absence of the school instructor, and after he becomes 
familiar with taking measurements with the scale rule the detail 
or shop drawing of the capital is laid out. 

There are two ways of obtaining measurements from scale 

drawings : one is to use the dividers and the other a rule scale 

4? 



Home Instruction fob Sheet Metal Workers 



with bevel edges. When using the dividers, which perhaps is 
the best for the beginner to start with, spread the points equal 



to the distance from 1 to 2 on the wall line in the scale draw- 
ing ; this being a 2-in. scale, set this distance on the 2-in. scale 



Drawings and. Plain Capital 



49 



rule from O, Fig, 62, and it will measure IJ4 '"■ Again set the 
dividers from 2 to 3 on the wall hne in Fig. 63, and placing 
this distance from O in the 2-in. scale in Fig. 62 it will also be 
found to measure 1^ in. In similar manner the distances in 
Fig. 63 from 3 to 4 will measure \yi in. ; from 4 to 5, 4}4 in. ; 
5 to 6, 1 in. ; 6to 7, yi in., and 7 to 8, 2 in. Now measure the 
entire height of the capital, which measures 2 in. on the scale 
and indicates 12 in. in full size, and see whether the addition 




FRONT e|.EVATiaN 
Pis. 63. Two iadi Kill 



of dimensions of all the members scaled amounts to 12 in., and, 
if so, this will prove it correct. 

The projections are obtained in a similar manner: Take from 
1 to 9, Fig. 63, with the dividers, and place this distance from 
O in the 2-in. scale in Fig. 62 and it will be found to measure 
454 in- Point 10, Fig. 63, is the center from which to draw 
cove 11; no measurement is required for this as the center point 
10 is obtained by drawing a vertical line from 9, intersecting the 
horizontal line from 3, shown by the dotted lines, making their 
intersection the point 10 and i as the radius, which is 1J4 in,, 
or the height of 2 3, describe the curve which makes the cove. 
Obtain the projection from 11 to 12 and 13 to 14, which will 
be found to be J4 in. in each case. The point 14 also establishes 
the point 14" as 14 and 14' run, in one line. From 14" to IS 
will scale ^ in., and from 15 the vertical dotted line intersects 



50 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



line 5. Then one-half of the distance 5 6, or ^ in., on this 
dotted line becomes the radius to describe the semicircle from 
the center 16, which forms the bead «, 

When recording these heights and projections on a slip of 
paper ready to lay off on the detail drawing, the following 
method is used : In this case the measures were taken from top 
to bottom, therefore make slip thus: 



MEASURING SLIP FROM TOP TO BOTTOM 

Numbers on scale Projections Numbers on scale Heights 





ill inches 




in inclies 


1 to 9 


454 


lto2 


154 


10 to 11 


IMrad. 


2to3 


154 


11 to 12 


'A 


3 to 4 


15S 


13 to 14 


y^ 


4 to 5 


VA 


16 


'A 


Sto6 


1 


16 to n 


J4rad. 


6to7 


54 


15 to 14" 


A 


7to8 


2 


14' to 8 


2 




. 



lto8 



Total 12 



When the student becomes familiar with the scale measure- 
ments the dividers can be omitted, using the scale rule instead. 
The numbers on the slip can also be omitted when recording the 
heights and projections, it being done in this case to make each 
step clear. No mistake can occur in transferring these heights 
and projections on the detail, so long as it is known whether scal- 
ing is to be done from top toward bottom, or vice versa. When 
the student becomes familiar with scaling, this slip can be omitted, 
placing the measurements one after another on the full size detail. 
The student can readily see whether he has made any error in 
scaling his measurements from any of the scale drawings in the 
course by referring to the full size details, shown reduced here- 
with, but contain full size measurements on each and every 
detail. 



CHAPTER VIII 
Making Full-Size Drawings and Patterns for Capital. 

The detail shown reduced in Fig. 64 is laid out as follows, and 
the student should carefully note each step, as a help in laying 
out other details which will follow : With a sheet of drawing 
paper of the requited size tacked on the drawing board, using 
the T-square, a vertical line, which is the wall hue A B, is first 
drawn, as shown at the right, upon which the heights of the vari- 
ous members are marked, and which were calculated from the 
scale drawing. Fig. 63, and given in the measuring slip. After 
these heights have been established on the line A B, Fig. 64, hori- 
zontal lines are drawn at right angle by means of the T-square 
indefinitely, or clear across the paper and upon which the pro- 
jections of the members are placed, scaling the amount of each 
projection from the drawing in Fig, 63, or obtaining the proper 
measurement from the measuring slip. Thus the extreme pro- 
jection is 4j4 in-, as in side elevation, Fig. 64. Continuing work 
on the side elevation, with a as center, complete the cove, whose 
radius is 1J4 '"■ Note the amount of projection on each bend, 
and thai b is the center from which to describe the semicircle 
forming the bead, the lower projection being 2 in. After the 
side elevation is completed start the front elevation by drawing 
the center line C D. Then scale the half face at the base of the 
capital in Fig. 63 from * to iv, which is 4j^ in., and place it on 
the front, elevation in Fig. 64, as shown by 4j/^ in., and with the 
T-square draw the vertical line 16 17. Continue up until a com- 
plete duplicate of the profile in the side elevation is made, as 
shown at the right from o to 18. Then draw the two arcs, using 
o' for the center for the cove, and b' for the bead. Draw the 
two diagonals c d and e f, and where they intersect at h, is the 
center from which to describe the 3-in. circle E, which is raised 
to the height E' in side elevation. The opposite or left hand of 
the front elevation is drawn in a similar manner; the centers 
being shown by a", b" and h'. 

The side and front elevations being completed, the next step 
is lO develop the patterns. Provision for the metal tu turn 
back at the top and bottom, is made as shown by 1 o and 



52 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

17 18. Divide the cove a' and bead b' into equal spaces, 
numbering all the spaces and beads from a to 18. Extend the 
center line C D on the front elevation as D F upon the pattern 
below, and on it mark the dimensions of the upright, projecting 
and curved lines which give the girth or the amount of material 
required to form the capital, from o to 18 on D F. At right 
angles to D F with the T-square horizontal hnes are drawn 
indefinitely through the small figures, intersected by vertical lines 
from simitar numbered intersections in the front elevation. Note 
that a vertical line parallel to the center line C D in elevation 
from the point O intersects the horizontal line through O in the 
stretchout hne D F at O'; that the vertical line through I 2 in 
elevation intersects the horizontal lines 1 and 2 in the pattern at 
r and 2', and in this manner all the intersections from o" to 18' 
in the pattern are obtained. 

The miter cut from H to G in the pattern is traced as follows: 
In tracing any miter cut in a pattern the student should bear in 
mind that where straight lines are shown in the profile O to 18 
in elevation, straight lines must be drawn in the pattern, and 
where curved lines are shown in the profile in elevation, as in 
the coves, beads, etc., curved lines must be shown in the pattern. 
By referring to the numbers in elevation and pattern, the student 
will readily understand. Using a straight edge and pencil straight 
lines are drawn in the pattern, from O' to 1', 1' to 2', 5' to 6', 6' to 
7' to 8' to 9' to lO*, and from 14' to 15', 16' to 17'. 17' to 18', 
which corresponds to similar numbered straight lines in the pro- 
file in elevation. The curved lines from 2' to 5' and 10* to 14' 
are traced by taking a thin strip of metal about % in. wide, rolled 
or bent with the fingers until it has the proper shape, so that 
when laid, say from 2' to 5', the metal curve will touch the inter- 
sections 2', 3', 4' and 5', and, holding the strip in this position, 
a pencil line is drawn. This applies to the curve liy to 14', the 
curved lines corresponding to similar curves or molds in the 
profile in elevation. 

Measuring from the center line D E, take the projections 
(either with dividers or a strip of paper) to the miter cut H G 
and transfer them on the opposite side of the center line D F, 
on lines previously drawn. Trace the miter cut J K, then J H 
G K is the pattern for the front. As the side elevation pro- 
jects A]/^ in. at the top and 2 in. at the bottom, then measure off 
this distance in the pattern, and draw a tine from L to M. Then 
L M G H is the pattern for the two sides. 



Drawings and Patterns for Capital 



54 Home Instructioh for Sheet Metal Workers 

The intersections h and h' in the pattern for the front are 
obtained by drawing diagonals, m 9 and k 8, also 8 9' and 9 8'. 
When allowing edges for soldering they are notched, as indicated, 
by the dotted lines on the left miter cut, making them about yi in. 
wide, except in larger work laps are 1 in. wide to allow for rivet- 
ing. Laps are allowed on the front piece on both cuts, the dots 
in the patterns indicating the bends; the double dots on line 10 
show where the forming of the bead should stop, because the 
distance from 9 to 10 in the front elevation is flat. 

The patterns being completed at the school, the student's name 
and number marked on the paper sheet, and the drawing tools 
put away, both he and the home student are ready to transfer 
the patterns to the sheet metal. This is done as follows, the 
student's attention being given to every step, because all work in 
transferring patterns will be similar in the entire course: Lay 
the paper pattern for the front upon the sheet of galvanized iron, 
placing the pattern in the comer of the sheet, so that there will 
be no waste, and lay a weight upon the paper to keep it from 
moving. Then with a sharp prick punch and a hammer put the 
point of the punch on each intersection of the lines and with a 
light tap prick the pattern on the metal. In other words, where 
a straight line occurs, as 8' 9', put a prick mark at 8' and 9'; but 
where a curve occurs, as in the miter for the bead 9' to 14', a 
dot is made at lO", 11', 12', 13' and 14'. 

When the outline has been prick marked, further marks are 
made right and left, shown by the black dots, indicating where 
the bends are to be made, as on 1,2, 5,6,7,8.9, 14, 15, 16 and 17; 
also a double dot on line 10, indicating the finish of the bead 
mold. Dots are also made at It and It', indicating the centers of 
the raised circles. The weight is then removed, and using the 
paper pattern as a guide the outline is marked on the sheet metal, 
using a sharp awl and straight edge for the straight lines and a 
soft pencil for tracing over the prick marks for the curves. 

Laps are allowed on the pattern, as indicated by J K. Fig. 64. 
When drawing the straight lines on the sheet metal, for lines that 
are not over 20 or 24 in. long, a straight edge can be made from 
No. 20 galvanized iron, such as shown in Fig. 65, following the 
measurements given. This sheet metal straight edge is light, and 
can be easily held by moans of the V. shaped bend A. 

In similar manner the jjattern for the return or side G H L M 
is transferred to the metal. Cut the patterns from the metal, 
using the hand shears for the miter cuts, and, if desired, the 



Drawings and Patterns for Capital 55 

squaring shears for the long cuts J H, L M and K G. There 
will be required in metal one piece from the front pattern and 
two from the side. Use the metal pattern of the side for the 
other piece by laying it upon the sheet metal, placing a weight 
upon it and then scribe off the pattern and dot off the bends. 

A mistake often made, when two or more pieces are required, 
is to use the paper pattern for each piece. When one metal pat- 
tern is obtained from paper it should be used as a pattern, 
whether 2 or 200 pieces are required. When all are cut, flatten 
the burr, caused by cutting, on the square head stake with a 
mallet; never use a hammer. Before bending the pieces a stay 
must be cut, which is used in forming the capital. It is not neces- 
sary to waste metal and cut out the entire profile of the capital, as 
the square bends are obtained by using the stops on the brake. 



■-■**/ 



'% 



These stops are placed in the quadrant, fastened to the brake, 
and bends to any desired angle can be made by raising the handle 
of the bending leaf until it touches the top. Having a square bend 
to make the stop is set accordingly, hence all that is required in the 
way of a stay is from V to W and from X to Y, in elevation 
in Fig. 64, which can be pricked on any scrap piece of metal. 
The student is now ready to bend the first piece of work on the 
brake. 

When starting on this piece of work, the instructor at the school 
bends the front piece of the capital to show how to open and close 
the brake, use the formers, the bending leaf, the slops, etc. ; but 
the home student in most instances has never seen a brake used 
and should ask for assistance from some one in his shop. The 
school student usually finishes the two side pieces, formed right 
and left. When forming, start on bend 14, Fig. 64, and not on 9. 
By starting on bend 14, as in Fig. 66, A, the metal can be drawn 
over the former, leaving the flat part 10-9 as in the profile. 
When selecting the forming bar, it should be a trifle smaller than 
the mold to be made, because the metal springs slightly and the 
curve will be larger in size than the former selected. The next 
bend in order is on dot 9, shown bent in position from A" to B°. 



56 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

The square bends are made up to bend 5, Fig. 67, then drawn 
out and a bend made on 2, as in Fig. 68, A ; the proper size former 
B placed in position, and the metal drawn down, as shown by 
C, after which the square bends are completed to the desired 




Pic. 6G. Formina the Bead on ■ riain Capital. 

prohle. In forming any mold care must be taken that each and 
every piece is accurate to the stay, otherwise failure will result 
when joining the miter, even though the pattern was accurately 




When forming the capital, students often make a mistake m 
placing the ]>iece in the brake. Fig. 69 where in place of the 
profile being as shown by A, it was reversed in the brake on bend 
8 and the result is shown at B. Of course these as well as other 
mistakes are liable to happen, and it is not altogether a loss when 
they do, because it puts the student on his guard against others. 
The pieces after being formed are ready to be put together. The 
small laps arc turned over with a flat plyers, while the Urger 



Drawings akd Patterns foe Capital 57 

ones are bent upon the hatchet stake, with a small mallet. In 
putting together work of this kind, the miters should be sharp 
and the comers square, and as the steel square is too heavy for 
small work, cut a small try-square from number 24 iron, but it 
must be perfectly true, with one arm about 6 in. long and the 



.? I 



Fig. 68. Second Opcrmtion in Farming Cove. Flc. 69. PoBiiblc Error in Farming 

Other 4 in. This can be used for small work during the entire 
course. 

Care must be taken to have the miters sharp as at A, Fig. 70, 

and not have one side above the other, as at B, and then hammer 

over the edge, as at C. Where possible all corners should be 

tacked and soldered on the inside, and any unnecessary filing 

should be avoided, for it only removes 

c the galvanizing and the metal easily 

|l rusts. 

I In Fig. 71 are shown the various 

g|j a^ o]>erations for joining the miter of the 

I I plain capital. The first operation in 

Fic 70 Joining MUen. which the method of holding the up- 
per flange of the capital together with 
the thumb and fingers of the left hand is shown by A, and the 
square o fr is also shown, set over the outer angle to see if it is 
square. When the square is removed, hold it in this position, 
and with the soldering copper in the right hand, a small tack is 
made at c. The angle D e is again tested with the square a b, 
and if not quite true it can, by reason of only having a small tack 
at c, be turned in or out until angle D E is a right angle, when 
another tack is made at d in B. The capital is now reversed and 



CHAPTER IX 
Scale and Detail Drawings of Molded Gutter with a Miter 

The second exercise is the molded gutter in Fig. 7Z, see 
Folder 1 which is also drawn to a scale of 2 in. to the foot. On 
the scale drawing for this exercise the section, plan and elevation 
of a molded gutter are given forming a miter joint at right angles 
in plan, with two flat heads on each end. For strength, the gutter, 
on the top edge, has the metal rolled into a cylinder called a bead, 
as shown in the section; the other ways of finishing the upper 
edge being explained as the student proceeds with the work. 
When drawing the detail the plan can be omitted. 

Using the scale rule the first step is to obtain the heights of the 
various members in the gutter, which can be obtained from the 
elevation, and are placed upon the wall line, A B, in Fig. 74, see 
Folder 1 in the same manner as in the preceding exercise, indi- 
cated by 1 in., J4 in., IJ^ in., and 1 in., making a total of 4 in. 
The projections of each member are scaled from the section. 
Fig. Ti, measuring from the wall line to the profile, and the 
measurements placed full size on the detail in Fig. 74. Note that 
the bottom of the gutter is 2^ in., then a projection of J^ in., 
then Ij^ in., which gives the center C from which to complete 
the cove 7 10, then another J^ in., making the extreme projec- 
tion of the gutter 5 in. Make the bead the dimension on the 
scale drawing from 1 to 4, which completes the sectional view. 
The back of the gutter is turned ui> from U to 14, and in real 
shop practice this height is usually as high as tlie widtli of the 
metal sheet in stock wilt allow. Sometinies, the flange which 
turns on the roof is bent in the brake, if the amount which the 
gutter will overhang is known. If this is not known, the flange 
is turned over at the building. 

Using the same pr^jfiles as that in the sectional view, draw the 
elevation of the gutter D E F G II making the distance D E 
equal to the length on the scale drawing in Fig. 73. Now, in 
Fig. 74, divide the bead and cove into equal spaces, and number 
all comers from 1 to 14 in the sectional view. Extend the line E F 
in elevation as E J, for the pattern, upon which place the girth 
of the gutter, from 1 to 14, on F J, at right angles to which draw 
59 



60 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



't± 



■ming a Bead on tl 
Brikc 



the horizontal lines, intersected by vertical lines dropped froi 
similar numbers in the sectional view, partly shown by 1, 2, ; 
4, 5, 11, 12, 13 and 14. Trace a line as explained in previoti 
exercise, through points shown by K L M. 

In laying out this or any other gutter the length should alwaj 
be measured from the wall or hanging line K L in the patten 
In this case K 14 shows the lengt 
required and 1 14, K L M gives th 
desired |)attern. two of which will t 
required, one without and one wit 
laps, as indicated by the dotted lines < 
the left of the pattern. Note can 
fully how these laps are notched. The flat heads to close up til 
ends of the gutters can be pricked direct from the sectional viev 
allowing flanges or laps all around the profile ; also allowing ft 
a bead along the top edge 4 N, by taking a duplicate of the mit< 
cut a b c and transferring it over the line 4 N, shown by a' b' < 
N O, which completes the pattern for the flat heads, two of whic 
are required. 

The patterns being developed, they are now pricked on the met 
sheet, as previously described, cutting one 
of the gutter and another of the head and 
using them as the patterns for the balance, 
in this case one of each, being careful to 
avoid unnecessary waste by placing the pat- 
terns as indicated by X and Y. A stay is 
nnw cut for forming,' all that is required 
being that from 6 to 11 in the sectional 
view. When forming the gutter on the 
brake the start is made on the t>ead, and if 
no header is at hand when forming 8-ft. 
sheets in practice, the following method 
will show how the bead can be made on 
the brake : Place the sheet in tlie brake and turn v 
about J^ ill. ; repeat this, drawing the sheet out a sho: 
distance, being governed by the size bead to be forme< 
This is better shown in Fig. 75. where a is the first bend, b tl 
second and c, d, e and / the next, while h, indicated by dot 4 i 
Fig. 74, is the square bend in Fig. 75. The bead is now place 
in the brake in position A, Fig. 76, and the top clamp B cIom 
until the bead lies close to the sheet at a. The student now pr 
ceeds to make the following square bends, forming the cove, J 




Drawings of Molded Gutter with a Miter 



61 



explained in the plain capital exercise, the gutter and heads to 
be bent right and left. In this work the student is taught how 
to wire the bead on the bench with the use of the hammer, mallet 
and rod, as explained in the four illuslrations in Fig. 77. The 
first operation shows sheet A laid upon bench B and tiic required 




amount turned over the edge with the mallet. The sheet is now 
reversed, as at C in the second operation, the rod D laid in posi- 
tion and the metal turned over it with the mallet, so that it will 
appear as in E at F in the third operation. Turn up the sheet, 
as G in the fourth turn, using the side of the hammer, H, and 
fit the bead close to the sheet. 



(9 




There are several methods for making the upper edge of the 
gutter rigid. The hollow bead in Fig. 78 is made on the header. 
Fig. 79 is a wired bead made on the brake or over the edge of a 
bench, having an iron rod or core, and Fig. 80 shows two methods 
in one example — a band iron placed in the upper edge and incased, 
after which a bolt or rivet is placed through at -A ; the other shows 



Drawings of Molded Gutter with a Miter 63 

back of the gutter, the method of flanging under various roof 
coverings is explained in the following three illustrations. In 
Fig. 82, A shows the gutter flange for use under slate or shingle 




roofing. At B, Fig, 83, a lock edge is shown for connecting 
with a tin roof, and in Fig. 84, C, a flange with attached guard 
for gravel or slag roofing. 



Fic. 85. Finubcd Molded 



When the gutter is completed and the surplus solder scraped 
off, the student's initial and class number is put on with marking 
acid, and it is put up where directed in the classroom. The home 
student should take care of his work in some suitable place. The 
finished molded gutter is shown in Fig. 85 minus the roof flange. 



CHAPTER X 
Scale and Detail Drawings of Square Leader Head 

The student now receives the 2-in. scale drawing of the square 
leader head in Fig. 86, which shows the front elevation, the 
inverted plan, or the plan of the head when viewing it from below, 
and the side elevation. In this case the head has molded face 
and sides with a flat hack against the wall, as in the side eleva- 
tion. A round tube is attached to the head, but a square or any 
other shaped tube could be used. When drawing the full size 
detail all that is required is the front elevation and a part plan, 
as will be explained as the student proceeds. First, determine 
the heights of the members from the front elevation on the scale 
drawing and place them on the center line A B on the detail in 
Fig. 87, as shown by ^ in., 1J4. 2^4, lyj, J^, I'/i and 3 in., mak- 
ing a total of 11 in. in height including the tube. Using the 
T-square, horizontal lines are drawn through these divisions, 
upon which the various projections are placed, after dimensions 
are taken from the scale drawing in Fig. 86. Thus the one-half 
projection of the top of the head measures 5^4 in., as in Fig, 87. 

Note that a is the center from which the cove 4 7 is struck. 
Lay off 7 8 equal to J^ in. ; 9 10 to yi in. The center from which 
the quarter round 10 13 is struck is b, and 14 15 equals J^ in. 
and 15 16, lj4 in- The half diameter of the tube is IJ^ in. Trans- 
fer these projections to the opposite side of the center line A B, 
so as to complete the front elevation. Find the center d and 
with ^-in, radius describe the circle. Tangent to the circle at 
e draw the vertical line / g, and the diagonal lines i g and h f; 
where they intersect at ; will be the center, from which to draw 
the second circle, it also having a ^-in. radius as that for the 
circle in the center of Che head. In similar manner find the 
center y and draw the opposite circle. The height that these 
circles will be stripped is shown at each side by C and C, The 
entire plan being unnecessary a section through the outlet at m ft 
is drawn as follows: Draw the wall line in plan, and with a 
radius equal to one-half the width of the tube, or 1^ in., set off 
this distance from D to J and with J as center describe the circle 
shown. 

64 



Drawings of SgUARE Leader Head 



65 



From point 16 in elevation drop the vertical line 16 P indefi- 
nitely, as indicated on both sides by O P and R S. and set off 
the projection i j, or J4 '"-. ^s indicated by f /, and through ^ 
draw the horizontal line S P. From the four comers R S P O 
draw lines to the center J cutting the circle at K L M and N. 
This divides the plan or soffit into sections which will be added 
to the various patterns as stu- 
[ dent proceeds. It will be 

noticed that the tube lies 
against the wall on the rear 
side, so that if the head were 
viewed from the side it would 
present a straight line on the 
wall side, as in the side eleva- 
tion in Fig. 86. Therefore, 
in Fig. 87, erect a vertical line 
from the side of the tube E, 



"V 



iMr^O I 



V 



7 



a 



INVERTED PIAN 



at E F; then E F G H at the left will represent a side elevation 
showii^ the two circles ; and d in their proper position. Notice 
that the top edge of the head is turned inward to stiffen it, as 
at the right, 1, 2, 3, this edge being turned on all sides. Having 
laid out the detail accurately the patterns are developed as 
follows: Divide the profile of the head into equal spaces, from 
1 to 16, and place this girth upon the center line A H, from 1 
to 16. 

With the T-square draw the usual horizontal or measuring 
lines, and intersect them by lines dropped from similar numbers 



66 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Woskers 



PATTERH* FOR nWMT 

AND SIDES 
7i0. 87. Shop Detail of Square Leader Head wi 



Drawings of Square Leader Head 67 

in the elevation partly shown by 3 4, 10, and 15 16. Trace a 
line through points thus obtained, then T W P' will be the miter 
cut. Trace with tracing paper or transfer points with dividers 
or paper measurements opposite the center line, U X S'. Then 
U T P' S' is the pattern for the front. The pattern for the 
sides is obtained by simply dropping the line F E in elevation, as 
shown by F' E*. Then F' U S' E' is the pattern for the sides. It 
will now be necessary to add the quadrants in the horizontal sec- 
tion, to the patterns, which is done as follows : With P J in the 
horizontal section as radius and S' and P' in the pattern as 
centers, draw arcs intersecting each other at J', With radius 
equal to J M in the horizontal section, or one-half the diameter 
of the tube, and J' in pattern as center, draw the arc L' M', which 
intersect lines drawn from S' and P' toward the center J' at L' 
and M'. In similar manner, from E' draw a line to J', cutting 
the arc at N'. Then S' P* M^ L^ is that part added to the front 
and S' E' N' L' that part added to the sides. 

Note that the cut E' N* is less than the opposite cut, because 
in the horizontal section the tube lies close against the wall line, 
making N O shorter than M P. 

The rear quadrant R K N O in the horizontal section should 
be added to the lower part of the elevation R' K' N' O', the 
arc being struck from the center J°, which is obtained from R J 
in the horizontal section. This completes tlie pattern for the 
three sides. If a square tube of the same size were to be placed 
in the head, then a line would be drawn tangent at s in the pat- 
tern, as shown by v w. As the rear side has a flat face, the front 
elevation answers for that pattern, adding the upper part T W 
X U of the front pattern to the upper part of the elevation, at 
the right and left, by T' 3 G U', When allowing laps, place 
them on the front and rear piece, while no laps are allowed on 
the two sides. Notch the laps as indicated by the dotted lines 
on the front and rear patterns. The centers / d j, in the patterns, 
indicate the prick marks to be placed on the metal, to locate the 
soldering of the raised circles. 

While these patterns are laid out for a head of a given style, 
it should be understood that this rule holds good in all square 
heads, no matter what style or profile is used. The patterns, 
checked off as correct, are now transferred to the sheet metal 
in a manner previously described, cutting one front and one back 
with laps, and two sides without laps. Stays are cut for forming 
purposes. Those required are to run from 3 to 8, and from 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



9 to 14 in the front elevation. A mistake often made by the 
student is to cut only the curve from 4 to 7, and then guess at 
the angle 3 4 5 and 6 7 8. The angles must always be added, 
or else a workman would not know whether to bend as shown 
by 5 4 3° or 5 4 3**. When fomiing make the first bend on dot 2, 
in the pattern, as shown in Fig. 88, then draw out to dot 3, at 
A, Fig. 89, and make the square bend B. Again draw out the 
metal and close on dot 4, in Fig. 90, A, and make another square 
bend B. 

The metal is now drawn out to dot 5, A, Fig, 91, on which a 
square bend is made ; when making this bend the first bend 2 
will strike the top clamp at a, but the bending leaf should be 
raised until the bend at 5 is square at* b, which will make b c 




shghtly curved, and while in this position, as reproduced by A, 
Fig. 92, the proper size, former B, is placed in position and A 
pressed over in the position of C. The rest of the square bends 
are now made, and the quarter round, from 10 to 13 in the front 
elevation, Fig. 87, is formed in a manner similar to Fig. 92. The 
flanges or laps are now bent with the flat plyers, and the two 
sides tacked to the front perfectly square, as in the plain capital 
described in Chapter VIII, and the back tacked in position. If 
the head is true the lines of the molds run parallel, and if the 
four corners are well sweated with solder, the head will with- 
stand the strain of expansion and contraction when filled with 
ice. Cut seven disks of the size shown by / in Fig. 87, and strip 
as high as indicated by C. 

These are attached lo the head, three on the front and two on 
each side in the position shown. The tube is now laid out, as 
in Fig. 93, in which A B shows the desired length (in this case 
3 in.), and B C the circumference. Some students fail to under- 
stand the rule for obtaining the circumference of any size pipe, 
which is simply to multiply the diameter, in this instance 2j4 in., 
by 3.1416, as follows: 



Drawings of Square Leader Head 



Diameter of tube. 



3.1416 
2.5 



157080 
62832 



Making the 




ference 7.85400 



a 



It will be noticed that the decimal point is before four figures 
on the first line and before one figure on the second, or a total 
of five, for that reason place the decimal point before five figures 
in the answer, which will read 7 and 85 hundredths, or nearly 
7% in. (7.875), the length from B to C, Fig 93. 

A lap is allowed for grooving or soldering, after which the 
tube is rolled up and soldered, as explained in connection with Fig. 




Fic. 95. FUngmi Ibe Tube. 

17 on stripping. The tube is then ready to be flanged out 
Yi in. The gage is set on the small turning machine, and the 
tube passed through the machine a few times, when it will have 
the appearance enlarged at A, Fig. 94. This small groove acts 
as a guide when flanging. Fig. 95. Notice how this is done. The 
square head stake A is placed in the bench, the groove of the 
tube B placed on the corner of the stake, and holding the tube 
at an angle, the stretching hammer C is used to gradually stretch 
the metal in turning over the flange in the position shown by the 
dotted line o. It requires a little practice in using this hammer. 
Slight blows are given along the outer edge of the flange, so 



70 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

as to expand the metal, which allows the flange to turn, until it 
has the position shown by D, after which the flange is dressed 
flat with mallet E. 

As a rule when the beginner 
flanges any tube for the 
first time he is not apt to 
keep it in a true circle, but 
allows it to become ellip- 
tical, caused by striking 
light and heavy blows alter- 
nately, which stretches the 
metal unevenly. Light, steady 
uniform blows must be given 
to retain a true circle. To 
avoid elliptical shapes, a stay 
of the required diameter, as 
F.O. 96, vi.* P( ihc Fim.h«i H«<i. indicated by F, Fig. 95, is 
tacked with solder 2 or 3 in. 
below the flanging point, which will keep the pipe in proper 
shape and can be removed when flanging is completed. The 
expert does not need the stay F. 




Fic. M. 
Fic. 98. CODncctiDC GoHct 



The tube is now soldered into the head and finished as in Fig. 
96. Fig. 97 shows a leader head with a roof tube through the 
wall. Fig. 98 sliows a leader head connected to a hanging gutter. 
Note the depth the tubes enter the leader heads to prevent 
splashing. 



CHAPTER XI 
Octagon Leader Head 



The method of making up octagon leader beads is the next 
lesson, and Fig. 99 shows the 2-in. scale drawing furnished to 



the student, 
plan and the 



VI 



'\ 



L7 



in this drawing the front elevation, the inverted 
side elevation are given. When drawing the full 
size detail, the side elevation 
can be omitted. In this case 
the tube is made round but a 
square or any other shaped 
tube can be placed in, if de- 
sired. 

The height of each member 
is scaled from the front ele- 
vation and placed in Fig. 100 
on the center line A H, as 



m 



Tie. 99. Fluu ud EInationt of Octagon Leader Hrad. 

shown by the full size measurements 1, 2, 2j^, IJ/2, and 3 in., mak- 
a total of 10 in. Through these measurements horizontal lines are 
drawn with the T-square. Scaling the one-half extreme pro- 
jection of the head in Fig. 99, it will measure 5'/i in., which is 
placed to the left of the center line A B, Fig. 100,- in which are 
shown the projections of each member by full size figures, the 
cove being struck from the center 0'. Upon completion of this 
half elevation it is transferred to the opposite side, making the 
full elevation. As in the square leader head, the top edge is 
bent, as indicated by 1 2 3. 

71 



72 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Having completed the outline of the elevation, the plan of the 
octagon leader head is drawn as follows: With radius equal to 
1^ in., or half the diameter of the tube, and with C on the hne 
A B as center, describe the circle a c f. Tangent to a, with the 
T-square, draw a line representing the wall, against which the 
head is to be placed. Parallel to the wall line, through the center 
C, draw clear across the board the line D E. From the ex- 
treme projection of the head in elevation on each side drop lines 
intersecting D E at J and F. With C as center and C F as radius, 
describe the semicircle J H F. Draw tangent with the circle at 
J and F the vertical lines J L and F O and tangent to H the 
horizontal line M N; then using the 45° triangle, placed true 
against the T-square, draw lines tangent at I and G. Where 
these lines intersect at L M N and O, draw miter lines toward 
the center C intersecting the circle at c, d, c and /, Next divide tht 
profile of the head into spaces from 1 to U, from which points 
lines are dropped vertically until they intersect the miter line O f. 
From these intersections, parallel to O N lines are drawn inter- 
secting the miter line N e, and are used for obtaining the miter 
line in elevation. The plan is completed by repeating this work 
on the left side. 

From the intersections of the lines dropped from points It 
on the wall line at ;' and i, dotted lines are drawn toward the 
center C, cutting the circle at b and k, these lines being used to 
obtain the pattern for the back. The method of projecting the 
miter line N ^ in plan into the elevation will be shown, although 
not necessary in the development of the pattern. But when a 
completed front elevation is required it is well to understand how 
to project these points. From the intersections in elevation, 
from 1 to 11, horizontal lines are drawn, which in turn are inter- 
sected by vertical lines erected from similar numbers in the miter 
line N e in plan, partly shown in the front elevation by points 
6' and 9*. This explains how only two points are established, 
but is sufficient to show how all the numbered points can be 
established, and when the right side miter line has been drawn, 
the left is transferred to the opposite side of the center line with 
the dividers, and the drawing completed. The front elevation 
and plan being correctly drawn, the patterns are developed by 
placing the girth measurements of the profile 1 to 11 in front 
elevation on the hne D E previously drawn, from 1 to II. 

Through these points at right angles to F E, draw the ustial 
measuring lines, which are intersected by horizontal lines, drawn 



Octagon Leader Head 



74 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokkeks 

parallel to F E from similar intersections on the miter line O / 
in plan, and resulting, when a line is traced through points thus 
obtained, in the miter cut P R. Measuring from the line F E, 
with the dividers, transfer the points in the miter cut P R 
opposite the line F E and obtain the miter cut S T. Then 
P R S T is the pattern for the three sides in plan marked Z", Z 
Z", l'*or the pattern for the sides marked X, simply extend the 
wall line U V. Then U V R P is the pattern for the two sides X. 
There are now patterns up to line 11, to which must be added the 
small segments in plan. With 11 C in plan as radius and R in 
pattern as center, describe an arc, cutting the line F E at C ; 
with C / in plan as radius and C° in the pattern as center, 
describe the arc A' f indefinitely. As the miter lines in plan 
were drawn toward the center C, then from R, S and V in the 
patterns lines are drawn towards C, cutting the arc previously 
drawn at f, e' and /('. Then S c' ^ R is similar to /, e, W 11 in 
plan; and V A' /* R in pattern, similar to k i W f in plan. The 
pattern for the back of the head is simply a reproduction of the 
front elevation to which the top and bottom is added as follows: 

With C I in plan as radius, and 11 and k in elevation as centers, 
describe nrcs intersecting each other in C*. WSth C* as center 
and C a in plan as radius, describe the arc fc" h" in elevation, 
and from k and 11 draw hnes to the center C* intersecting the 
arc at b° and b° . Then K b° h° 11 is similar to / & A i in plan. 
To allow for the bends at the top place the girth of 3 2 1 in eleva- 
tiun ^ipon the center line at 3' 2* V, through which horizontal 
lint!, are drawn, intcrsecled by vertical lines from 1 and 2 in the 
profile on both sides, resulting in intersections 1° and 2°, through 
which a line should be traced. Then 1° 2° k b° h° 11 1° is the 
pattern for the flat back, to which edges are allowed on both 
sides from 2° to b°, as shown by the dotted lines on the left 
side. Laps arc also allowed on both miter cuts of the sides Z° 
and Z" in plan, as shown by the dotted lines in the pattern from 
P to /', hut no kips are allowed oh the front piece Z nor the sides 
X anJ X. The pattern for the tube is obtained as explained in 
chapter X on the sipiarc leader head. 

If Ibis octagon leader bead were to be placed in the inside 
angle of a wall, the patterns for the sides Z and X could be used 
a> iu'licated in the interior diagram by Xi', '/.v, Xi-. The half 
pattern for the back for a leader head of this kind would be 
iibtaincil by extending the line of the lut>c upward in the front 
elevation lo Iti", as shown by the dotted line, and reversing the 



OcTACOW Leader Head 75 

miter cut 3 2° 1° from Bp to Ap and drawing a radial line from 
Cp to the center C at the bottom, cutting the arc drawn at Dp, 
then 1° 2° 11 ft" Dp Cp Bp Ap will be the desired half pattern. 
After the pieces have been cut from metal, also the stays from 
4 to 7 and 7 to h" in elevation, they are ready for forming; bend- 
ing the upper ends, as explained 
in connection with the square 
leader head. After the pieces 
are bent the small flanges on Z° 
and Z" shown from P to f 
in the pattern are bent with the 
flat plyers, not square as in the 
previous work, but at an angle to 
form an octagon. The templet 
for this angle is obtained by 
pricking three points on a piece 
of scrap metal laid under 15 16 

F.c. 101. Vi.w of fini.facd OcU«on ^"^ ^^ '" P'="' "l"^" CUttiug a 

Liadei Hod. templet Stay as shown by the 

shaded ]>art at L and using this for the bending of the flanges as 
well as in setting the work tt^ether. 

When putting the head together the same method is employed 
as in the plain capital excepting that the octagon stay L is used 
instead of a aiuare, to insure the formation of a true octagon 
when joining the pieces X and Z° in the plan, then X and Z" and 
finally the front Z, being careful to tack the miters true, so that 
the back will fit, after which the head can be soldered securely. 

The tube is flanged and soldered in position, as explained in the 
previous exercise. What has been said about placing these heads 
in practice in reference to Figs. 97 and 98 also applies to the 
octagon heads. Fig. 101 shows the finished octagon leader head. 



CHAPTER XII 
Scale and Detail Drawings of Plain Window Cap 

The fifth exercise gives more advanced work and takes up a 
plain window cap used on the fronts of buildings, etc. The 2-in. 
scale drawing in Fig. 102 shows the front and side elevation of 
the cap. When drawing the detail only one-half of the elevation 
is required. Note that the cap consists of molded dentils, C; 
sunk and raised panels, A and B, and corbels, D ; the side of the 
dentil is shown by b and of the corbel by c. The dotted line 
inside of the wall line indicates the distance that the metal 
extends back against the window frame, as will be explained. 

The various heiglits and projections are scaled from the draw- 
ing in Fig. 102, and placed on the wall line A B on the full size 
detail drawing in Fig. 103 see Folder 1. Note that the coves in the 
crown mold and detil block are struck irom the centers a and b, 
while the quarter round in the side of the corbel is struck from the 
center, c. 

The roof of the lintel has a rise of ^ in., to which is added 
a flange for nailing purposes, as indicated by the arrow point. 
The bottom of the cap or lintel returns against the frame line 
at point 19, returning against the wooden window frame at 21, 
with a flange added thereto for nailing, as indicated by 22. 
Before this distance from the wall to the frame line can be bent 
measurements are usually taken at the building from the wall to 
the window frame, so that the amount of material can be known. 
The dentil S ts put in separate. The raised panel is shown by IS, 
16, 17 and 18. After drawing the side elevation horizontal lines 
are projected with (he T-square to the left and the detail of one- 
half of the front elevation is drawn. Scaling the width of the 
window from the drawing in Fig. 102. it will measure 18 in. 
between the inside of corbels, one-half of which, or 9 in., is 
placed as in Fig. 103. The face of the corbel, or 2yi in., is placed 
below and beyond this line, and a vertical line drawn to 14, mak- 
ing the profile from 14 to 1 similar to that in the side elevation. 
The centers of the cove in crown mold and dentil are shown by 
d and e. and the center of the raised panel is shown at f, h being 
the center for the semi-circular ends. All measurements are 
obtained from the scale drawing and enlarged to full size. 
76 



Drawings of Plain Window Cat 77 



78 Hume Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

The dentils in both front and side elevations have l-in. faces 
and the end dentils are placed in hne with the panel face 14 W 
and I4» 19, after which the others are spaced 1 in. apart. To 
develop the pattern for the one-half of the face of the window 
cap place the girth of the profile on the center line, C, D, shown 
from 1 to 14 in front elevation, and in the side elevation by 1" 
to 14*. Point 14 in the front elevation is indicated in the side 
elevation by 14*. From this point, 14», take the girth from 
14» to 22 and place this on C. D. from 14 to 22. At right angles 
to C D from the small figures 1 to 22 draw horizontal lines 
indefinitely, intersected by hnes dropped vertically from points 
of the same number in the profile at the right of the front eleva- 
tion. Note that the horizontal dotted lines 15' 16', 17' 18', 19 
20' 21' 22* intersect or connect with points in the side elevation 
and the pattern having similar numbers. A hne traced through 
points thus obtained, and partly shown by intersections 3° 4°, 8° 
9°. 10° U° and 20° 21° 22°, will be E, F, G, H, 22 and 1, which 
is one-half of the pattern for the front. 

The miter cut on the roof is shown by T U F, but it is not cut 
on this line, a square cut being made, as indicated by T E F, 
and T U F is only drawn to show where the bend is to be made 
and the metal to be stretched, as will be explained. The pattern 
for the return of the cap mold is obtained by taking the distance 
of 554 if- i" the' side elevation and placing it from F to K in 
the pattern, and drawing a vertical line down to line 14, as K J. 
Then K F G J is the desired pattern, with a lap allowed at J G, 
which turns into the angle 14 in front elevation, and a lap along 
the top of the pattern at K F for soldering along F E when 
the cap is formed up. 

The object of cutting the notch L in the return pattern will 
be explained later. Laps are allowed on both miters of the front 
piece as indicated by the dotted Hnes along the edge of the pat- 
tern. The pattern for the dentil in one piece, shown below the 
side elevation, is obtained by taking a duplicate of the side of 
the dentil S, in the side elevation, and placing it at S'. Extend 
the vertical line, 1 wi, upon which place the girth of i ;' k found 
on S'. Draw horizonlal lines 1 in. wide, as in the front elevation, 
reverse S' to the opposite side, and draw S-. The dots indicate 
where the bends are to be made. The circle /, in the front eleva- 
tion, will be stripped J/^ in., as indicated in the side elevation. 
Add J^ in. to the top and bottom of the pattern for the raised 
panel Z, on the front elevation, indicated by the dots around Z; 



Drawings of Plain Window Cap 



79 



then all the stripping required on this panel will be the two 
curved ends. On the side elevation will be found the combined 
pattern of the panel miter and the outside of the corbel, which 
will show that the stile of the panel is 1 in. in front elevation, 
and which is added, as from 15 to R, in side elevation; add the 
depth of the panel 15, 16 or 17, 18, in side elevation, as indicated 
by P or R. Vertical lines are drawn from these points and inter- 
sected by horizontal lines from 15, 16 and 17, 18. The desired 
pattern is then M N O 19 P R 14», to which laps are added, as 
shown by M N, for turning on the inside, and another at R P 
for joining to f u on the front pattern. 

The diagram V is a duplicate of 19, 21 n p in side elevation, 
with laps added, as shown by 19' 21', 21' ti' and «' />', and repre- 
sents the pattern for the inside of the corbel a" b", in front eleva- 
tion, meeting the window frame. The pattern of the outsides of 
the corbels is obtained by taking a stretchout of the profile in V 
from 1 to 8, and place it below, making the face lyi in. wide, as 
called for in front elevation. Laps are allowed on the corbel face 
pattern and completes all the patterns re<iuired. A templet for 
forming is required from 1 to 8 in front elevation, while diagram 
V is used for bending the corbel face. Only one-half of the pat- 




tern for the front of the cap is shown. For obtaining the full pat- 
tern on the sheet metal, simply prick off tliis lialf, as proviou.sly 
described, and prick the two dots 1 and 22, on the centtrr line C D, 
and on the metal, then turn the pajjer pattern, placing the dots 1 
and 22 on the same dots in the metal and prick through the miter 
on the opposite side. This gives the complete pattern. Two re- 
turns will be required, right and left; 14 dentils; one circular 
panel /; two raised panels Z, and two outside and two inside 
pieces for corbel, and two corbel faces. 

The student having obtained the patterns for the plain window 
cap, forming the patterns into the lintel or cap, requires no s])ecial 
instruction, excepting the bending of the miter on the roof piece, 



80 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workeks 

explained in connection with Figs. 104 to 108. The forming 
of the cap should be started on dot 4 in the pattern for cap in 
Fig. 103, and when the lower part of the cap is formed the bend 
on dot 3 should be formed to the angle indicated by 4 3 2 in the 
front elevation. Before bend 2 is made the cap is placed in the 
brake in the position shown by A in Fig. 104, and a slight bend 
made along the line a b on the dots c d, which represent similar 
dots in the half pattern in Fig. 103. When this slight bend in 
Fig. 104 is made it will look, when reversed, as in Fig. 105. A 
bend is now made on dot 1 to the proper angle, A, Fig. 106, and 
gives a straight line along A B. As this roof line should have 
an angle, as indicated by Z° 2 3 in elevation in Fig. 103, a mis- 
take is often made in obtaining this angle by notching at the miter 
intersection B, Fig. 106, as at A, Fig. 107. 

While the proper angle can be obtained in this way, a leak is 
the result, and to avoid this, flange A at the roof miter inter- 
section should be slightly stretched — that is, laying the flange on 
the square head stake and striking light blows with the stretch- 
ing hammer along a b c. Fig. 108, until the proper angle is 
obtained, shown by A. When this is completed the return miter 
in Fig. 103 is soldered in position, perfectly square to the face 
line, being careful to have the small lap K L and the large lap 
L F placed above and below the roof, as indicated by B and C, 
Fig. 108. This binds the laps and prevents the miter from break- 
ing away from the roof. 

When the niiters are in position as partly shown hy a b c 
in A, Fig. 109, the corbel is soldered together, B C D, B being 
the outside of the corbel with panel miter attached, C the face 
and D the inside, and is soldered in a manner similar to placing 
the flat head in the molded gutter. The corbels are now soldered 
on to the cap, the dentils placed in position, the raised panel 
soldered into the center of the sunk panel, being careful to avoid 
acid stains and blotches of solder, and if properly done the 
window cap will look as in Fig. 110. 

When fastening the window cap to the building when the wall 
is of brick, the simplest way is shown in Fig. Ill, in which nails 
are driven into the brick joints through the metal flange A, then 
covered with roofers' cement as indicated by the smooth finish B. 

When a first-class job is desired the joint in the brick work 
is cut out to a depth of 1 in., and enough additional metal allowed 
on the roof edge to flange upward and into the brick work, 
shown by A, Fig. 1 12. When the window caps are to be fastened 



Drawings of Plain Window Cap 81 

to a frame building having clapboards a 4 or 5 in. flange is bent 
from the roof at A, Fig. 113, nailed to the sheathing at a, and 
the clapboard B placed over the nail head and' flashing. 

When the flange is to be nailed to an outside wood surface 
and will not be covered with clapboards or metal covering, the 




flange is bent as indicated by B, Fig. 114, nailed at c and then 
turned down on the upper edge A so as to cover the nail heads 
at D. This prevents the nails drawing! out by the heat of the 
sun. Care should be taken before nailing to have a good layer 
of white lead between the flange and woodwork, and after clos- 
ing the flange over the nail heads to "paintskin" smooth over 




Aoid! 



lofuwelioii to Brkk Will < 
Fic. 114. Protect ini ail I 
\ Window FrmiH. 







the flange, to prevent leaks. The method of finishing against 
the window frame at the bottom is shown in Fig. 115, in which 
A shows the window cap against the wall line, flanging against 
the frame line B and nailed at C. In most cases the flange 
remains in this manner; but where a neat appearance is wanted, 
with no nail heads to show, a woodert molding U is placed over 
the flange, mitering at the comers and extending along the sides 
of the frame. 



CHAPTER XIII 

Scale and Detail Drawings for Making an Ornamental 
Window Cap 

In proceeding with the course the exercises will become more 
difficult, the pattern drafting more complicated and, as a rule, 
the student becomes more interested in his work. The sixth 
lesson is the construction of an ornamental window cap or lintel, 
the blue print or lesson drawing as given to the student being 
drawn to a scale of 2 in. to the foot, and is reproduced in Fig. 
116, in which the front and side elevations are shown, and on 
which are the small letters indicating the various centers from 
which the molds and arcs are struck. Note that the lines in the 
triangular panel in the pediment run tangent to the rircle h, as 
indicated at i. 

The roof of the fillet returns back the distance indicated by n 
to receive the back of the pediment mold. How this measure- 
ment is obtained will be explained when drawing the shop detail. 
It is assumed in this case that the window frame sets back lyi 
in. from the face of the wall, although in practice this measure- 
ment is verified at the building. When drawing the detail only 
one-half of the front elevation is required, as in the previous 
exercise. 

Having carefully studied the scale drawing and measured the 
heights and projections with the rule, lay them off full size on 
the wall line A B in the detail drawing in Fig. 117. See Folder 1. 
The total height of the window cap is 1 ft. 4J4 in-, and 
the extreme projection 7j^ in. The quarter round in the crown 
mold is struck from a, that in the cap mold from b. the bead 
in the panel from c, all in the side elevation. When the side ele- 
vation of the entire cap is drawn the bracket side is drawn in 
position and the extreme projection is 3}^ in. The cap of the 
bracket is then drawn, being careful to have the same projec- 
tions as in the profile 11-16, the quarter round being struck from 
the center d. The center c is for drawing the semicircle t, u and 
/, the center for the quarter round v in the bracket. The J4-in, 
projection at the lower part of the bracket indicates the rise 
of the triangular dentil H in the front elevation. 



Drawings for Ornamental Window Cap 83 



j^- 



(0 



I 5 



M 



L^ 



84 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Having completed the side elevation, horizontal lines are drawn 
across the paper with the T-square through the various mem- 
bers, on which the one-half front elevation will be drawn. Draw 
the center line C D and lay off one-half of the window opening, 
in this case 9>4 i"- Also lay ofiF the face of the bracket 2j4 in. 
and erect a vertical line to 16' and place from 16', the proBle 
16' liy 1, which must be similar to s \0 x in side elevation; the 
distance IC 11" in front elevation to be J/j in., which happens 
to be similar to 10 T° in the side elevation. Obtain I", the apex 
of the pediment on the center line C D from the scale drawing, 
and draw a line from 1" to 1. This gives the pitch of the pedi- 
ment. From the corners 2, 3 and 7' draw lines parallel to 1 1'. 
As the heights 7' 8' and 9* 10' in the normal profile are J^ and 
i'/2 in., place these distances at right angles to the pediment 
mold and draw parallel lines as shown by similar measurements. 

Bisect m n on the center line and obtain h, which use as a 
center, and describe the 2-in. semicircle. Set off 5J4 in., as at 
0, from which draw lines tangent to the semicircle. Complete 
G by drawing the arc at J-2 in. from the semicircle. Draw the 
inside line of the bracket to 16" and place a tracing of the cap 
mold. The quarter rounds are drawn from the centers a', b', h". 
As the margin around the panel in front elevation should be 
equal, take the vertical heights on r 24', in front elevation, and 
place them from / to 24'. and complete the panel, the miter lines 
21' 24' and 24' 27' being drawn at angles of 45 degrees, because 
the panel head is square. Place the two dentils H on the face 
of the bracket, by dividing the upper line into two parts and 
the lower into four parts ; then connect. From 1 to 10* in the 
front elevation represents the normal profile of the horizontal 
return, from which a modified profile must be obtained for the 
pediment molding to admit the mitering of it with the return 
molding. 

This is accomplished by dividing the quarter round into equal 
l)arts, from 3 to 7', from which lines are drawn parallel to the 
raking molding intersecting the center line C D. Draw any 
horizontal line below the normal profile, as i /, upon which drop 
the various projections in the normal profile, shown by similar 
figures. Place these projections parallel with the pediment mold, 
»' /', and drop the per()endiculars to i' / until they intersect 
similar numbered lines in the pediment mold, shown by 1 to 10 
in the modified profile. The distance from 10 to 11 can be made 
as deep as desired, in this case J^ in. Whatever distance is 



Drawings for Ornamental Window Cap 85 

desired forms the basis for deterniining the depth of the roof 
of the fillet 7 X in side elevation. As the roof of the pediment 
is 7^4 in. in side elevation, add this lo the modified profile, from 
I to O; O X indicates the nailing flange. Then the shaded sec- 
tion, X O 1 II, is the true section on a line drawn at right angles 
to the rake, E F. This completes the elevations required for 
developing the patterns. 

As the surface 7 8 in the pediment mold is to be flush with 
the surface 7' 8' in the front horizontal molding, indicated at 
7', 8°, 9°, and as the projections 8 9 and 10 11 in the modified 
profile are each '/i in., or a total of 1 in., place the 1 in. from 7 
to X in the side elevation and allow the upright flange x y ; then 
the partial shaded section, y, 7, 9, will give a true section through 
A* B' in the front elevation, and shows how deep the roof of 
the fillet, 7 8 in side, must return, as 7 x. The pattern for the 
lower part of the lintel will be developed by dividing the molds 
in the side elevation into equal spaces, as shown from 11 to 14 
and 21 to 27. 

Now, take the girth of all that part from y to 7 to 32 in the 
side elevation and place it on the center line C D, shown from y 
to 32, from which draw horizontal lines as shown. From the 
intersections in the side elevation from y to 32 draw horizontal 
lines cutting corresponding parts in the front elevation, shown 
by similar numbers. From these points vertical lines are dropped 
(partly shown) intersecting similar numbered horizontal lines 
from C D. A line traced through points R, S, T. U, Z, V, W, D, 
y, will be the one-half pattern for the lower front piece. If a 
vertical line is erected from the panel miter V, as V Y, and 
Y Z V traced opposite Y V, as Y V Z\ then Z Z' V will be 
the pattern for the panel head 18', 24', 32', in the front elevation, 
two of which are required. As S T represents the miter cut 
of the bracket cap, this can be used for obtaining the patterns 
for the inside, outside and face of the cap. Take the distance 
from 5 to c" in the side elevation and place it from T to c" in 
the pattern and erect the vertical line c" d° ; then c°, d" , S, T, 
is the outside cap pattern. Take the distance from s to 16 in the 
side elevation and place it from S to a" and T to b" in the pat- 
tern and trace the miter cut S T on a° i>° ; then a" , b", T, S. is 
the pattern for the inside of the cap. As the face of the cap is 
2y3 in., set oR this distance from T to U in the pattern, revers- 
ing the cut T S from U to c", being careful that the projection 
A^ c" is similar to A' S. 



86 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Then c" S T U is the pattern for the face of the cap. A top 
and hottom lap is allowed, shown by the dotted line, two of each 
being required. 

For the pattern for the return miter take the girth from 7' to 
1 in the normal profile and add it above the point 7p in the pattern 
from 7>' to 1". Draw the usual measuring lines and intersect them 
by vertical lines dropped from similar points in the normal profile, 
partly shown by 7', 2, 1, Trace the miter 7p A', and make the 
distance A' E' equal to the depth of the return, or 7^ in. Allow 
a lap of yi in. below B" D" and another along the top edge. Then 
A^ B°, D*, E', is the return miter, two of which are required. 
The only laps required on the front pattern are indicated by the 
dotted lines. 

In the front elevation G is reproduced by G' in the pattern, 
to which the rise of l/i in. is added at right angles to the sides, 
two of which are required, also a circle of 2 in. diameter indi- 
cated by ft. The bracket dentil H is reproduced by H* immedi- 
ately below it, to which the J4 '"■ rise has been added at right 
angles to its sides, four of which are needed. The pattern for 
the two outsides of the brackets is pricked direct from the side 
elevation, as indicated hy s t u v w J K c'' s, to which a lap is 
added as indicated by N P. The girth of the profile of the 
bracket s t u v w J Kis then placed on the vertical Ijne / K' as 
shown by similar letters, and the face made 2yi in. wide, two 
of which are needed. Diagram L shows the pattern for the 
inside of the bracket, and is a reproduction shown by similar 
letters and figures in the side elevations. The dotted lines show 
where laps are allowed. Two of these sides are required. This 
completes the full set of patterns excepting the pediment mold- 
ing, in Fig. 118. 

Obtain the girth of the modified profile from X to 11, Fig. 
117, and place it on the line E F, Fig. 118. At right angles to 
E F draw the usual measuring lines. Measuring from the line 
E F, Fig. 117, which is drawn at pleasure at right angles to 
the line of the pediment, take the various distances to similar 
numbered intersections on the miter line C m at the top and 
the intersections on the profile from 1 to 7' and along the 
horizontal line from 7' to 10°, and place them on lines hav- 
ing similar numbers in Fig. 118. on either side of the line 
h" F. Trace a line through points thus obtained, then X, 1, 
7, ir. ll''. 7\ l^. X' will hi- the desired pattern. To add the 
triangular piece of the ])edinieiit to the pattern use as radii, 



Drawings for Ornamental Window Cap 



87 



wt M and n 11° in the front elevation in Fig. 117, using as 
centers in Fig. 118, points 11' and 11° and intersect arcs at «. 
Then connect lines from U* to n to U". Two of these patterns 
are required, both with laps from 1 to 11°, and one with laps 
from X" to « only. The paper patterns are now pricked on to 




Fio. ne. Pi 



the metal as previously described, reversing the half pattern 
for the front in Fig. 117 on the dots y and D. 

When cutting the caps for the bracket, time and material can 
be saved by marking the patterns on the metal as indicated in 
Fig. 119, where one cut is laid against the other; A representing 
the inside cap and B the outside. While but two of each are 
required, it is well to bear this in mind when large quantities 
are to be cut. Stays or templets for forming will be required 
as follows: From 2 to 8* in the normal profile in Fig. 117; from 



88 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

11 to 16 in the side elevation; from 20 to 28 for the panel, and 
from 1 to 9 in the modified profile for the pediment mold. The 
side of the bracket is used as a stay templet for bending the face. 
When bending the pediment mold start at dot 3 or 7, Fig. 118, 
and in forming the balance of the work always start at the mold. 



Y 



^ 



When forming the bead in the panel in Fig. 117, start either on 
dot 21 or 27 and make a square bend, 21, shown by A, Fig. 120; 
use the former B and press down A in the position C. Then 
make a square bend on dot 27 at D, Fig. 121, and using the 
former E, press D in the position F. Proceed in the usual man- 
ner to complete the balance of the bends, using the templets to 
prove the profile of the work. 





A rough outline, Fig. 122, is given to show how the work is 
Joined together. First set in the panel head A, and put in the 
return miter B, being careful to have them true and square. Set 
the bracket C together, joining the cap at a and tacking on the 
dentils b, being careful when soldering the face to the sides that 
the bends in the face run parallel to each other to avoid the 
bracket becoming lopsided. Should this happen, one side will 
have to be loosened and retacked until true. It will be noticed 
that the pattern for the window cap has been so developed that 
cap mold D runs behind the bracket and miters with the outside 



Drawings for Ornamental Window Cap 89 

of the bracket cap a when the bracket C is joined to A, as in 
the plan D" at d. This makes a firm job and is the method 
employed on other work the student will take up. When the 




Fn>. 122. Joininc Virioui Parti of Window Cip. 

lower part of the window cap is completed the pediment E is 
joined together, tacking the miter F G to suit the proper angle 
obtained from the detail. Then join B° to B. The small panels 




I* C»p. 



are lacked into e, which completes the ornamental window cap 
shown finished in Fig. 123, What was said in reference to put- 
ting up the plain window cap on the building also applies to the 
■ ornamental window cap. 



CHAPTER XIV 
Making a Raised Panel 

The seventh exercise is that of constructing a raised panel. 
Fig. 124, which is a reproduction of the 2-in. scale blue print 
(see Folder 1). A section is shown of the center panel, while 
the shaded section to the right in the front elevation shows the 
true section on the vertical line '%'. The method of obtaining 
this section will be explained in the detail drawing, A in the 
upper part of the drawing is the development of the cone A in 
the front elevation. The various parts are designated by refer- 
ence letters, and will be explained when laying out the shop 
detail. In the detail only one side need be drawn, as both halves 
are the same. In this piece of work the three methods of pat- 
tern drafting are employed — namely, the parallel line method 
for the straight sides, radial line for the cone, and triangulation 
for the flaring piece joining the straight sides. Take dimensions 
from the scale drawing, and draw the vertical line A B in the shop 
detail in Fig. 125 (see Folder I), on which establish the center 
C, from which to describe the 6-in. circle representing the out- 
side diameter of the center panel D E. Measure off a margin 
of y^ in- and describe the inner circle F G, 4>^ in. in diameter. 
Above this elevation draw the true section of the circular panel, 
J 1 6, the vertical heights being equal to ^, J>2 and 2 in. Tangent 
at E draw (he horizonlal line T M, and from E lay off 1 ft. 554 
in. to M, and from M draw the line M U, having it tangent at V. 
Set off XYf, in. from H, and with C as center draw the arc A i. 
Then /i i M is the outline of the triangular panel. Set off ^ in. 
all around parallel to the outline, and obtain 7 7' N. 

From the center C draw the radial line C M, and lay off a dis- 
tance from 10 to L equal to 2 in., and draw the miter lines 7 L, 7' 
L and L N. This completes the front elevation, and it will be 
found that M i is the same length as M h, so that the pattern 
for one answers for the otiicr. In this case it is desired that 
the heights of each member in the center and triangular panels 
should be the same as in the true section of the circular panel. 
As the distance from L to 5° in the triangular panel is only 1^ 
in., and from C to H in the circular panel is 3 in., then a true 
90 



Makini; a Raised Panel 91 

section on L 5° must be obtained from the trae heights in the 
section of the circular panel as follows: From L in the elevation, 
representing the highest point, erect the vertical line L O, which 
intersects the horizontal line J K at o. Extend by means of 
horizontal lines the vertical heights from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, in 
the true section of circular panel, shown on line O a by similar 
numbers. With a as center and the numbers as radii draw the 
arcs cutting J K, from 1 to 6, and from these points drop vertical 
lines cutting similar lines in the elevation, from 1° to 6°. Then 
1° L 6°, or the shaded portion will be the true section for the 
triangular panel. This completes all that is required for develop- 
ing the patterns. Now obtain the girth of the shaded section 
from 1° to 6°, and place it on the vertical line Q P. Draw the 
usual measuring lines, intersected by lines dropped from num- 
bered points on the miter lines k L and L M. Trace a line 
through points thus obtained and W X Y will be the pattern for 
the straight sides of the triangular panel, four of which are 
required. 

When that portion shown by i 7' 7h is pricked on to the metal 
the pattern is complete for that part two of which are needed; 
the distance from i to A is stripped with a ^-'\it. strip and from 
7 to 7' with a J-^-in. strip, as in the section. The pattern for 
the flaring piece, 7 L 7', is obtained by triangulations as follows: 
Divide the curve 7 7' into equal spaces, shown from 7 to 10 to 7'. 
Take the distances from L to 7, to 8, to 9, to 10, and place them 
on the horizontal line in the diagram of triangles, from L° to 7, 
to 8, to 9 and 10, and draw the perpendicular L° L' equal to 2 in., 
or the height L* 1° in the true section. With L^ in the diagram 
of triangles as center and radii equal to L' 7. 8, 9 and 10, draw 
arcs. Set the dividers equal to one of the s]>accs in 7 L 7' and 
starting at R in the diagram of triangles step from arc 7 to 8 
to 9 then to 10; reverse and step to arc 9, 8 anil 7. Trace an 
arc from R to S and draw lines from S and R to 1-', which is 
the pattern for the flare 7 L 7' in the elevation, two of which 
are required. The pattern for the cone of the center panel is 
obtained by using I 2 in the true section as radius and with I* 
as center describe the arc G" G*, Divide one-quarter of the 
proper circle in front elevation into equal spaces, as G (i c rf c /, 
and take four times this girth, and place it from G° to /, to G', to 
f, to G*. Allow a lap which completes this paltern, one of which 
is required. Prick on to the metal the semi-ring, D H E F / G, 
two of which are required. A mistake often made by the stu- 



92 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



dent in pricking work of this kind is to prick along the arcs, as 
at b c d e, etc., while all that is necessary is to prick the center 
C and E F G and D, and use the dividers to draw the arcs. As 
the angles in the panel are very acute no laps are allowed, except 
ing on the pattern for the cone. 




The patterns are then pricked on to the metal in the usual 
manner, and the straight sides bent after the shaded profile. The 
pattern for the cone and for the flaring piece in the triangulai 
panel are both formed on the blow horn stake, being careful 
to have the side smooth and round, avoiding kinks and dents in 




forming. When joining the circular panel the strips are soldered 
on the inside, under and above the circular pieces, as in the sec- 
tional view. Fig. 126, in which a is soldered to the bottom ol 
the circular piece d on the inside of b. Solder c to the cone e at 
t, on the inside, then to the circular piece at d, also on the inside 
The strip a is to be ^ in. high, but is cut % in. and soldered in 
position, and when the entire center panel is completed, the Ji 
in. is turned outward on the small turning machine. When 
joining the triangular panel, shown in Fig. 127, pieces A and B 
are tacked along the miter a b, being careful that the distance 
from c to d is equal to it / of the curve. The curve e f is now 
stripped as high as a. Fig. 126, or '/i in. After this is done the 



Making a Raised Panel 93 

flaring piece k i aln Fig. 127 is soldered in position on the inside. 
Care should be taken to solder all joints on the inside, where 
possible, so as to make neat, sharp corners. When soldering the 




three parts of the panel in one, lay a straight edge along the 
bottom as indicated by the line T M, Fig. 125, making the dis- 
tance between the end panels and center \'/e in- When this has 
been done the panel is complete and will look as in Fig. 128. 



CHAPTER XV 

Making a Plain Cornice 

The first study in practical cornice construction is given in the 
eighth exercise. Fig. 129, which is a reproduction of the 2-in. 
scale blue print or lesson drawing furnished to the student. The 
object of this exercise is to explain how to draw, as well as how 
to apply the wrought iron braces or lookouts to the cornice, show- 
ing how the cornice is fastened to the beam whether wood or 
iron, and how the anchors are bolted to the cornice brace, which 
secures the cornice when the wall is built behind it. The letters 
a, b, c, d and e indicate the centers for drawing the curves in the 
molds. The lesson drawing shows a plain cornice with modil- 
lions, sunk panel, a drip on the foot mold and a lock on the upper 
flange of the crown mold, for locking the metal roofing. The 
iron brace has two anchors, one resting on the wall and the other 
boiled to the brace ready to be built in the wall, which will be 
erected by the mason. The small dots in the brace represent the 
bolts. When laying out the shop detail the vertical heights of 
the members are measured from the front elevation in the scale 
drawing, while the projections are obtained from tne sectional 
view, measuring from the dotted line, erected from the drip in 
the foot mold to the various members. Although a perspective 
view is given, the profile shows a true section of the cornice and 
modillion. 

Having checked off the heights and projections of the mem- 
bers in the cornice proceed to lay out the detail, as in Fig. 130 
(see Folder 2), where the wall line is indicated by A B, and upon 
which line the various dimensions are clearly shown. From 
these points horizontal lines are drawn across the sheet, upon 
which the projections are measured. The center points for 
drawing the various quarter rounds and coves are indicated 
by a, b and c. A lock is allowed at the top, 1 2, into which the 
metal roofing is locked, and a drip is allowed at the bottom, 33 34, 
to prevent water from flowing into the joint and causing a damp 
wall, as it would do if the flange at the bottom of the foot mold 
were bent, as in diagram A° at .r. By having the drip formed 
to the foot mold, the water, if any, flows down the face of the 
94 



Making a Plain Cornice 



wall, as in the sectional view. After the outline of the c 

is drawn, put in the modillion, as indicated by the full size 



, e and d representing the centers for describing 
the semicircles. This completes the sectional view of the cornice, 
whose total height is 1 ft. 41-^ in. and extreme projection 8j4 



96 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workebs 

in. The front elevation is then drawn, 1 ft. 3 in. in length, and 
the face of the modillions 2y2 in. As the panel stile is lj4 in., 
as in the sectional view, set off this distance, in the front eleva- 
tion on the right and left sides. Set off the modilHon a similar 
distance. 

The drawing of this front elevation could be omitted in prac- 
tice, as the home student could easily lind the information of 
spacing the modillions from the blue print in Fig. 129, from 
which the measurements in Fig. 130 were obtained. The section 
of the iron brace or lookout is next drawn. There is no given 
rule for drawing this brace, except that it should lie against flat 
surfaces, where a bolt can be inserted, being careful to iise good 
judgment in regard to obtaining the angles, D E F G H J. While 
the comers or bends in the brace are sharp in the detail, this is 
only a matter of drawing, and it is not necessary to make them 
so in practice. For example, the bend at F, when made in the 
brace bender, will look like diagram F°, and is sharp enough 
for the purpose required. K L shows an anchor bolted to the 
main brace, its purpose being explained later. These braces are 
usually made from soft steel, so as to allow them to be bent 
cold. The usual thickness used is 3-16 X 1J4 i"-, although 
lighter or heavier may be used, according to the size cornice to 
be made. These braces are bolted to the cornice with flat head 
stove bolts, 14 X H ^^- In this case bolts would be inserted at 
fj g, Ih '/ h ^' ' ^"'^ "*' ^^^ '^ol^ '" ^^^ brace at m being counter- 
sunk on the under side C, so as lo make a smooth surface where 
it sets on the wall. When the cornice is made of copper all holes 
in the braces are countersunk so that when brass bolts are passed 
through, the outside will be smooth and flat. While these holes 
can be countersunk in the iron braces, when the cornice is to be 
of galvanized iron, as a rule it is not done. 

For the patterns proceed as follows: Divide the profile of the 
main cornice into sjKices as shown from 1 to 35. Take the girth 
of the main cornice and place it on line M N shown by similar 
numbers, the dots representing the bends. The cornice being 
small in this case, the entire profile is bent in one piece, and con- 
sequently no joints are made. But when joints are made, as 
in the next exercise, the method of con.struction, to save time in 
soldering and riveting, will be ex])lained. The pattern for the 
face of the modillion is obtained by taking the girth along the 
profile from P to R to 19, and placing it at P' R' 19", making the 
pattern 2^ in. wide. The double dots at R* and R^ in the pat- 



Making a Plain Cornice 



97 



tern do not indicate bends, but show where the forming of the 
semicircles end, as at R" and R in the profile in the sectional 
view. The pattern for the side of the modillion is pricked direct 
from the sectional view, allowing a lap for fastening, as indi- 
cated by the dotted lines. As the depth of the panel is J^ in., 
add this, as shown in the front elevation, when S T U V is the 
pattern for the panel head, to which laps are allowed. This 



completes the patterns for the plain cornice ; two panel heads. 




two modillion faces and four niodillion sides are required. In 
getting out the mam cornite a squire piece of metal is cut whose 
length equals the girth M N, ami whose width will be 1 ft. 3 in. 
No panel miter need be cut on the main cornice, as it will 
continue in one piece, as shown by ii o and r j in the front ele- 
vation, and the panel miters set over it. 

In this case, when forming the cornice, start at the drip or 
on dot 34 as A, Fig. 131, where a 
square bend has been made from 
35 to 35'. Reverse the sheet 
by 35' in B and make a bend on 
dot 33 from 35' to 35°. Leav- 
ing ihc sheet in the brake, draw 
out same to dot 32 in C and make 
a square bend from 35° to 35". 
Reverse the sheet D and make 
a square bend on dot 31 from 
35' to 35*. This forms the drip, from 35 to 31 in the sectional 
view in Fig. 130, the balance of the cornice being formed in the 
usual manner. The face of the modillion is formed as in Fig. 
132, It is bent as a ft cr, making them square bends in the brake; 
the semicircles can be bent over any bar or gas pipe in a vise 
or elsewhere. Assuming that D is the proper size pipe to corre- 
spond to e in the sectional view in Fig. 130, the face A, Fig. 132, 




98 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

is placed in the position shown, when A is pressed down in the 
direction of the arrow until it looks like B, thus bringing the 
double dots R" and R' in A to R- and R' in B. The letters and 
figures in diagrams D and G are similar to those on pattern for 
the face of modillion in Fig. 130. Reverse the face B, Fig. 132, 
a' b' in E, being careful to have the double dot R' against the side 
of the proper size pipe G and turn down E, in the position shown 
by F, bringing 19* to 19*. The balance of the bends are made 



Fio. Mi. Method of Obtiio 

to correspond to the side of the modillion in Fig. 130. The panel 
miters are bent and soldered in the cornice ; then the modillions 
are soldered together, being careful to avoid any twist in them, 
and also soldered in their proper position in the cornice. 

This being done, the iron brace must be made as follows : Take 
a strip of sheet metal about Yi in. wide and of sufficient length, 
and using a flat pliers obtain the girlh (or amount of material re- 
quired to bend the brace) from the sectional view, putting a prick 
mark in the strip to represent the hole in Fig. 133, and notch out 
the strip where a bend is to be. Cut as 
many braces as required into which 5-16-in. 
holes are punched, which allows for the 
burr of the metal and for the Yn-m. thick 
bolt to pass through. After the holes are 
punirhed the braces are bent in the bender 
shown in Fig. 134. The bender in practice 
is fastened by means of bolts to the bench at 
Fio 1J4, The Bri« a and h, and when the brace is put into the 
*" "■ slot at A the required bend can be made by 

raising the handle B. When bending the brace, the angles must 
correspond to the shaded section of the brace in the sectional 
view in Fig. 130. in practice one brace is bent accurately, ac- 
cording to this shaded section, then the balance are made after the 
finished templet. When inserting the brace in the cornice, slight 
prick marks are made through the holes from the inside, so that 
the impression shows on the outside of the cornice; then holes 
are punched from the outside through which flat headed stove 
bolts are placed and fastened with square nuts on the inside. 




Making a Plain Cornice 99 

When a cornice braced in this manner is to he set on a wall 
and fastened to wooden beams it is done as follows : Let A B, 
Fig. 135, represent the cornice with the brace a b c in position, 
set upon the wall C, and let E show the wooden beam. While 
the cornice is being held in position temporarily by the guy ropes, 
a wire is fastened to the anchor at D, and with a wall or flash- 
ing hook is nailed to the beam at E. Then a piece of rod or 
pipe is placed between the doubled wire at F and turned, until 
the wire is taut and the drip B is drawn tight against the wall. 
Another doubled wire is fastened at G and nailed to the beam 
at H ; a rod is placed at J, and 
turned until the wire G H becomes 
taut, bringing the cornice in a 
plumb position, which is proven 




135. FAitenini Cornice to Wooden 



by using the plumb rule R S. After the cornice is fastened, the 
guy ropes are removed and the anchor K bolted in position, after 
which the wall is built up, thus securing the cornice. When the 
cornice is high, extra anchors are bolted to the brace at L; the 
wall built around these anchors secures them, and allows the 
wires to be cut if in the way of the wood framer. Where the 
beam E is of iron, as in fireproof construction, the cornice is 
fastened temporarily to the iron beam, as in Fig. 136, by band 
iron clamps made from the same material as the braces. The 
iron beam is E', and F, the clamp, is made in two parts to iit 
the flange of the beam at a and ('. When used in practice they 
are bolted together at c, with a hole punched at e to admit the 
wire to be fastened. After the cornice is secured to the wall, 
the clamps can be loosened and used on any other job. 



Lr^.^y 



100 Home Instruction for Siieet Metal Workers 

A brick wall is usually built in the classroom at the New York 
Trade School with beam attached, to show the practical way 



of fastening the cornice, and make it clear to the students. A 
view of the finished plain coniice is given in Fig. 137, the brace 
not being shown. 



CHAPTER XVI 
Making an Ornamental Cornice 

The ninth exercise when completed in sheet metal is a fine 
piece of work, and the student is cautioned to be accurate in 
laying out the detail as well as the patterns. The blueprint given 
to the student is drawn to a scale of 2 in. to the foot and is 
reproduced in Fig. 138, in which one-half of the front elevation 
is shown, as well as the side elevation of the brackets and a 
section through A B in the front elevation. As will he seen, 
the cornice consists of ornamental brackets, plain modillion 
molded panel and dentils. The sides of the brackets have 
incised work and the fronts have diamond shaped panels and 
ornamental drops. In the main panel the student's initials and 
date are placed, using block letters, as described in the working 
detail. The small letters on the drawing indicate the centers for 
drawing the molds, semicircles, arcs, scroll, etc., which will be 
explained when drawing the detail. 

The first step, as in the previous exercises, is to obtain the 
accurate heights of the members in the cornice, measuring from 
the wall line in the side elevation and placing them on the wall 
line A E in Fig. 139 (see Folder 2), making the total height 
of the cornice 1 ft. 10J4 in. Scale carefully the projection 
of each member from the drawing in Fig. 138 and place them, 
as shown by full size measurements in Fig. 139. Having located 
the point of each projection, the outline of the body of the 
cornice is drawn as follows: Starting at the top, a lock is 
allowed for the roofing; then the ogee is drawn by completing 
the square abed. Draw the two diagonals, and where they 
intersect draw the horizontal line e f. Then c and / are the 
centers for describing the arcs a 7 and 7 c. Next comes the 
fillet of J-i in., then the planceer of 8 in. Complete the mold 
14 to 28, y being the center point for describing the cove in the 
cap mold and k for the quarter round in the dentil course. 
Complete the sunk panel, / and m being the centers for draw- 
ing the coves. The foot mold is then drawn, n being the cen- 
ter for the cove. A drip is added, but no brace or lookout is 
drawn, as this was covered in the previous problem. 
101 



102 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 




Making an Ornamental Cornice 103 

The side view of Ihe dentil is now drawn, as shown by O', v 
being the center for the cove, having a J^-in, radius. The side 
view of the raised panel on surface 19 20 is drawn Ij^ in. wide 
and Ji in. deep. Draw the side of the mod ill ion from P' to R', 
as shown by full size measurements, r being the center for the 
cove, s for the semicircle, ( for the quarter round and w for the 
cove. The side of the bracket is next drawn, from M' to N'. 
Care must be taken in scaling the lower part of the bracket 
{in Fig. 138) to obtain thff location of the centers. Note 
that G is the center for the cove at the top, H for the semi- 
circle, J the center point for the quarter round K L and sink 
strip K° L". After the point M has been established at Z% 
in. from the wall line, extend the line 7 mi of the panel sec- 
tion to N, this point being 5^^ in. from the wall line. Then 
N is the center and N M the radius from which to strike 
the arc M O, having O ^ in. above the line 7 N. Draw a 
line from O to N, on which set off V/i in. from O to P; 
then P is the center from which to draw the arc O R. meet- 
ing the vertical line drawn 1J4 ■"■ from 11 Q. Complete the 
balance of the side, T being the center for drawing the cove. 
Complete the side view of the modillion and bracket caps, the 
coves being struck from o and p. Draw the side view of the 
diamond panel at the top of the bracket shown by H°, and the 
raised disk at Y, to the right of H". In drawing the scroll in the 
side of the bracket, g is the center for drawing the arcs S L" 
and V L and h for drawing the semicircle v V L". The balance 
of the scroll, as u X L and W, are drawn free hand. This com- 
pletes the sectional view from which the one-half front elevation 
is drawn. 

A mistake often made is to scale the measurements from the 
front elevation in Fig. 138 and transfer them on the line A' B', 
Fig. 139A (see Folder 2). This is not necessary, as the 
heights are obtained from the sectional view, Fig. 139, as partly 
shown by the horizontal lines D, E, F, and C, in both Figs. 139 and 
139A. As the scale drawing calls for the cornice 3 ft. long, the half 
elevation is made 1 ft. 6 in. It should be understood that while 
the cornice will be 3 ft. long and 1 ft. 10J4 in. high, having 1 ft. 
3 in. projection, the work covers everything that might arise in 
a cornice of 20, 40 or 100 ft. long, more brackets and modillions 
being necessai^ only in a longer cornice. The next step is to 
reproduce in the front elevation similar molds as in the sectional 
view, a' and i/ being the centers for drawing the ogee and e' for 



104 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

the cove, making the distance from c* to d' 1 in., as in the scale 
or architect's drawing. The face of the bracket is drawn 3}/^ in. 
wide, and in drawing the foot mold, have the line &' 10 come 
in hne with the outside of the bracket, shown by the dotted line 
10 C Reproduce the profile of the foot mold from 2 to 11 in 
sectional view, as shown from 2 to 11 in the front elevation, and 
let the line 2 to C be horizontal as in the front elevation in 
Fig. 138. Complete the drop in the face of the bracket in the 
detail in Fig. I39A, in which full size measurements are shown, 
using a° b° and c" as centers. The face of the diamond panel 
is then drawn, shown by H', it being projected from the side 
view. H", Fig. 139, the miter lines being angles of 45 degrees. 

Refer to the scale drawing in Fig. 138 and note that the modil- 
lion sets over the center line and is 3 in. wide. Between the 
bracket and modillion, raised panels and dentils are placed. The 
measurements are carefully sealed and placed full size, as in the 
detail in Fig. 139A. The centers /' and g' arc for completing the 
coves in the bracket and modillion caps, and ft' and i' for com- 
pleting the curves in the raised i)anels. Complete the main 
panel by making the panel stile 1 in. This completes the detail 
of the ornamental cornice, which gives good, solid, practical 
study in cornice drafting. Should the student fail to master 
the first cornice drawing he must try another. When the cornice 
is completed in sheet metal, the student's initial and the date is 
placed in the panel, the date in the center and an initial on each 
side, using block letters. 

In order that the student may become proficient in drawing 
the letters and numerals used in sheet metal sign work a 
chart is reproduced in Fig. 140, from which various letters 
and numerals are drawn. Note that the rule employed in 
drawing these block letters is to divide the given height into 
five equal spaces and then construct squares whose sides equal 
one-fifth the width of the letter. Thus if a letter 15 in. high 
were desired, the squares would be one-fifth, or 3 in. This rule 
applies to letters and numerals, but differs slightly on some of 
the letters in the small alphr^bet. In the ornamental cornice the 
initial is to be 3 in. high and the date 2 in. high, and in drawing 
the detail in Fig. 139A note that the 3 in. in T. F. and the 2 in. 
in date sjnice have been divided into five equal parts, following the 
method given in Fig. 140. 

The next step in the work of the student is to develop the 
patterns, and in doing so he will begin at the top of the cornice 



106 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokkers 

in Fig. 139. The cornice will be joined in three parts, the joints 
at 28, 29 and at Q, as indicated in the sectional view. While 
the joints in this case are lapped and soldered, the various 
methods of making different seams and joints will be explained 
as the student proceeds. 

To obtain the patterns for the upper part of the cornice, its 
return, and the bracket and modillion caps, proceed as follows: 
Obtain the girth of the upper part of the cornice from 1 to 29, Fig. 
139, and place it on the hne A B, as shown in Fig, 141 (see 
Folder 2). From these points draw the usual measuring lines in 
definitely. As the one-half length of the cornice in Fig. 139A 
measures 1 ft. 6 in., make the distance from 3 to 3', Fig. 141, 
equal to 1 ft. 6 in,, so that the one-half pattern for front can be 
obtained. It is done in this case because the piece of cornice is 
to be but 3 ft. in length. When the cornice is longer, as is 
the case in practical building work, where one may be from 25 
lo a couple of hundred feet long, then a similar short piece con- 
taining the miter cut is developed, and used to mark out the 
miters on the full sheets, no matter what the length of the cornice 
may be. Thus it will be seen that the piece of miter which the 
student is about to develop will be the half pattern for the front, 
but can also be used for marking the miters in a longer cornice. 

Take the projection from T' to 3 in the sectional view, Fig. 
139, and place it from 3' to T, Fig. 141, and through T draw the 
vertical line C a. Measuring from the line T' 13, Fig. 139, take 
the projections to points 1 lo 13 in the profile and place them on 
similar numbered lines in Fig. 141, measuring from the line C a, 
and resulting in the miter from 1' to 13'. As the distance from 
c' to d" in the front elevation in Fig. I39A equals 1 in., set off 1 in, 
from a to 14'. Fig. 141. Take the projection of the cap mold 
in the sectional view in Fig, 139 from 14 to S' and place it from 
14' to S, Fig. 141, and extend a vertical line from S meeting 
line 29 at D. Measuring from the line S' 19 in Fig. 139, take 
the projections with the dividers or a strip of paper to points 
14 to 19 and place them on similar numbered lines in Fig. 141, 
measuring from the line S K. resulting in the miter cut 14' E, 
From F. to D remains a straight cut, as all the molding from 
points 19 to 29 butts against the outside of the bracket in the 
front elevation in Fig. I39A. In Fig. 141, 1 1' a E D 29 repre- 
sents the one-half pattern for the upper part of the cornice, to 
which laps are allowed as shown by the dotted lines. Transfer 
pattern to metal by reversing on dots 1 and 29. 



Making an Ornamental Cornice 107 

By referring to the sectional view in Fig. 139, it is found that 
the projection of the return is 1 ft. 3 in. Therefore measure 
I ft. 3 in. from the line 3' 4', Fig. 141, and draw the vertical 
line T" S, allowing a 1-in. lap below the line 13 13', which is 
the lap that turns under at c' rf' in the front elevation in Fig. 139A. 
Then T° S 13' 1', Fig. 141, minus the laps on the miter, is the 
pattern for the return of the crown mold, two of which are re- 
quired, the small dots indicating the bends. - 

The patterns for the caps for the bracket and modillion are 
the next work. For the patterns for the inside and outside caps 
for the bracket, take the distance in the sectional view in Fig. 139 
from M' to 19 and from M' to P* and place it in Fig. 141 from 
E to N and from E to P. From P draw the vertical line P R 
and from N trace the miter cut E 14', shown by N O, being care- 
ful that the distance from 14' to O is the same as E N. Then 
14' O N E is the inside return cap for the bracket and 14' R P E 
the outside return cap. 

As the face of the bracket is Syi in., as in the elevation in 
Fig. 139A, measure 3^ in. from E to K in Fig. 141, and trace the 
miter cut E 14', from K to L, being careful that when a vertical 
line is erected from K that the projection from J to L is similar 
to the projection S 14'. Then 14' L K E is the cap pattern for 
the front of the bracket. Measure the projection of the modil- 
lion in Fig. 139 from P' to 19 in the sectional view, and place 
it at E to M and from 14' to J. Fig. 141, and trace the miter 
cut J M similar to 14' E. Then 14' J M E is the pattern for 
the return cap of the modillion. As the face of the modillion 
is 3 in. wide, make the distance from E to F similar and draw 
the miter F H, being careful that the projection from G to H 
is similar to S 14'. No laps are allowed on these caps except 
along the tt^ and bottom, as shown by the dotted line. The 
number of pieces required are indicated above the patterns. And 
it will be seen that seven distinct patterns are shown on one 
sheet in Fig. 141. 

The student will next consider the patterns required for the 
face of the bracket. Referring to Fig. 139, lake the girth from 
M' in the sectional view along the outline of the bracket to the 
arrow point W, which is a trifle inside of K° and allows for a 
lap, and place it from M* to W^, Fig. 139A, making the face 
3J^ in. wide, which forms the patterns for the upper part of the 
bracket face. In similar manner on M' N', place the girth of 
the lower part of the bracket shown in sectional view in Fig. 139, 



108 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

from M to N', also making this face 3j^ in. wide, Fig, 139A, 
allowing a lap at the bottom. Two of each are required. The 
face for the drop in front elevation is pricked directly on to the 
metal from D' E' F', Fig. 139A, being careful not to prick 
through the points in the coves, but to use the centers a' b" and 
(7°, and then with the dividers describe the arcs. Two faces are 
required, as well as two disks marked A', which are stripped J4 i"- 
or as high as shown by Y in sectional view, Fig, 139. 

The pattern for the return on drop is obtained as follows: 
Divide one-half the face of the drop in elevation. Fig. 139A, as 
far as F^, from points 1 to 12, from which carry horizontal lines 
into the sectional view. Fig. 139 (as partly shown by lines drawn 
from points 2 and 10) until they intersect the profile of the 
bracket M O, as shown by similar numbers 1 to 12, and extend 
the lines until they intersect the vertical line M Z, dropped from 
M, thus making M Z O the side view of the return of the drop. 
Draw any line on any part of the sheet as K' L*, upon which 
place double the girth of the profile of the drop in elevation. Fig. 
139A, from 1 to 12 to 1 on K* U', Fig. 139. From these points 
at right angles to K' L" draw horizontal lines indefinitely. 
Measuring from the line M Z in the sectional view, take the 
various distances to jwints 1 12 on the curve M O and place 
them on similar numbered lines, measuring from the girth 
line K' L' in the pattern. " A line traced through these points 
will be the pattern for the return on drop, two of which are 
required. 

The pattern for the sink strip is shown by K" L* L' K' and 
is struck from the center J', and is a reproduction of K L L° K°, 
struck from center J. Eight of these sink strips will be required, 
four on each bracket, as shown by the shaded section D' E' in 
the elevation of the bracket, Fig. 139A. The pattern for the 
raised diamond shown by H' in elevation and by H" in sec- 
tional view, iMg. 139, is developed by taking the girth of 12 3 2 1 
in H" and placing it on any vertical line below the face of the 
diamond as G' H', Fig. 139A. from 1 to 3 to 1, through which 
horizontal lines are drawn and intersected by vertical lines 
(partly shown) dropped from the intersections 1 to 3 in H', 
these intersections being obtained from 1 to. 3 in H° in the sec- 
tional view. Fig. 139 {connecting lines not being shown). Trace 
a line through points thus obtained in the pattern. Fig. 139A, 
then J' is the pattern for the front of the diamond panel. From 
3" erect the vertical line 3° A^ and trace the miter cut 3° 2° 1 



Making an Ornamental Cornice 



109 



on the opposite side of 3° A^ as shown by 3° 2 1. Then 
1° 3° 1 is the pattern for the head of the panel, four heads and 
two fronts being required. 

The patterns for the inside and the outside of the bracket are 
pricked directly from the sectional view in the detail drawing. 




Fig. 139 being reproduced in Fig. 142, in which A B C D E F G 
is the pattern for the outside and AHJKDEFG for the 
inside, the dotted lines indicating where laps should be placed for 
soldering. The method of pricking off one pattern on the metal 
and using it for the two sides wiii be explained later, as well as 
cutting out the shaded indsed work. This completes the full set 
of patterns for the bracket. The pattern for the raised panel 



110 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



between the bracket and modillion m the elevation in Fig. 139a 
is obtained by adding the ^-in. projection in the sectional view. 
Fig. 139, and placing it at right angles to the top, side and bottom 
of panel shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 139A. Four of these 
will be required, stripping the curved parts with ^-in. strips. 
Two disks shown by i' will be needed, also stripped ^ in. For the 
pattern for the dentil O', Fig. 139, in sectional view, take a trac- 
ing of this side and place it at O*. At right angles to o d add the 
1-in. face in elevation. Fig. 139A, and trace O' in the position 
O', Fig. 139. Take the stretchout of o 6 c and d e and place it as 




PATTERN 

FOR MODILLION [ J 

SIDE 

Fig. 143. Pailern Side of Hodtlli 



shown by a b' c' and d c', which completes the pattern for the 
dentil, eight of which are required. 

The next work is to develop the pattern for the modillion face. 
This is obtained by taking the girth of the profile of the modil- 
lion in the sectional view in Fig. 139, from P' to R", and placing 
it on the line F^ R", making the face 3 in. wide. The side of 
the modillion is pricked directly to the metal from the detail 
section, a reproduction with the necessary laps being shown in 
Fig. 143. Note in pricking this pattern on to the metal the 
centers are only used as shown by the dots, using the dividers 
to complete the arcs. 

The pattern for the main panel in Fig. 139A is developed as 
follows : Find the center between 6 and 7 in the profile of the 
panel in Fig. 139 and draw a short line, as U' V*. Take the 
stretchout of the entire panel from 1 to 12, and place it upon 
any line, U V, Fig. 144. In this case the line U V is placed in 
a different diagram, but in actual work a sheet of paper is 
tacked to the right of tJie wall line in Fig. 139 and the pattern 



Making an Ornamental Cornice 



111 



developed with the T-square, instead of talcing measurements 
with the dividers as in this case. At right angles to U V, Fig. 
144, the usual measuring-lines are drawn indefinitely. Measur- 
ing from the line U' V' in Fig. 139, take the distances to points 
1 to 6 or 7 to 12 (only one side being necessary because U' V 
is the center line), and place them on one side of the line U V 
in Fig. 144, thus obtaining the miter in L M N O. Take the 



u 



^»R 



HALF PATTERN FOR PANEL 




half length of the panel from E' to E*, Fig. 139A, and place it, 
from L to R and O to P in Fig. 144, thus completing the half 
pattern of the panel, this half pattern being reversed on the dots 
R and P in transferring the pattern on the metal, and laps allowed 
on both sides of the miter cuts, as indicated by the dotted lines. 
While in this piece of cornice the half length of the panel can 
be obtained from the detail, this would not be so if a long cornice 
were constructed, as the length of the panels would have to be 
computed from measurements obtained from the building. How 
these measurements are figured will be explained in connection 
with another diagram. Whatever the length of the panel may 



il2 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

be a short miter cut, say, about 6 or 8 in. is usually developed 
as described in Fig. 144, and the panel made as long as desired. 
For the pattern for the panel head it is only necessary to trace 
the miter cut N O on the opposite side of the line U V, making 
the distance from 7 to N' the same as from 7 to N, because 
U V represents the center line shown in, the sectional view in 
Fig. 139 by U' V'. Then N O O' N', Fig. 144, is the pattern 
for the head, allowing a lap at 7, which sets under M N on the 
panel proper. 

The last pattern required for the cornice is that of the foot 
molding. Divide the profile into equal spaces, from 1 to 14 in 
the sectional view in Fig. 139. Obtain corresponding spaces in 
the front elevation. Then on any line, as A B in Fig. 145, place 
the stretchout of the profile 1 to 14 in sectional view in Fig. 139, 
as shown by similar numbers in Fig. 145. At right angles to 
A B draw measuring lines. Take the distance from &' to 
&^ in the front elevation in Fig. 139A and place it from 11 
to & in Fig. 145, and erect the vertical line & C. In actual 
work this would not be necessary, as the pattern could be 
developed with the T-square directly below the elevation in 
Fig. 139A, which has been omitted here for want of space. 
Measuring from line &* C in elevation take the projections 
to points 1 to 14 and place them on similar numbered lines 
to the left of the line & C in Fig 145, resulting in the miter 
cut & to 2'. Then 1 14 14° & 4° 2' will be the half pattern for 
the foot molding to be reversed on dots 1 and 14 when pricking 
on the sheet metal, laps to be allowed as shown by dotted lines. 
The pattern for the return is obtained by taking the projec- 
tion from 4 to 4''" in Fig. 139 and placing it from 4° to 4*^, Fig. 
145, and through 4^, drawing a vertical line down to line 12, 
meeting it at D, and upward as far as C, making the distance 
from 2' to C" equal to 2 C in elevation in Fig. 139A. Then 
C C 4° & D C, Fig. 145, will be the pattern for the return of 
the foot mold, two of which arc required. A notch is cut from 
u to & in lap 2' 2 so as to allow that part from C to C* to turn 
upward vertically under the panel of the cornice, and allow the 
shaded part from 2' to a to turn in a horizontal position to meet 
2' C of the return miter in Fig. 139A. 

This completes all the patterns for the cornice, and before 
giving the description of the constructive parts the reader is 
asked to examine carefully Fig. 146, which shows a photograph 
of the finished cornice which was made at the New York Trade 



Making an Ornamental Cornice 113 

School by a student. After a study of the finished cornice the 
student will have a better idea of the various parts to be formed 



and set together. Note the crown, the panel, the foot mold, the 

bracket with its diamond panel, sink strips, ornamental drop, etc. 

The patterns having all been developed are now pricked and 

cat from the metal in the usual manner, but special instruction 



Making an Ornamental Cornice 



115 



in this case, cut the outside pattern, and, using this as the pattern, 
cut two more. Cut along the molded outline shown from H to 
D, allowing laps as shown, and, using this as the pattern, cut 
one more. This method saves the trouble of pricking off two 
separate patterns. 

The cutting of the scroll shown by the shaded part can be 
done by using a hollow punch and shears or a small chisel on a 
block of lead. In the former case the proper size hollow punches 
are used for a and b, then the balance cut out with the hand 
shears. When the scroll is small it is hard to turn the shears 
and the chisel is used. Fig. 148, in which A represents a block of 
lead, B the chisel and C the hammer. When cutting the scroll 
the chisel is tilted at an angle, using only the corner, a, giving 
slight quick blows with the hammer and moving the chisel along 




the outline of the figure to be cut. If properly done an even cut 
should be the result, as shown from a to b, Fig. 149, and not 
uneven edges as at rf, which results from allowing the chisel to 
slip off the line and making a new cut. The cut should be even 
and continuous, starting from a to b. The student very often 
makes a mistake and holds the chisel as shown at D, Fig. 148, 
which results in an uneven or cornered cut, a b c d c f. Fig. 150. 
When cutting the initial T F and the date shown in Fig. 139A, 
a sufficient ntmiber of strips should be cut for stripping same 
equal to one-fifth the height of the letter or numeral, or as wide 
as the face of the letter, one-fifth of 5 in., or 3-5 in., for the 
letters, and one-fifth of 2 in., or 3-5 in., for the numerals. 

Having cut all the work and flattened the burrs, the various 
stays must then be cut ready for forming on the brake. Re- 
ferring to Fig. 139, the student will need a slay, or templet, 
from 3 to 11 in the sectional view for ihe ogee, 14 to 19 for the 



116 Home Instruction fok Sheet Metal Workers 

cap mold, 20 to 26 for the quarter round, 1 to 6 for the panel 
and 1 to 14 for the foot mold. The bracket, modilHon and dentil 
fronts are formed after their respective sides. The diamond 
panel on the face of the bracket is bent after the profile H° in 
Fig. 139, and the return for the drop on face of bracket is bent 
to correspond to the face F' in elevation, Fig. 139A. 

The various coves, quarter rounds, drip, etc., are formed as 
in preceding exercises, and it will be necessary to give atten- 
tion only to the forming of the ogee in the crown mold, also the 
panel and the return on the drop on the face of the bracket. 
When forming the ogee, start on either dot 4 or 10, as in Fig. 151, 
where a square bend has been made on dot 4, as shown by A 1. 
Place the proper size former, B, in position and press down A, 
as shown by C 4, or until C lies in a horizontal position, so that 
the mold will conform to the templet. Now loosen the former 
B and remove C 1 from the brake and reverse same, and make 



Fia. ISl. First Opeiition in FormiTig 0(ec. Fic. 1S2. Second DiKralion in Fonnini Oget. 

a square bend on dot 10, as A, Fig. 152. Place the former B 
again in position and press down A until it has the position 
shown by C. In pressing down A pressure must be exerted in 
the direction of the arrow a, so as not to get the upper cui:ve out 
of shape, for if the pressure were exerted at b the upper mold 
would be pressed out of shape and resuh in the shape shown 
by the doited line D when pressed down. Having the ogee true 
to the templet, the balance of the bends are made as described 
in previous exercises. 

The forming of the panel is shown in Figs. 153 to 156, inclusive 
When fomiing, tlic start can be made at eilhcr dots, 2. 5, 8 or 11, 
Fig. 144. Ill Fig, 153 the start lias l»ccn made by a square bend on 



Making an Ornamental Cornice 



117 



dot 2, shown by A 1. The proper size former is placed in position 
at B and A drawn over, shown by C, or until C is in a level posi- 
tion. The former is removed and the sheet reversed, as A in Fig. 
154, the brake closed on dot 5 and a square bend made, at B. The 




Fic IS]. FirM Openitian in Forniins Panel. Fic. I! 
PuicL 

balance of the square bends are now made until the bend 8, 
Fig. 155, is made. The sheet is then drawn out, the brake closed 
on dot 11, at A, and a square bend made, at B, which is repro- 
duced in Fig. 156. The proper former. E, is now put in position ; 
B is pressed down over 
K, completing panel C. 
The two heads (or the 
panel are formed in the 
same manner. 

When bending the 
return on drop, shown 
bj K- L^ I'ig. U9. 
bends at the prt>ijer angle 
are made on dots 8 and 
8 shown by B C, Fig. 
157, and placed over the 
proper size rod or pipe 
\ in the position shown 
and pressed down over 
the rod until it has the shape shown by D E. The pattern D E 
is then removed and, using one o( the iron formers from the 
brake, which can be fastened in a vise, D E is placed against tlie 
lower edge of the former. A, Fig. 158, and D turned over to F, or 
until dot touches former A at 5'. The opposite cove on E is bent 
in the same manner, placing b against Ihe former at c. 




Third Opcim 



118 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



The balance of the square bends are now made in the brake 
to conform with the face until the shape BCD, Fig. 159, is 
obtained. Bend 4, having been placed against the proper size 



v'-\ 




rod A, B is turned over in the direction of the arrow, 1°. The 
opposite side, D, is formed by placing 4° against the rod A at 4'. 
The flanges on the modilhon sides and insides of brackets are 




turned toward the outside, while the lap on the outside of the 
bracket, B C, Fig. 142, is turned toward the inside. 

Having all forming work completed, the small laps are turned 
with the flat pliers, and the soldering work begun. The scroll 
a b Fig 142 is first stripped on the inside with J-j-in. strips. 



Making an Ornamental Cornice 119 

soldering back the shaded part of the scroll on to the strips, thus 
sinking the scroll Yz in. 

Referring to the Antshed cornice, Fig. 146, it will be seen that 
the raised panels between the bracket and modillion, the dentils, 
the letters and numerals must be completed next, then the modil- 
lion, being careful to have the bends in the face run parallel to 
avoid the modillion becoming lopsided. The heads of the panel 
are soldered square in each end and the student's initial and date 
placed in it. The right angle returns are then soldered to the 
foot molding and the bracket and modillion caps set together. 
When setting together the bracket tack the joints only, and do 
no finished soldering until the bracket is true and plumb. Should 
the bracket be lopsided, it is easy to straighten it by opening a 
few tacks, whereas if all is soldered the entire bracket would 



Fict. 160-1. Diffrrent Mcthodi of Finithinf Ihe Curved Sink Snips. 

have to be taken apart. Therefore it is always best to tack the 
work first, then solder out when all is true. Tack first the upper 
and lower faces to the bracket sides, and after the return of the 
drop has been soldered to the face, tack on the drop; then tack 
in the curved sink strips, the diamond panel and molded cap. 

When the faces run parallel to each other and tlie sides are 
plumb, solder the entire joints. There are two ways to strip the 
curved sink strips, shown in Figs. 160 and 161, in which the 
letter s indicates the sink strips, and the measurements tlie sizes 
of the face strips. Thus in Fig. 160 there are three J^-in. and 
two 1-in. face strips, while in Fig. 161 there are three J^-in. and 
one 2j/i-in. face strips, in which the center rib A is soldered. 
Whichever method is used, the strips must be cut square at the 
ends, so as to insure a straight tine along the top and bottom 
of the finished curved sink. 

When all the various pieces are assembled the cornice is set 
together as follows: Set the planceer of the cornice upon the 
bench, as in Fig. 162, and solder on the return miter of the 



120 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

crown mold, B, Set in the bracket C as well as the modillion D, 
being careful to have all angles square. Turn the cornice over 
in the position A, Fig. 163, and join the foot mold B to the 
brackets and set in panel C. Solder all joints clean and smooth 
and avoid acid stains ; for while the galvanized iron cornices are 
usually painted, a little care will keep the work clean. The 
method of joining the iron lookouts is similar to that explained 
in the eighth exercise. When the entire cornice is completed, and 
the joints and miters scraped smooth, the piece of work will look 
as in Fig 146 




It I'utlLng Cornice To(«lh»r. 

When the cornice is constructed of copper or even of galvanized 
iron very little soldering need be done if tht cross joints 
in the moldings are first tacked and then riveted. This also 
applies to the brackets, modillions, panels, etc. The long joints 
or those running the length of the cornice can be locked as 
in Figs. 164 and 165, where the same profile of a cornice is 
shown, but with different joints at different places as will 
be noted by comparing the two figures. Rivets can be placed 
at intervals, as at a b, etc., to avoid slipping of (he lock. Care 
must be taken before tacking the locks to liave the proper dis- 
tances, as A and B, Fig. 164 or C, D and E, Fig. 165. 

CoMTUTING THE DIVISION IN CoRNICE WuKK. 

Some mechanics do not know how divisions between brackets, 
modillions, length of panels, molds, elc, are computed, when 



Making an Ornamental Coknice 



121 



cornices of long lengths are made, and to help them diagrams 
are given by the instructor similar to Fig. 166, showing how 
these shop sketches and measurements are laid out. It will be 
noticed that the outline of the cornice only is shown, being all 
that is required to locate the various sizes. These measurements 
are used in the shop by the cutter to lay out the various pieces 
and by the bench hand to mark off and locate the positions of 
the brackets, modillions and panels when setting the cornice 
together. Assume that a cornice on a building is to be 25 ft. 
long, with four windows across the front, the measurements 




having been obtained at the building'. Il will be n(iiii.eii that a 
bracket is on each end, and one over the center of eueli itier. 

The first step in getting the dtnicnsioiis fur llie coniice is to 
add together the widths of the piers and wiiulows. which in this 
case amount to 25 ft. As the three brackets arc to come over 
the center of the piers, add together the width of the end pier, 
the window and one-half of the next pier, ns 2 -[- i ~\- 1 h. 6 in. 
= 6 ft. 6 in. Then 1 ft. 6 in. + 3 + 1 ft. 6 in. ^ 6 ft. These 
measurements answer for the opposite side also. Prove these 
figures by adding 6 ft. 6 in. + 6 ft, + 6 ft. -f 6 ft. 6 in. — 25 ft. 
Now locate and mark ihe face of the bnickets and modillions by 
10 and 6 in. In this case it is assumed that the distance from 



122 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



the building line to the outside of the bracket is 10 in., and that 
the panel stile or the space between the panel and bracket is 
3 in. To obtain the length of the two end panels add the pro- 



Making ak Ornamental Cornice 123 

jection 10 in., the bracket 10 in. and one-half of the bracket 
setting over the pier A or C, which would be 5 in., or a total of 
25 in., or 2 ft. 1 in. Deduct this 2 ft. 1 in. from 6 ft. 6 in., which 
leaves 4 ft, 5 in., or the distance between the brackets. From 

4 ft. 5 in. deduct twice the width of the stile, or 6 in., which 
leaves 5 ft. 11 in. the length of the end panels. Add one-half of 
brackets A and B, which amounts to 10 in. and is deducted from 
6 ft., leaving 5 ft. 2 in., the distance between the brackets in the 
center. From this amount deduct 6 in., the width of two stiles, 
which leaves the length of the panel 4 ft. 8 in. Next deduct 
twice the projection from a to b, or 20 in., from 25 ft, leaving 
23 ft. 4 in., the length from outside to outside of bracket. Prove 
these measurements by adding 10 in. -|- 4 ft. 5 in. + 10 in. + 

5 ft. 2 in. + 10 in. -f 5 ft. 2 in. + 10 in. + 4 ft. 5 in. + 10 in. 
=: 23 ft. 4 in. To prove the lengths of the panels add together 

3 in. + 3 ft. II in. + 3 in. = 4 ft. 5 in., and 3 in. + 4 ft. 8 in. 
+ 3 in. = 5 ft. 2 in. 

To obtain the divisions between the modillions add together 
the two faces, which amount to 1 ft., deduct this from 4 ft. 
5 in., leaving 3 ft. 5 in. Divide this by 3 and each space will 
be 1 ft. IV, in. In a similar manner deduct 12 in. from 5 ft. 
2 in. and divide the remainder by 3, leaving each division 1 ft. 

4 2-3 in. The student is advised to make rough sketches having 
different measurements so as to become proficient in computing 
the various divisions and lengths. 



CHAPTER XVII 

Making a Square Turret 

This exercise is devoted to making a square turret of four 
gables joined together at right angles in plan. The blue print given 
to the student is drawn to a scale of 2 in. to the foot, which 
requires a 2-in. scale, and is reproduced in Fig, 167. As the 
scale rules seldom have a 2-in. scale one can be made by dividing 
a space of 2 in. into 12 equal parts, as explained in the first 
part of this book, or the 1-in. scale can be used by considering 
each 1 in. space as J^ in. and thus using it as a 2-in, scale; or, 
in other words, taking one-half of the measurements of a 1-in, 
scale for a 2-in. scale, as in Fig, 168, in which a full size 1-in. 
scale is shown, the upper measurements being the 1-in. scale and 
the lower figures the 2-in. scale. 

In Fig. 167 the front elevation and plan view is shown. As 
the angles in plan are right angles the plan can be omitted when 
drawing the detail. In the plan e shows the depth of the panel 
at c and d in elevation, as well as the projection of wash e'. 
Similar profiles arc R and R, and the various small letters and 
figures will be cxpUiined in connection with the detail. 

Using the 2-in. scale rule, the first step is to obtain the heights 
of ihc various numbers in the elevalion up to the apex of the 
panel face and place them in full size on the center line A B, 
as .shiiwn in \-'\^. 169 (sec Foliler ,1). Set off the half projection of 
the shaft, 4 in., and complete the outline of the base, using a as 
ccnliT 111 draw tlii' cove 11 16. Coin]ilele the opposite half and 
draw XW- ouiline A" 9' D 7' 7' 9 19. Draw the gothic panel, 
iisinj; fTin->i/c nicasiirenicnts obtained from the scale drawing 
and using c and i/ as centers and radius ecjual to C d to describe 
the arcs iiiUTscciiiig at c. In this panel face, the horizontal sec- 
lion 11 I J K L M, shows the panel sunk J4 in., as in plan in 
Fig. 167. This depth of y^ in. in Fig. 169 being known, a section 
of the lower part of tlie jjanel or wash is shown whose projec- 
tion will also he ]/• in. The gable mold is then drawn, by placing 
any line as V. F at right angles to 7' 7', upon which the heights 
XYi and 1 in. arc shown, through which lines are drawn parallel 
to 7" 7' indefinitely. Draw the normal profile of the gable mold, 
124 



Making a Square Turret 



125 



2: 



R, using h as center to 
describe the quarter 
round. Before the ele- 
vation of the gable 
mold can be completed 
it will be necessary to 
find the miter line, or 
line of intersection, be- 
tween the gables, as 
follows: Take a trac- 
ing of the normal pro- 
file R and place it in 
the position R', being 
careful to have the line 
F E in R placed on the 
shaft line F' £■. Di- 
vide both profiles into a 
similar number of parts 
and draw lines paral- 
lel to the lines of the 
molding from points in 
R, and vertical lines 
from points in R' until 
they intersect each 
other from 1' to T, 
which is the miter line. 
From the points in R, 
draw lines until the 
center line A B is in- 
tersected. Trace miter 
line on opposite side 
and extend 2° 1° and 
2' V until they meet 
the ridge line of the 
gables drawn through 
1" at O and P, which 
completes the elevation 
of the gable roof. 
While the full front 
elevation is shown, 
one-half is all that is 
required. 



FlO. 1«7. Pl«n ■»* Eltvmlion of Sauare Tur 



126 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers- 

The elevation having, been completed, the patterns are 
developed as follows: For the pattern for the base extend the 
center line A B as B C, upon which place the stretchout of the 
base mold spaced from 8 to 19 in S°, by similar numbers on B C, 
through which horizontal lines are drawn, and intersected by 
vertical lines dropped from similar points in S°, and resulting 
when a line is traced through points thus obtained in the miter 
cut Y Z, By means of the dividers or tracing paper transfer 
the miter Y Z opposite the center line B C, shown by Y' Z'. 
Then Y Z Z' Y' is the pattern for the base, to which laps are 
allowed, as on the left side. Of this pattern four duplicates are 
required in sheet metal. 



—WHEN USED FOR ONE INCH SCALE — 



to 






jiiii il ii l L 



— WHEN USED FOR TWO INCH SCALE— 



Fic. 168. Method uf Using I In, Scale for 2 In. Scili. 



For the pattern for the wash N, take the girth of h i j I (h i 
and y / representing laps) and place it at the right by h' i' j" t, 
and complete the rectangle ft' h° 1° V, making the length 5 in. or 
the width of the sunk panel, of which four pieces are also 
required. The pattern for the panel face forming the shaft is 
pricked direct from the detail, through points 9' D 7* 7' 9 for the 
outline, and through points c" b" d e c a° d° for the panel allow- 
ing a lap along D 9* and another partly shown at the botttMii by 
9* n. This edge 9' n is used to prevent any buckles, which 
would occur if the edge were omitted and the shaft soldered, 
as shown at the right in diagram B°. By having this small edge, 
8 9 in S°, buckles are avoided. In this connection it is proper 
to say that in all work where joints are to be made, as B", the 



Making a Square Turret 



127 



edge 8 9 in S°, should be added, for in soldering a raw edge as 
in B", the hot iron expands the metal, causing a succession of 
buckles, which make a bad and uneven surface. Four shaft or 
panel faces are required. 

At right angles to the gable mold, draw any line as T S, 
upon which place the girth of the normal profile R, shown 
by the small figures 1 to 7 on T S. Through these points 
at right angles to T S draw lines, which intersect by lines 
drawn from similar numbers in the miter line 1' 7' and 1* 
7' in elevation, at right angles to 7* 7'. Trace a line through 
points thus obtained; then P W U V will be the pattern for 
the gable mold. When these gables are of small size, the 
gable roof is usually added to the pattern, as in this case as fol- 
lows: At right angles to W U draw W X, equal in length 
to 1' P or 1" O in elevation, and draw a line from X to U in 
the pattern. Then P X V is the full pat- 
tern, four duplicates of which are required 
without laps and four with laps all around, 
as indicated by the dotted lines. This 
completes all the patterns required. 

The re<|uired number are now cut from 
metal. When cutting the panel or shaft 
face, all that part a" b° c" d" is cut away, 
and in its place will be soldered the wash 
h' h° 1° I' ; but that ])art forming the sink 
face of the panel, b° d e c a", must be 
saved, and, therefore, in cutting out this 
^'°.ii"s"^ft.;^V^"'" P3« <^ut as in Fig. 170, using the chisel 
on a block of lead to cut the slot abed, 
making the distance a b and c d about 4 in. Part a b c d \s now 
slightly raised, which allows the right and left handed shears to 
be used to cut to h, the left hand, shears from d to h and the 
right handed from a to A. 

The next step is to provide stays for forming. The stay for 
the gable mold is shown by R or R', Fig. 169, for the base mold 
from 10 to 17 in S". For the wash at the foot of the panel prick 
6ff on metal hi j I in N. The molds, being simple, no explana- 
tions are necessary for forming, which will be done as previously 
described. When forming work on which laps have been allowed 
on one side only, as in the pattern for the base, the pieces should 
be bent so that the laps all come to one side, A, Fig. 171, which 
brings the laps is their proper corners; whereas, if the pieces 




128 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



were bent right and left, as shown by B, there would be two raw 
edges and two double laps. 

After the forming has been completed the laps are bent at 
their proper angles with the pliers or on the hatchet stake, and 
the various parts of the turret put together as follows : Starting 
at the base solder together two sides so as to form a right angle, 
ABC, Fig. 172, and join the two angles at a and b. By having 
both angles ABC right angles, the two angles at a and b become 



T 

A B 



RIOHT WRONG RIGHT 

Ki,,. 171, 
171. RiKht anil Wr.inR Mclli..d .rf B*ndinB Lip». 




true without using the sijuare. This rule applies to any article 
having a square plan. A mistake often made by students is to 
solder together three sides, as D E F G, and set in the fourth 
side H, soldering at d and c. It is better practice to join as 
explained in the first diagram. 

The sink strip is now soldered to the gothic panel as in Fig. 
173, in which A shows the face and B the portion of the panel 




to be sunk. The proper width sink strip is shown by C, to which 
has been added an edge j, a little more than 1-16 in. wide. This 
small edge is turned to conform to the gothic curve without 
notching. These strips arc cut off the proper length, bent to 
the proper curve and soldered raw edge at c to face A, after 
which B is dropped on to the edge a and soldered from the inside. 
When soldering the wash at the bottom it should be soldered as 



Making an Ornamental Finial 





i rnoNT t 


ZVATKW i 










\^ 


K 










PLAN 

Flo. in. Phn ■ 



the Stem / m. The height of the center of the rosettes is shown 
at N and the sections are struck from o and r. 

All of these points will be described as the student proceeds 
with the shop detail. In drawing the shop detail, the base and 
one-half of its plan will be taken up first. Therefore, starting 
from the lower line in the base of the finial scale the various 



132 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

heights of the members iip to the center d of the sphere, and place 
them full size on the center line A B of Fig. 179, (see Folder 3). 
Through the various points on this center line draw horizontal 
lines. Scale the projections on one side of the center line in Fig. 
178 and place the full size measurements on hoth sides of the cen- 
ter line, as in Fig, 179, to the left of the center line. While the 
full elevation and half plan are shown, one-half elevation and one- 
quarter plan would ans wer the purpose. The small letters a", b', 
C and fi" are the centers for describing the curves and are similar 
to the letters in the scale drawing in Fig, 178, 

The outline of the elevation in Fig, 179 having been com- 
pleted, the next step is to draw the half plan, which must be 
carefully done, and that this may be more easily followed an 
enlargement twice the size of the quarter plan is given in the 
upper right hand corner. Below the elevation draw a horizontal 
line as O K, intersecting the center line previously drawn through 
the elevation at C. Then from the extreme point of the cap 
molding 5 in elevation drop a vertical line, intersecting M K 
in plan at G, With C as center and C G as radius describe the 
semicircle G H J, Then tangent to the circle at G and J draw 
vertical lines ; at R and R" draw lines at 45 degrees, and at H 
draw a horizontal line. Where these lines intersect connect 
lines, thus forming the semioctagon, and from 5 and 5° lines are 
drawn to the center C, which become the miter lines of the cap. 
Then from the extreme point in the base, as I in the elevation, 
draw the vertical line / K, extending it and making the distance 
K r in plan equal to one-half the width of the base in elevation, or 
6 in. From I' in plan draw miter line /' C, which will be an angle 
of 45 degrees. Complete the outline of plan K / L M, and from 
h in elevation, the point from which the transition takes place 
from square to octagonal, drop a vertical line cutting the 
miter line at h. From the point 12 in elevation, the end of the 
transition from square to octagonal, drop a vertical line cutting 
the miter line 5 C in plan at 12. From this point, at an angle 
of 45 degrees, or parallel to S 5°, draw a line meeting the miter 
line 5° C at 12*, the point just above 10" as in enlarged plan 
view, and from this point complete the semioctagon. From 
points 12 and 12* draw lines to the comer It. Then h 12 12» 
represents the plan of the gore piece forming the transition from 
the square base to the octagonal cap. 

Note that the one-quarter plan to the left indicates the plan 
of the finished base, while to the right are shown the miter lines 



Making an Ornamental Finial 133 

used in developing the patterns. The method of obtaining the 
miter lines in elevation will now be explained. While these miter 
lines are not necessary in obtaining the patterns, excepting the 
upper part of the cap, where the octagon shaft intersects the 
sphere, it is well to know how to project the various points from 
the plan should it be desirable to make a finished drawing. 

The student will first take up the cap. Divide the profile of 
the cap mold into equal spaces, shown by the small figures 1 to 12, 
from which points draw horizontal lines across the elevation. 
From similar points drop vertical lines into the plan, cutting the 
miter line 5 C at the intersections numbered 1 to 12, from which 
points, parallel to 5 5°, draw lines cutting the miter line S" C, 
the intersections being partly numbered on the miter line 5° C 
at 10, 11, 12 and 2 1 (enlarged plan view). From the intersection 
on 5° C vertical lines are erected into the elevation intersecting 
horizontal lines drawn from similar numbers in the profile 1 12 
and partly shown by points, 2°, 5^, 10°, 11°, 12°. Trace a line 
through points thus obtained and trace this miter line in its 
proper position opposite the center line 1" 12". 

It will now be necessary to find the intersections between the 
octagon shaft and sphere. Where the side of the shaft inter- 
sects the ball at D draw a horizontal line meeting the center line 
of the sphere at E. Then, using d* as center and d" E as radius, 
describe an arc, and intersect it by a vertical line erected from 
2°, as at 1°. Obtain 1* on the opposite side in a similar manner. 
From the points 1° and 1* draw horizontal hnes, intersecting the 
sides of the shaft at 1 and 1'. A free hand curve can be drawn 
from 1" to 1" and from 1° to 1, the curve not to go below the 
horizontal line drawn from D. To obtain the miter line in the 
elevation forming the transition from square to octagonal, divide 
the profile of the base from 12 to m into equal spaces, as shown 
by the small letters a to m. From the various points in the curve 
12 to A draw horizontal lines across the elevation, and drop verti- 
cal lines into the plan cutting the miter line of the gore h a in 
plan (see enlarged plan view), shown by similar letters. From 
these points parallel to 5 5°, or at an angle of 45 degrees, draw 
lines cutting the miter line It 12", partly shown by /" a 12. From 
the intersections on this line h 12" vertical lines are erected into 
the elevation, intersecting similar lettered horizontal lines drawn 
from points 12 to h in the profile, partly shown by the intersec- 
tions a', f and g". Trace a line through these points, which is 
then traced opposite the center line. This completes a carefully 



134 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokkess 

worked elevation and half plan, from which the patterns are 
obtained. 

In constructing the base of the finial a seam will be most con- 
venient at the angle 12 in elevation, as shown on the opposite side 
of the line A B. This allows the various parts to be formed with 
ease, and soldered together. To obtain the pattern for the base, 
obtain the girth of the profile 12 to m in elevation and place it on 
the center line O K in plan, extended as S P, shown by similar let- 
ters and figures. At right angles to S F and through the small 
letters draw lines, which intersect lines at right angles to K /* in 
plan from similar lettered intersections on the miter line a h 
and 1 f, better shown in enlarged plan view, those points on i f 
being used to obtain the square miter cut for that part of the 
base from m to A in elevation and those points on A a in plan for 
obtaining the miter cut to join with the gore, forming the tran- 
sition from square to octagonal. Trace a line throi^i points 
thus obtained. Then 12 A' m will be the half pattern. Trace 
this half by means of the dividers or tracing paper opposite the 
line K P, as shown by 12 A*, which completes the pattern for 
the base, four of which will be required. Laps are allowed from 
n to o. 

The pattern for the octagon cap is obtained by takit^ the girth 
from 1 to 12 in elevation and placing it on the center line S P 
from 1 to 12, through which horizontal lines are drawn, and 
intersected by lines drawn parallel to S P from similar numbered 
intersections on the miter line 5 C in plan. A line traced through 
these points will give the half pattern, 1 B' 5 12, which is traced 
opposite the center line B* r, A lap is allowed at r i for joining 
to 12 on the pattern for the base, and a curve must be cut from 
B' to B* on the pattern for the cap, to which the sphere is 
soldered. This is done by using d' 1" in elevation as radius, 
and with B' and B* in the pattern for cap as centers intersect 
arcs at d". Using d" as center, with the same radius, draw 
the arc B* B*. Eight of this pattern are required for the cap, 
no laps being allowed owing to the small bends; though, on a 
larger size finial laps are allowed. 

Before the pattern for the gore can be developed, it will be 
necessary to find the true profile on the line C ft in plan, which 
is at right angles to the lines of the gore. Therefore, where 
the lines drawn from the various intersections, 12, a, b, c, d, 
f, f> 9 and h, cross the center line C h, shown by the heavy 
dots, and to better advantage in the enlarged plan view, take 



Making an Ornamental Finial 135 

these divisions and place them on the horizontal line dots drawn 
from point h in elevation, as k T, and letter them as shown 
by 12, a, b, c, d, e, j, g and h', to correspond to those tn plan. 
At right angles to A T from the small letters erect vertical 
lines, and intersect them by horizontal lines drawn from simi- 
lar letters in the profile in elevation. A line traced through 
these points, from 12' to h', will be the desired section. Take 
the girth of this section and place it on any line, as U V, at 
the bottom to the right, using similar letters, being careful to 
measure each space separately, because they are all unequal. 
Through the letters, at right angles to U V, draw lines 
indefinitely. Measuring from the center line C A in plan, take 
the various distances to similar points on the miter line a h and 
place them on similar lettered lines, measuring in each instance 
on both sides of the line U V. A line traced 'through points 
thus obtained will be the desired pattern, and four of these gores 
will be required. This completes all the patterns required for the 
base, which are transferred and cut from the sheet metal in the 
usual manner. 

Templets will be required for forming, as follows : From 1 to 
12 in elevation, for the cap mold; 12 to m for the base mold, and 
\Z to h' in the true section, for the gore pieces. The cap mold 
is formed in the usual manner and requires no special mention, 
excepting that care should be taken to have the angles at the 
upper washes, 1 to 5 in elevation, true and accurate, so that 
true parallel lines will be the result when the cap is soldered 
together. In forming the gore care should be taken not to reverse 
the templets, but have the apex h of the pattern at h' on the 
templets. 

The forming of the base mold for the finial shown in detail 
from 12 to m in elevation in Fig. 179 requires special attention, 
and assistance will be found in Figs. 180 to 184. When forming 
start at dot t in the pattern for the base in Fig. 179 and 
make a square bend at i. Fig. 180. Place the proper former 
in position and turn down i / at f. Leaving /' in this position, 
raise the bending leaf B, Fig. 18L, until the angle V x h con- 
forms to the templet. Then reverse sheet A B, Fig. 182, and 
close the brake on dot h, making a bend at the proper angle 
in the direction of the arrow C. Again reverse the sheet A, 
Fig. 183. Qose the brake on dot / and make a square bend, 
as at B. This completes the forming of the lower mold except- 
ing the neck, which is rolled over a piece of pipe. Fig. 184, in 



136 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

which A represents a piece of steam pipe and B C the base 
just formed. The mold is held firmly at B and C turned over 
the proper size pipe in the direction shown, to D, which com- 
pletes the forming of the base X Y. 

before starting to set these pieces together an angle tem- 
plet is pricked from G 5 5° in plan in Fig. 179, shown by 
G in Fig. 185. This templet is used to insure true angles 




Fic ISD. Firil Operalioii, 

in setting together the cap and base. First tack the cap with 
solder in pairs, as at A. Then join tvyo pairs in one four, 
joining A' and A' at B. Next join two fours in one octagon, 
connecting B' and B' at C and C When the entire cap is 
tacked together, solder out. This rule of joining tt^elher 
applies to any polygon. The same method applies in joining 



->x 




the gore pieces of the neck, as in the top diagram of Fig, 186, 
in which B shows the gore piece tacked to the neck piece A, 
If the gore is tacked to the right of the neck, then all four gores 
must be tacked to the right, so that when joined together as in 
C, no misfit will result. In the diagram C, A and B represent 
the neck and gore pieces. Two sides, a b and b c, are joined at 
h, then c d and d a joined at d, after which a joint is made at 
c and a. 



Making am Ornamental Finial 



The sphere is obtained in two halves and the seam is joined 
as in Fig. IS^ These spheres are not made at the school nor 




can they be readily made by the home student, but are spun from 
zinc and purchased from dealers in pressed zinc work. A K'i'^- 
strip is tacked to the in- 
side of the half sphere 
A, at a, after which the 
other half, B, is slipped 
over the strip a and the 
joint soldered very 
lightly all around. The 
entire base is now joined 
as in Fig. 188, the ball 
being first joined at 6, 
and care should be taken 
that the seam t? / is in a 
horizontal position, af- 
ter which the cap is 
joined to the neck at a. 
bm*?"''' ' '"* When joining the cap to 
__ the neck care must be 

"p;v>uwwiik !B«i:' taken that the bend c 

runs parallel to the base at rf, for the cap has a tendency to turn 
and throw the bend c out of parallel to the bend d, indicated by 
the line a b. Fig. 189, which shows the appearance, in plan view, 
when the cap is not set parallel to the base. 




138 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workeis 

The base having been completed, the student will now lay out 
the shop detail of the upper part of the fini^. Referring 
to Fig. 178, in which the front elevation of the upper part of the 
finial is shown, note that a is the center of the sphere and that 
b, c, d indicate the points of intersection in mitering the square 
shaft t upon the ball, ae will be explained when laying out the 
full size detail. The center e is for drawing the curve on the 
base of the shaft, while k, a and p are the centers for drawii^ 
the profiles of the stem and rosettes. Points / and h are used 
in drawing the scroll. With the scale rule take the heights on 
the center line from the center a to t to m to n, and the various 
other ornaments, and place these measurements full size on the 
center line A B, as in Fig. 190 (see Folder 3). The point C on 
the line A B is established at pleasure, it being the center for de- 
scribing the sphere. At a distance of yi in. above the sphere the 
base line d d of the spire is drawn. From this line, d d, the verti- 
cal heights are placed, shown by full size measurements, throu^ 
which horizontal lines are <lrawn and upon which the horizontal 
distance from the drawing in Fig. 178 are placed as scaled. Put 
the horizontal distances full size on the working detail, as in 
Fig. 190. The intersection between the square shaft and sphere 
is obtained by drawing a vertical line downward from d indefin- 
itely, and where this line intersects the sphere at e, draw a hori- 
zontal line, cutting the center line at /. Using C as center and 
C f z& radius, describe the arc h f h', meeting the vertical lines 
dropped from points d and d at h and h'. This face, d, W h d, 
represents one side of the pattern. 

After the beight c c has been drawn place half thehorizontal 
distance of 13-16 in. each side of the center line, and measure 
from the center C a distance of 2 ft. 3j4 in., and at the top draw 
the 1-in. circle G. Place half the horizontal width 6, or J^ in., 
on each side of the center line and draw the shaft line 6 to c. 
From c, at right angles to 6 c, draw c b eijual to 2^ in., and, 
with b as center and 6 c as radius, draw the arc c d, meeting d. 
Next draw the bands D and E, also the sphere F. 

The intersections between the shaft and the spheres F and G 
are obtained in precisely tlie same manner as for the sphere C 
Extend the line d d, making the distance from the center line to i 
4J/S in. From i erect a vertical line, also 4>1 in. in length, shown 
by y, which is the center for describing the stem, and use a radius 
equal to 3^4 in. and make the stem J4 '"■ thick. Notice that the 
lower part of the stem meets a line drawn 3^ in. above c c, and 



Making an Ornamental Finial 139 

the center of the stem at its top meets the rosette at a distance 
of 2l4 in. from the center hne. Extend this 3j^-in. line to I 
another 2 in., and, using / as center, with / 17 as radius, describe 
the arc m tt, i% in, wide. The student is not to copy these meas- 
urements but should scale them from the drawing. From / 
measure back 1 in. and obtain V, which k the center for describ- 
ing the 1-in. ball, to which the top of the stem is joined. 

The front view of the rosette is obtained by using B" as center 
and B° A" as radius, or 1^ in., and describe the circle. Divide 
this circle into eight parts, or as many spaces as the rosette 
is to have petals, and draw the inner arc with a radius ^-in. 
smaller than the outer one. Where this inner arc cuts the eight 
radial lines use these intersections as centers and draw the eight 
small semicircles, which completes the face view. 

To obtain an accurate side view of the rosette, proceed as 
follows: Establish at will on the center line drawn through B°, 
between the inner and outer circles, any number of spaces, in 
this case two, and number these points 1, 2 and 3. From these 
intersections draw horizontal lines, cutting the profile of the 
rosette m n at 1, 2 and 3, from which points vertical lines are 
drawn, through the side view. Using B° as center, with radii 
equal to B" 3, 2 and 1, draw circles intersecting the eight petals, 
shown by the heavy dots and indicated on one |)etal by 1', 2f, 3' 
and 3". From these points horizontal lines are drawn, cutting 
similar numbered vertical lines in the side view, indicated by 
I*, 2°, 3° and 3". A line traced from 1° to 3" is the side view 
of the petal from 1' to 3" in the front. In this manner all of 
the intersections in the side view are obtained. 

The scroll over the band E is drawn as follows: From o, at 
an angle of 45 degrees, draw o p, 2'/i in. long, and at right angles 
to this line draw p r yi 'm. distant. Through r, parallel to o p, 
draw the line r s, and set off from r a distance of 1 in. to t. Use 
( as center and ( r as radius and describe the semicircle r x. 
Set off from xtou}^ in. and, with u as center and tt x as radius, 
draw the arc until it meets the arc drawn parallel and at a dis- 
tance of Yn in, from the arc r j: as shown at y- From ( draw a 
horizontal line, cutting the shaft at z and joining the scroll. Above 
this line draw a parallel line J4 in- distant. It is only necessary 
to draw one-half elevation, but in this case, to give practice for 
the student, the entire elevation should be drawn. 

The elevation having been completed, the patterns are next 
developed, the pattern for the shaft being taken up first. Divide 



140 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

the profile d c into equal parts, shown by 4 5. Upon any vertical 
line, as H C^ set off the girth of 6, 20, 16, 10, c, 5, 4, d and h tn 
elevation, shown by similar numbered and lettered points on H C, 
through which horizontal lines are drawn. Then, measuring 
from the center hne A B in elevation take the various projec- 
tions to 6, c 5, 4, d and h and place them on each side of the 
line H O on similar numbered or lettered lines shown on the pat- 
tern , to the right. Through these intersections trace a line, 6 
A" h", which will be the pattern for one side of the shaft, four 
of which will be required Laps tapering as at d are allowed on one 
side as shown by the dotted lines. The points 10*, 16" and 
20' are used to indicate where the bands D and E and the ball F in 
elevation are placed. To obtain the lower curve on the pattern 
for shaft K use A C in elevation as radius and with A°. and h° in 
the pattern as centers, draw arcs intersecting each other at C*. 
Using O as center, with the same radius, describe the arc h" h". 

The pattern for the band D in elevation is obtained by taking 
the girth of 7 8 9 10 and placing it on any line, as L M, shown 
by similar numbers, through which perpendiculars are drawn. 
Measure from the center line A B in elevation and take the 
horizontal projections to points 7, 8, 9 and 10 and place them 
on similar lines, measuring from and on each side of the line 
L M. A line traced through points thus obtained, N O P R, 
will be one side of the pattern. 

Between the spaces 7 8, 8 9 and 9 10 holes are punched, shown 
shaded, ihe one between 8 9 being used so that the ball A^ in 
ele\-ation can be soldered on the inside of the band, and the 
holes between 7 8 and 9 10 in the pattern are to allow the stem 
of the rosette to pass through the band. When laying out the 
pattern N O P R it is well to make the width from a^ to fe^ about 
1-16 in. more than called for from d^ to 9 in elevation, so as to 
allow the band to slip over the shaft down to 10, to overcome the 
additional thicknesses of the metal when joining the shaft 
together. Four of these patterns, N O P R, are joined together 
on the lines v w, w' i/ and v" w". Then /r ;" /" i" is the full pat- 
tern for the lower band D. 

The pattern for the upper hand E is obtained by taking the 
girth of 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 and placing it on the vertical 
line T S shown by similar numbers, through which horizontal 
lines are drawn. Measure from the center line A B in elevation 
^nd take off the various projections to 11 to 16 in the band E 
1 place them on similar numbered lines on each side of the 



Making an Ornamental Finial 141 

line T S, being careful to allow slightly in the width of the pat- 
tern for the band to slip over the shaft, down to point 16. When 
a line is traced through points thus obtained U V will be the 
desired pattern, four of which will be required. 

The pattern for the scroll is pricked direct from the elevation, 
shown by A° B° C D" E" F° ; 20 and 21 being used as centers. 
Eight of these patterns will be required. 

The pattern for the zinc stems are simply strips of zinc with 
a width equal to the circumference of a %-'m. circle and a length 
of 12 in. to allow a Brm hold at each end, so that the stem can 
be bent with ease. Four zinc strips will be required. 

The pattern for the raised rosette is obtained by taking the 
girth from 17 to 3 to 2-to 1 in the curve mi « in the side view of 
the rosette and placing it, from 17 to 3 to 2 to 1 on the line W X, 
Using 17 as center, with radii equal to 17 3, 17 2 and 17 I, draw 
circles. Through the center 17 draw the four diameters W X, 
a° b°, a' &' and a' &*, dividing the circles into eight equal spaces. 
Measure from the line A° B" in the elevation of the rosette 
and take the distances along the curves to the outline of one 
petal, as to 2^ and 3', and place the dimensions on similar num- 
bered circles in the pattern for the rosette, measuring on each 
side of the eight radial lines, and the result will be the shape 
indicated by one petal numbered 2" and 3". Four of these pat- 
terns will be required, through the center of which at J7 a hole 
will be punched with the hollow punch to allow the stem to pass 
through. 

After the required number are cut from sheet metal, tem- 
plets must be cut to insure the true formation of the various 
parts; the part shown hy c d b for forming the base of the 
shaft, the curve m n for raising the rosette and the templet 22, 
23, 24 for soldering the rosette to the stem at the proper angle. 
No stays are required for the bands D and E, because the bends 
are all square. When forming the shaft pattern J K a square 
bend is made along the lap line d" e", allowing the bend to pass 
through the lower part of the shaft at f". That portion i" to /' 
is (hen flattened and formed after the templet c d e m elevation. 
This allows a straight bend through the corner. 

The setting together of the finiat begins with the shaft, which 
is set together in two halves, A and B, Fig. 191. A and B are 
soldered together as shown by A' and B', the corner C being 
soldered and the comer a left open, which allows the shaft to 
be twisted in any direction. The base of the shaft is held firmly. 



142 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



and the apex turned until the sides run parallel to each other, as 
in diagram A, Fig. 192, when the corner a in Fig. 191 can be 
tacked and soldered. If care is not taken the shaft will have a 
tendency to twist, as in B, Fig. 192, in which a b does not run 
parallel to the base line. 

After the pattern for the lower band in Fig. 190 has been bent 
along the Hnes h" i" and /" ;'» at right angles, it will look as shown 
by A B, Fig. 193. The black circles, a, b and c represent the 
openings for the ^ ^ i 

stem to pass I I I T 

through and for I j 
soldering the ball. " 
While in this posi- F's "»!■ M'thod of ■ Fio. m s^int 
tion the 1-in. balls 

are soldered to the face of the band as in Fig. 194, in which A 
is the band and B the zinc ball laid against the punched hole c d 
and soldered from the inside, shown by the arrow. This method 
of soldering makes a neat appearance on the outside and avoids 
unsightly lumps of solder. The stem a b h shown passii^ 
through the upper and lower holes in the band. When these 
balls are soldered in position, it is only necessary to make the 



.u 



H'B 




corner bends with the hands, along the lines in Fig. 193 by d e, 
which will give the appearance shown by A, Fig. 195. Then all 
that remains to be soldered is the one corner a b. 

The raising of the rosette is briefly shown in Fig. 196, because 
this hand-hammer work will be taken up in detail when hammer 
work is reached in the course. A lead block is shown at A, 
which is hammered out lo the required profile by means of the 
raising hammer D. The blank B C is then laid over a and li^t 
blows struck with the raising hammer until the desired shape 
is obtained. Care must be taken not to strike the blows too hard 
at first, otherwise the metal has a tendency to overlap, shown 
by b c. The blows when struck lightly will cause the metal to 



Making an Ornamental Finial 



143 




form corrugations, indicated by d e f li t, and these are easily 
dressed out so as to have the smooth, round surface ; k I. 

The zinc stems are bent shghtly in the brake, then formed over 
an iron rod by means of the mallet on the square bead stake. 
When the stem has a true circle the seam is soldered, then dressed 
again to a true circle, if necessary. When a quantity of stems 
are to be made it is cheaper to purchase seamless brass or zinc 
tubing. As the stem used is but J4 in. in diameter it can be bent 
without filling, by simply heating the zinc slightly and having the 
proper size pii)e 
to fit curve, 
shown by A, Fig. 
197; the tube B 
C being held firm- 
ly at B , with 
gloves or pieces 
of rag to prevent 
burningtbe 
hands, the end C is turned slowly but firmly over the shape until 
the position D is reached. Note that the two ends B and D re- 
main straight, and for this reason 4 or even 8 in. are added to 
the girth of the length of the stem, as it is impossible to bend the 
curve to the ends. 

When bending the stem, the scam 
is placed on the outside of the curve, 
which allows the seam to stretch as 
it is bent. If the seam is placed on 
the inside it has a tendency to buckle. 
A mistake often made by the student 
when forming the stem is to grasp 
each end of the tube and give a quick 
turn. This usually results in a bent, tn- i"'?- iifinimu tu- 7,inc 
broken tube. The pressure must be 

inch by inch. When all the stems arc bent lay thcni upon the 
detail drawing and mark to proper size and cut off with a three- 
cornered file. On one end a I-in. ball is soldered and the other 
end is plugged up with paper and the end filled with solder and 
filed to a point or cone sha|)e. The paper plug is used to prevent 
the solder from falling inside the stem. 

The rosette is soldered in its proper position and the templet 
indicated by 22, 23, 24, Fig. 190, being used, care must be taken 
when the rosette is being soldered to the stem that the petals run 




144 IIoHE Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

in a vertical line, as in the front view of the rosette. The stems 
are now soldered to the band just completed in Fig, 195 at their 
proper distance, as in the elevation in Fig. 190. The band D is 
then slipped over the shaft pattern so that the bottom of the 
band meets the point marked 10". 

When the tubes or stems are larger than J4 '"■ i" diameter, 
plug up one end and fill with melted rosin or hot white sand. If 
a number of stems are required a templet could be made from 
wood or metal as in Fig. 198, in which A represents a piece of 
wood having a groove the size of the tube cut out at the end a b 
and throughout the curve and the desired profile of the stem 
cut AS c d. A band iron strap is screwed fast at one end of the 
templet as at e f. By inserting 
the plugged end of the tube, 
while still warm, under the strap 
as at B and turning slowly a 
large amount of labor can be 
saved. Remove the sand or Fic. i9e. Fio. 199. 

rosin from the stem, and cut it ^"'- ^^i; Jr^^^^n^uV^'^hV^ 
to the required length. s*"*"- 

The upper band E in Fig. 190 is next set together and slipped 
down on the shaft to point 16". The scrolls are stripped ^ in. 
in width, and one soldered on each side of the shaft. When 
the ball F is being soldered in position, the seam is placed verti- 
cally, shown by A B, Fig. 199, which allows the ball to be notched 
out before the seam is joined, until it slips down to point 20* on 
the shaft pattern, Fig. 190. The shaft is capped with the 1-in. 
ball G, completing the upper part of the finial. Then set it over 
-the 4-in. ball on the lower part of the finial and it will have the 
appearance shown in Fig. 177. Care must be taken that the 
lower part of the shaft runs parallel to the lower part of the base. 

When these finials are set up on the ridge of a roof or over 
a tower, provision must be made to withsLind wind and storm 
pressure. Probably the best, cheapest and quickest connection, 
whether the roof is constructed of wood or of iron framing, is 
to use heavy steam pipe as in Fig. 200, in which A B represents 
the ridge beam through which a hole is bored lo allow the pipe 
or rod C to enlcr. A thread is cut a few inches above the ridge 
beam as high as E and down to the end D. The nut is screwed 
in position a in F, and F set down on to the ridge beam until the 
nut rests on it at a\ The nut b is then fastened from below, 
which secures the pipe. The finial G II is set over the rod and 



Making an Ornamental Finial 145 

the open spaces at c and d covered with metal collars. In iron 




Fig. 200. Method 



frame construction this rod is made of angle or T iron, which 
answers the purpose just as well. 



148 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokkexs 

Make the distance from 1' to a ^ in., as in the scale drawing, 
and complete the square 1' a 4' b. Using a as center, draw the 
quarter circle 1' 4' and, using b as center, draw the arc 4' c and 
intersect it at c by a line drawn from b at an angle of 45 degrees. 
Extend line 1' b until the arc is intersected at d. Bisect c d and 
obtain 7'. In a similar manner draw the opposite side shown by 
a' b' c' d'. Then using d and d' as centers, with a radius equal 
to d 7", draw arcs intersecting each other at 12', which completes 
the leaf. In practice the three leaves shown need not be drawn, 
as one answers the purpose for all. 

The ring is represented by the section F taken on the radial 
line y H. As a rule, most students make a mistake when drawing 
this section. To avoid this an explanation is given of how sec- 
tions are drawn when the elevation shows curved lines and 
whether the section is square, rectangular, molded or otherwise. 
Always draw the radial line as H ; first, at right angles to which 
draw i m and ;' n equal to the required depth or 1 in. Then 
join m n and » ;'; F is then the required section. The rule to 
remember is, that all lines in the section must be drawn at right 
angles to the radial line j H. This completes the drawing of the 
front elevation. 

No side elevation or plan of the cross is required, for section 
E shows that the side width of the cross is Ij^ in. or J4 in. less 
than the face and that the pattern for the sides of the base will 
be J4 in. less than the front. 

The student is now ready to develop the patterns and will 
take up the pattern for the base first. Divide the profile of the 
base from 1 to 17 into equal parts, and take this girth and place 
it below tlie elevation on the center line A B shown by similar 
numbers. Through these points, at right angles to A B, lines 
are drawn and intersected by vertical lines from the various 
intersections in the profile in elevation, partly shown by the inter- 
sections on the lines 1. 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. A line 
traced through points thus obtained, shown by L M, will be the 
miter cut. Measuring from the center line, transfer the various 
intersections on L M to the left of the center line, N O, using 
the dividers or tracing paper. Then L M N O will be the pat- 
tern for the front and back of the base. The pattern for the 
sides is obtained by taking the difference between the side and 
front in section E or yi in., and setting it off on the horizontal 
lines in the pattern, indicated by J K, and obtaining the miter 
cuts shown by the doited line L° M°. Laps are allowed on both 



Making a Paneled Cross 149 

cuts of the front and back pieces, but not on the side pieces. 
Two of each are to be cut. 

When making the section E, a seam is made at 18 and 24, 
which allows the parts to be bent with ease and takes out the 
twist when soldering them together. Therefore number the 
comers in E, from 18 to 24 being one-half, and place this girth 
on any horizontal line as P R, shown by similar figures. At 
right angles to P R draw the usual measuring lines through the 
small figures, intersected by lines drawn parallel to P R from 
similar numbered intersections on the miter lines 19* H and H 24' 
in elevation. 

After the points 21" and 22* in the pattern have been obtained 
draw lines from these two points at angles of 45 degrees, thus ob- 
taining point H' corresponding to H in front elevation. As the 
cross is to extend into the base as far as C D, then from these 
points draw a line parallel to P R into the pattern, thus establish- 
ing S T. Then S T V H' U will be the pattern for the long arm 
of the cross, of which two are required, with a lap along S U 
and U H' V. 

As the three upper arms are equal, as indicated by H" in 
elevation, take this distance and set it off in the pattern, X', and 
draw a line parallel to P R, shown by W X. Then W X V H' U 
will be the pattern (or the short arms, six of which will be 
required, with a lap on all six from W to U, and a lap on two only 
from U to V, the other four receiving no lap on cut U V. The 
line carried across from S" in elevation, shown by the dots / 
and s", indicate the position for soldering the outer curve of the 
ring. 

The pattern for the gothic leaf is pricked direct from the 
detail and is indicated by A" B° C D" E° F° G" H" J" K", 
care being taken to use the various heavy dots as centers to 
describe the arcs. Six of these leaves will be required stripped 
from A° to H" to E° with a strip 1^ in. wide as in section E. 
The girth of this strip is obtained, from the gothic leaf to the 
right, one-half of which has been spaced from 1' to 12' and 
double the number of these spaces, placed on the vertical line 
S* T*. From S' and T' a rectangle is drawn V/z in. wide which 
completes the pattern for strip around the gothic leaf, three of 
which are required. The heavy lines in the pattern indicate the 
bends. The semicircle on the pothic leaf B" C D° will be 
stripped J4 in- as in section E, showing the depth of the panel. 

The pattern for the ring is obtained by pricking through 



ISO Home Instruction for Sheet Metal WoRKEits 

the four heavy dots in the lower left quarter ring in elevation, 
using H as center for describing the arcs. Eight of these arcs 
are required, stripped I in. wide, as indicated in section F. 

The pattern for the panel head forming a finish where the 
cross joins the base is obtained by transferring r ; ( u in eleva- 
tion to a convenient place shown by / / ** «', and parallel to and 
at right angles to s' ^, adding J4 i"- or the depth of the panel in 
section E. A small lap is allowed along r" «' for soldering pur- 
poses. Two of these heads are needed. 

The pattern for inside head through 6 6° in elevation, to which 
the bottom end of the cross is fastened to keep it rigid, is shown 
by ffi 6* 6' 6", being rectangular in shape, (fi 6" and 6* 6' being 
equal to & 6" and 6p 6' in the pattern for base. 

The pattern for opening in E° is a reproduction of section E in 
elevation, but slightly enlarged in E", to allow the cross to pass 
easily, care being taken to have E" at equal distance all around 
as indicated by a*. Only one head is required. 

All the patterns being developed the various pieces are cut 
from sheet metal in the usual manner, care being taken when 
cutting the rings to cut the inner curve first and flatten before 
cutting the outer curve so as to avoid stretching, as explained 
in cutting the sink strips in the ornamental cornice in Fig. 147. 
The opening E'^ in the pattern for the head in Fig. 202 is cut 
out on the lead block, using a hammer and sharp chisel. All the 
work being cut and the burrs flattened out on the square-head 
stake with the mallet, everything is ready for the various parts 
to be bent. 

A templet will be required from 1 to 14 in elevation for form- 
ing the base, and the pattern for the gothic leaf can be used as 
a templet for forming the strip. Bend each piece accurately to 
avoid trouble when assembling the work. It is better to spend a 
httle more time in forming and save three or four times as much 
time in setting the work together. Even if the patterns are 
accurate, if the forming is not done accurately the workman will, 
in setting the joint together, press, push and hammer, trying to 
make a neat miter, which cannot be done, because each piece has 
a different profile on account of the templet or the profile not 
having been followed. Even in the larger shops many a work- 
man has been dismissed for being too slow in setting the work 
together, and it has been found later that the fault was not his, 
but was really in foriuing, which did not correspond to the tem- 
plets, and therefore ihe niiiers (ailed lo join proiwrly. 



Making a Paneled Cross 



151 



No special mention is necessary for forming the parts of the 
cross except to say that care should be taken when bending the 
cross standard shown in section E. While these square bends 
look simple, a slight bend more or less than a right angle will 
cause a twist in the cross. When bending on the brake, each 




,C^' 



bend must be exactly at a right angle and not as shown by A and 
B, Fig. 203. Some students make this mistake and only meas- 
ure the face width, which, as will be seen in diagram A, can be 
made to measure the required width or 2 in. and still have no 
right angles. 

3 ^ 



'^ t 



B 



a'! ilh B > 



When soldering the work together, strip the gothic leaves, 
being careful to have the bends run parallel to each other so 
as to avoid any twist. Strip the arcs for the ring and set together 
the arm of the cross as in A, Fig. 204, being careful when 
tacking tt^ther at a and b that the bends c d and c / in diagram 
B ran parallel to each other, otherwise a twisl will resull. The 
gothic leaf A is then soldered to the ami I'., Fig. 205. on the 
joint line a b, care being taken to soak the solder well into the 



152 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

joint, so that it can be scraped smooth, to give the appearant^ of 
being pressed from one piece of metal. 

The base is put together in two halves and in all rectangular 
forms the wide side a and narrow side b. Fig. 206, are joined at 
A and B, then soldered together at opposite, comers. A mistake 
is often made by joining the wide sides a' and a' in C and the 
narrow sides b' and b' in D, the workman being none the wiser 
until he tries to join the two halves and finds the corners or miters 
do not meet as in F. A little forethought will avoid unnecessary 
labor and time, as the comers must be taken apart and cleaned 
of surplus solder, and an opened joint never makes as neat an 
appearance as a new one. 

The various parts are now assembled as in Fig. 207. The 
arms A and B are joined together square and the arc C soldered 
in position on the dots j' and s" in tlie pattern. Fig, 202. In a 




similar manner the arms D and E, Fig. 207, are joined and the 
arc F soldered in position. These two halves are laid on a flat 
bench or level board and soldered along the miter Hne H J. The 
arcs M and L are then placed in position. In the base N the 
head O P is soldered as shown in diagram Y°, Fig. 202. A* A' 
represents part of the base, in which the pattern for head E° is 
tacked as shown by B* B'. The cross Y° is then slipped 
into the base A' as far as Z° or abount '/a in. below the head B', 
and a slight tack made to prevent the cross from sliding any far- 
ther when the base is set down. When the base is set oo a level 



Making a Paneled Cross 153 

surface, and the cross is plumb when viewed from both sides or 
when squared, Fig. 208, a tack is made at a^ in diagram Y°, in 
Fig. 202. The joints are soldered tight along a^, a" and op, after 



Pig. Z09. Paneled Cto»». 

which the panel head R, Fig. 207, is soldered in place, which 
completes the cross. 

All joints should be scraped smooth and sandpapered, when 
the cross will appear as in Fig. 209. When fastening the cross 
to the spire or ridge of a roof the method is similar to that 
explained in fastening the ornamental (inial in Fig. 200. 



CHAPTER XX 

Scale and Detail Drawings for Making a Pediment on a Wash 

The thirteenth exercise, known as the pediment on a wash, 
is presented in a 2-in. scale drawing in Fig. 210. If the student 
will turn back to the exercise on the Ornamental Window Cap, 
he will Bnd that the pattern for a pediment was developed, the 
tower part of which was mitered with a horizontal molding, and 
- the roof was on a horizontal plane. In this case the lower part 
of the pediment miters with a horizontal molding the roof of 
which is inclined or has what is known as a "wash" — that is, an 
inclined plane to shed water, A", Fig. 210. This allows rain 
or snow to drip off, while if the wash were omitted and a hori- 
zontal surface were put in its place some of the water is likely 
to remain, causing the galvanized iron to rust. A wash is only 
placed where the depth of the pediment mold has great projec- 
tion. 

This 2-in. scale drawing contains the front elevation, showing 
the profile A in the pediment mold, and the side elevation in 
which the profile A is presented. The center points for describ- 
ing the quarter rounds arc indicated in a and b, while the method 
of obtaining the miter line 1° 6° in elevation between the pedi- 
ment mold and the wash is shown by similar figures, and will be 
explained in the detail drawing. The scale drawing shows the 
full profile of the pediment mold mitering on the wash. 

In some cases only part of the profile of the mold miters on 
the wash, as in Fig. 211, where only that part of the pediment 
mold marked A miters with the wash at a' b". The wash is indi- 
cated by a d and the profile of the pediment mold by B. The pro- 
jection from c to d must be equal to the projection from c' to (T 
in B. 

Take the measurements from drawing Fig. 210 and pbce them 
on a vertical line, as A B, Fig. 212 (sec Folder 4) which is 
one-quarter full size, it should lie understood that the student is to 
make his drawing and work full size. At right angles to A B 
draw the line J C equal to one-half size, or 14 in., as only one- 
half elevation will be required. Place the heights of the hori- 
zontal molding, including, the height to the top of the pediment 
154 



Pediment on a Wash 



Fig. 210, on the detail in Fig. 212 on the center line 
B. Thus the total height of the horizontal mold to the top 




the wash from J to H is 4j^ in., while the height from H lo 
e apex of the pediment E is 8 in., making a total of 12j4 m 



156 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

From C in the front elevation erect a line to the fourth line or 
bottom of the wash and draw the slant line D E, which gives the 
pitch or rake of the pediment. This pitch or rake can be further 
proved by using 1°, Fig, 210, as center and drawing the arc B C. 
Using this same radius with D, Fig, 212, as center, draw the arc 
B' C, and if the angle is true the distance from B* to C* must 
equal that from B to C, Fig. 210. 

Draw the profile F' betow and at right angles to E D, Fig. 212, 
by placing the heights of the various members of the pediment 
mold at points ^, 1 and 1J4 in. below the line, through which 
draw lines indefinitely. First draw the line 6 9 at right angles to 
the pediment mold, setting off the 2-in. projection b 1, the J^-in. 
member, the 1-in. radius, with o" as center for the quarter round, 
and again the J^-in. projection. The shaded section then repre- 



sents the true profile, an edge b a being turned toward the inside. 
Divide the quarter round in F' into equal spaces from 3 to 7, 
through which lines are drawn indefinitely, parallel to the lines 
of the molding, cutting the center line A B. 

At the right draw the side elevation, showing the profile of 
the horizontal molding, the extreme projection of which at the 
bottom is 3j^ in., h to g Yx in. and the quarter round g c struck 
with a 1-in. radius from the center a°, leaving the distance 2* L 
equal to 2 in. or the extreme projection of the profile F^ in front 
elevation. From 2' and L in the side elevation erect vertical lines, 
and intersect them by a horizontal line from the apex of the 
pediment, tlms completing the side elevation of the top of the 
pediment mold. 

From 2' in the side elevation draw the line of the wash at an 
angle of 45 degrees, as in scale drawing, shown by 2' 9*. Take 
a tracing of the profile F', with its various intersections in the 



Pediment on a Wash 157 

front elevation, and place it at F in the side elevation, it being 
inunaterial at what point it may be placed, so long as L 2 in F 
faces the outside line. 

From the various intersections in F vertical lines are drawn, 
intersecting the wash line 2' y, shown by similar figures. From 
these figures 1' to 9' on the line of the wash, horizontal lines are 
carried in the front elevation, intersecting similar numbered lines 
previously drawn through points in the profile F' parallel to E D 
at 1", 2", 3*, 4* to 9". A line traced through these points will be 
the miter line or intersection between the wash and pediment 
molding. 

The elevations being completed, the pattern for the pediment 
molding will be developed first. Therefore, at right angles to 
E D, draw the line F G, upon which place the girth of either 
the profile F in the side elevation or the profile F' in the front 
elevation, shown by similar letters and figures on F G. Through 
these small figures at right angles to F G draw the usual measur- 
ing lines, intersected by lines drawn at right angles to E D from 
similar numbered intersections on the miter line 1" 9* at the 
bottom, and from similar numbered intersections on the center 
line A B at the top, shown in the pattern by dotted lines. A line 
traced through the points N 9* 9" W; will be the pattern desired. 

If the pediment is of such size that the triangular piece H 9* 9 
in the front elevation can be added to it, then use as radii 9' H 
and 9 H, and 9* and 9" in the pattern as centers, draw arcs cut- 
ting each other at H'. Draw lines from 9* to H' to 9", which 
completes the pattern, two of which pieces are to be cut without 
laps along the bottom, but with laps along the top cut, as shown, 
on one piece only. 

If the pediment is of such size that the triangular piece 9' H' 9" 
can not be added or the width of the metal sheet or length of 
the mold will not allow it, a lap would be added to the mold 
pattern from O to P and the triangular piece joined to it. 

The next pattern to be obtained from the drawing is the pat- 
tern for the horizontal molding, with the miter cut in the wash 
to admit the joining of the lower part of the pediment mold, 
and is accomplished as follows : 

Allow the metal to turn under, in the side elevation, as much 
as is shown by i j, and allow a lap from 9' to x to admit the 
joining of the lower part of the triangular piece along the line 
H 9* in front elevation. Take the girth of x 9', also the various 
intersections on the wash line 9' 1', and to c d e. etc., to ; in the 



r.l. ar:d 



:"i ;\ v.r.x-". on 
;-. :•.■.-:..'. w.i u-ni- 
; :ht :-r:ike. The 
: -:■- :r.c puliiiitnt 
., .-.her ki":. aiiJ 

:■ - foriiiint: the 
■>:-.rj for inniiitig 

i; •.ogcthcr a> in 
■'.iTOil to iht ends 
:;;il ihev arc pcr- 
;i ilie laps on the 
The two pieces 



158 HoM£ Instruction for Sheet Metal Workeks 

side elevation, and place this girth, shown by similar letters and 
figures, on the center line A B. At right angles to A B through 
these small figures draw the measuring lines, intersected by lines 
drawn parallel to the center line A B from similar numbered 
intersections in the miter line 1' to 9" in the front elevation, 
shown by points of intersections in the pattern from 1° to 9°. 

As C 1* in the front elevation is a vertical line and represents 
a flat head, then all the divisions from 2' to j in the side eleva- 
tion, which cut this line C I* are transferred to the line A B, 
from 2' to ;, will be intersected by the line 1* C extended in the 
pattern, as 1° j". A line traced through points thus obtained, 
X x" V ;" ;', will be the half pattern for the horizontal mold 
with wash attached, and when traced on the metal will be turned 
over on the dots x and ; on the center line. Laps are allowed 
as on the miter cut x" 1°. 

When a pediment joins a wash and the material used is galvan- 
ized iron, the miter cut from 1° to ;r° need not be cut in the pat- 
tern, it only being necessary to make a square cut from x' to 
U to 1°, thus allowing the wash to run through to D, Fig. 211, 
because the labor required to cut the miter 1° to x". Fig. 212, is 
worth more than the piece of galvanized iron which could be 
saved. But if the material is of copper it pays to cut the miter 
x" to 1°, as the copper saved can be used for other small work. 
The miter line, however, should be marked on the galvanized 
iron to assist in joining the pediment to the wash. 

The pattern T is for the head on the end of the horizontal 
molding, two of which are required, with laps all around, and 
is a reproduction of similar figures and letters in the side 
elevation. 

This completes all the patterns required for the pediment on 
a wash. The patterns are now cut from the sheet metal and tem- 
plets obtained for forming the various pieces in the brake. The 
true profile F or F' is used as a templet to form the pediment 
molding, one of which is formed right and the other left, and 
the pattern for the head is used as a templet for forming thtf 
horizontal molding. Xo explanations are necessary for forming 
these moldings, as they are similar to previous work. 

The pieces having been formed they are set together as in 
Fig. 213. The flat heads A and B arc first soldered to the ends 
of the horizontal molding, care being taken that they are per- 
fectly square. Use the flat pliers and turn up the laps on the 
miter cut in the wash from a to b and c to d. The two pieces 



162 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



as at F, it can be formed in the shop and sent to the building 
complete, where the carpenter must cut a groove in the bottom 
of the sill, J, which sets over the edge F, thus insuring a tight 
joint and avoiding any nailing at the back of the wooden sill. 
In this connection the students at the New York Trade School are 
told what joint to avoid, one being shown in diagram H. 

Sometimes a joint is made in this manner, the flange being 




I. 217.8. Dciai 



nailed against the front edge of the wooden sill at d, which not 
only causes a leak, but allows the water to get on the inside and 
rust the metal. 

Having the various methods of joining in mind, the student 
can proceed intelligently with the detail. Measuring from the 
hne E D in the scale drawing, Fig. 215, obtain the projection at 
the top from E to the roof line, and it will be found to measure 
8 in. This 8 in. is set of! on the detail in Fig. 216, measuring 
to the right of ihe line E D, and a line drawn from F to D, 
which gives the pilch of the roof line. It is seldom that the 
accurate pitch of the roof can be scaled from the blue print, it 
being usual to obtain the bevel direct from the rafters on the 



Constructing a Dormer Window 163 

building before the detail is completed. For this reason the 
student is instructed how to obtain these bevels at the building, 
and three methods are shown in Fig. 218, and the pitch of the 
rafter by R. S. 

One method of obtaining the pitch is to use a bevel. A, which 
can be obtained in any hardware store or made with two strips 
of metal riveted at one end. One leg of the bevel is placed on 
the line of the rafter A B, and the other raised to a horizontal 
or level position — a small spirit level a being used to prove it. 
When the spirit level a shows the arm or upper leg to be level, 
the distance between the inner corners of the bevel b is noted, 
the bevel closed and opened again to the measured distance 
when the pitch is put on the drawing. If no bevel is at 
hand the carpenter's square C can be used, by placing it firmly 
against the side of the rafter, D E, and making the upper arm 
level, by the spirit level d, noting the distance on each arm as at 
D and E. 

When neither bevels nor square are handy an ordinary 2-ft. 
rule can be used in the same manner as the bevel A, shown by 
F. In this case F e of the rule is raised until level, as proved by 
the spirit level e, after which the distance h is noted. 

The student, having learned how to obtain the bevel at the 
building by either one of the methods explained in the foregoing, 
and knowing the location of the point D in the detail draw- 
ing. Fig. 216, the outside of the lower leg of the bevel is placed 
against D, shown by Y* U*, and the upper leg raised to its proper 
distance as before noted, so that the upper leg will form a right 
angle with the vertical line D E, shown by Y' U* X*, when the 
roof line D F is drawn by extending the outside line of the bevel 
Y' U*. If the bevel is to be placed with the steel square, then 
place the proper point of the square on D of the detail, shown 
by the annexed diagram D*, and have the short arm D' D' at right 
angles to the vertical line D E, when the proper pilch of the 
roof can be obtained by drawing a line from D" through the 
point D" on the short arm, as indicated by D' D". 

The proper bevel of the roof having been obtained, indicated 
by D F, by either scaling the measurements or obtaining the bevel 
at the building, the drawing of the detail of the one-half front 
elevation is now in order. Measuring with the 2-in. scale rule 
from the center line in the front elevation in Fig. 215, obtain the 
distances of the various members in the crown mold, mullion and 
sill mold, and place them full size, in the detail drawing in Fig, 



164 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

216, shown by lull size measurements. The half projection at 
the top is 10^ in. ; the half window opening, 4^ in., and the 
mullion members 1, 2 and '/i in. 

The profile of the crown mold at the top is similar to the profile 
in the side elevation, a being the center from which the quarter 
round 4' 8' is struck. 

The half projection of the sill mold is 8j4 in., b being the cen- 
ter from which the cove 4 7' is struck. 

After locating the points c and d, the <^ee is struck as fol- 
lows : Draw a line from c to d, bisect and obtain e.- Using c and 
d as centers and c e ar d e as radius, describe the arcs e / and 
f h. With e as center and ^ d or e c as radius, describe an arc, 
cutting the arcs previously drawn at / and h. Using the same 
radius, with / and h as centers, draw the arcs c e and e d, com- 
pleting the ogee. The center i is for drawing half the semicircle. 

In any part of the front elevation, draw the section of the 
mullion X obtaining the projections 1 in. and \% in. from the 
side elevation in Fig. 215. Take a tracing of section X, Fig. 216, 
and place it in its proper position anywhere upon the line ex- 
leiulfd through 12 13 in the crown mold in the detailed side ele- 
vation, as X°, and through the comers 7, 6, 4 draw vertical lines 
cutting the crown mold al the top and the wash of the sill at the 
bottom. Where these lines cul the sill line at 7°° 6"" and 4"* lines 
are projected into the front elevation intersecting' similar num- 
bered lines in the mullion drawn from the section X, one point 
being 6'. Draw the side view of the base of the mullion, s t uH 
ill the side elevation, and project this to the front elevation, H', 
obtaining the nieasurenienis from the scale drawing. In a similar 
iiiainuT )ilacc the heights of the mullion cap in the front elevation 
in ihc detail, 1. Ij^ and Ij/. in., and project these into the side 
clcvntioii, the full size projections being there noted ; n being the 
eenler ])oint for drawing the cove. The center o is for drawing 
the curve in the dentils, which are spaced as shown in the front 
elevation. 

The home student is advi.sed to scale carefully his measure- 
ments from Fig. 215 and compare them when drawing his detail, 
with the full size measurements in Fig. 216, and not copy from 
the measurements given in the detail. When a point is in doubt, 
follow the (lotted lines from one elevation to the Other and sec 
how the point.s of intersections arc obtained. 

Note that the point a in the wash of the sill in the front eleva- 
tion is obtained by projecting the intersection of the comer 1, in 



Constructing a Dormer Window 165 

the section of the mullion X° in the side elevation, with the sill 
line a'. 

The detail of the front and side elevations having been com- 
pleted, the patterns for the sill moldings will first be developed. 
When two different profiles are to be mitered together, as in this 
case, the m«thod of obtaining the patterns is as follows : Divide 
the curves in either one of the profiles into an equal number of 
spaces, in this case the profile of the front, shown in the side ele- 
vation by the small figures from 1 to 20. Through these small 
figures draw horizontal lines cutting the roof line, shown by 
similar numbered intersections, also cutting the profile of the 
return in the front elevation by intersections also numbered 1 
to 20. Divide one-half the semicircle in the front elevation into 
equal spaces, from 20 to 24, through which draw horizontal 
lines, in the side elevation cutting the roof line shown by 
similar numbers. 

To obtain the pattern for one half of the front of the sill, 
obtain the girth from 1, including the intersection a', down to 
24 in the side elevation, and place it as shown by similar numbers 
on the center Hne B C below the front elevation. Through these 
points with the T-square, draw horizontal lines, and then intersect 
with lines drawn parallel to B C from similar numbered inter- 
sections in the front elevation, partly shown by 1°, 2°, a", 3°, 
4°, 8°, 9°, 14°, 18°, 19°. Trace a line through points thus ob- 
tained, then using 20 in the pattern as center and 20 24 as radius, 
describe the quarter circle, which completes the one-half pattern 
for the sill of the dormer. 

When pricking this pattern on the metal, turn over on dots 1 
and 24 to obtain the opposite half. Allow laps on this pattern 
from fl° to 20°. 

For the pattern for the return of the sill mold, draw any 
vertical line below the side elevation N O, on which place the 
girth of the return mold, in the front elevation from n to 3 to 4 
down to 24, being careful to measure each space between 9 and 
18 separately, as they are unequal, as shown by similar numbers on 
N O. Through these small figures, at right angles to N O, draw 
lines indefinitely, and intersect with lines drawn parallel to N O 
from similar numbered intersections in the profile in the side ele- 
vation and from the intersections on the roof line D F, partly 
shown on the left side of the pattern by a', 3', 4'. 8', 9', 13', 14', 24', 
and on the right side by a", 7", S", 14", 19'', 24". A Hne traced 
through points thus obtained will be the pattern for the sill return. 



166 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Laps are allowed on the roof cut from a* to 24', to solder to the 
roof flashing. Two of these returns will be required. 

The next pattern in order is that of the crown molding. As 
the profiles in both front and return are similar, as T' and T*, 
divide the curve in both, in similar number of spaces, from 1 to 
11, through which draw lines indefinitely, cutting the vertical line 






U 12* in the front and extending into the side until the roof line 
is intersected by similar numbers. Thus the profile of the return 
mold T' in the front elevation is spaced from 1' to 12', while the 
profile of the front mold T* in the side elevation is spaced from 
1 to 15; so that correct measuring points may be known in the 
front elevation when obtaining the pattern, horizontal lines are 
wn to the front elevation from points 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 



Constructing a Dormer Window 167 

in the side elevation until the joint line is intersected in the 
front by 11', 12", 12", 13', 14' and 15'. 

Wlien drawing the patterns, they can be developed directly be- 
low the elevation, the same as the sill patterns, by simply tacking 
a sheet of paper over the detail and using the T-square in the 



usual manner. In this case, for want of space, the two patterns 
have been developed in Figs. 219 and 220 as follows: 

For the pattern for the front, obtain the girth of the profile 
T', Fig. 216, in the side elevation from I to 15, and place it on 
the vertical line A B, Fig. 219, as shown by similar numbers. 
Through these small figures, at right angles to A B, draw lines 
as shown, Measuring from ihe center line A B, in the front 



168 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

elevation, Fig. 216, obtain the distances to points 1' to 12" to ITT to 
13' and 14' to 15' and place them on similar numbered lines in 
Fig. 219, measuring each from the line A B. A line traced 
through points thus obtained, from 1 lo I' to 15' to 15, will be 
the half pattern for the front crown mold to which laps are al- 
lowed from r to 12', When obtaining the full pattern on the 
metal, turn over the paper pattern on dots 1 and 15, as was 
explained in previous exercise. 

For the pattern for the return, the girth of T*, Fig. 216, in 
the front elevation from 1' to 12' is taken (which is the same as 
T* from I up to 11) and placed on any vertical line E D, Fig, 220, 
shown by simitar figures 1' to 12'. Through these small figures, 
at right angles to E D, lines are drawn indefinitely. Measuring 
from the line E D in the side elevation. Fig. 216, take the dis- 
tances to similar numbered points 1 to 12 in the profile T* and 
place them on similar numbered lines in Fig. 220, measuring 
each from the tine £ D on the left side, so that when a line is 
traced through points thus obtained the miter cut from 1 to 12 
will result. In a similar manner, measuring from line E D in the 
side elevation. Fig. 216, obtain the various distances to similar 
numbered intersections on the roof line F Y from 1" to 12" and 
place them on similar numbered lines in Fig. 220, to the right of 
line E D. Trace a line through the points thus obtained, from 
1" to 12"; then 1 1'. 12", 12 will be the pattern for the return, 
two of which will be re<iuired. laps being allowed for soldering 
to the cheek of the dormer window along 12 12" and roof flash- 
ing. 

The dormer under consideration by the student is of such size 
thai the chock and mullion can be developed in one piece. The 
method of proceeding will be explained, before the close of this 
exercise, for a dormer of such size that this could not be done. 

To obtain the pattern for the mullion and cheek combined, take 
a tracing of the cheek. Fig. 216, shown in the side elevation by 
12 Y a' a' and place it as shown by similar letters and figures in 
Fig. 221, allowing a lap along Y W. on which the roof flashing 
will be soldered. Draw any tine as P R, Fig. 216, at right angles 
to 12 u' intersecting the line 12 a' at P". Take the distance from 
12 to P' ami place it from 12 to I^. Fig. 221. and through P* at 
right angles to 12 j' draw the line P R, repre^nting the line 
P R in the side elevation. Fig. 216. Starting at the point 1, on 
the line P R. Fig. 221. place the girth of the section X or X" 
n 1 lo 8. Fig. 216, shown by similar numbers on the girth line 



Constructing a Dormer Window 169 

P R, Fig. 221. Through these points, at right angles to P R, 
draw lines indefinitely. 

Lines drawn through numbers 1 to 8, in tlie muUion section, 
X", Fig, 216, intersect the sill line from 1°° to 8°° ; and intersect 
and show their proper location with the crown mold at the top, 
by the figures 1° to 5° to 6° to 7° to 8°. 

Measuring from the line P R, take the distances to the inter- 



sections 1° to 8° at the top and 1°° to 8°° at the bottom, and 
place them on lines having similar numbers in Fig, 221 measur- 
ing above and below the line P R, as shown by the intersections 1° 
to 8° at the top and 1°° to 8°° at the bottom. Trace lines through 
points thus obtained and allow laps as shown by the dotted lines. 
Then 8° Y W 8°° will be the pattern for cheek and mullion com- 
bined, of which two are required. 



170 Home Issnrcnox fc« Sheet Uctal \V 

I: will be noiKtd in ibe svic demioa in Fig. 216 that the ■ 
nmUkm cap 1' r 12^ md ibc mtillkia base i t m H ait soldered 
to the mttDioa jeparsiclv. alcsig ibe seam line, because the moK 
lion proper is ban in odc [ncce and meets the sill and croirn 
□Kdd at H and r. To obtain these pancms. proceed as follows : 

The panem tor the side of the cap or biacket K is a reproduc- 
tion of similar iigurcs in the side eleTaDon. Laps are allowed 
to pattern K as :ho«-n by the doned lines. Tbe pattern for the 
face of this cap or bracket is shown by J. Obtain tbe girth of 
the side from I* to 12* and |^ce it on any Tcnical line in J, 
shown by similar numbers. Complete the rectangle, maldng it 
2 in. in width, as in the front elevation. The hea^'y dots in J 
show where the prick marks must be made in the metaL Two of 
J and four of K will be required. 

For the pattern for the base or lower wash of the mullion. take 
a tracing of ^ f u H and place it in L, shown by s" t" h" H°. 
At right angles to j' H' draw the lines s' j* and H° H* 2 in. 
wide as required and trace j" /" «' H" as shown by i* /* m' H*. 
Add to the line i* s' the rectangle s' s' t' /', making the distaiKe 
s" r" equal to s" t°, which completes the pattern two of which arc 
required. 

The dentil block is developed in one piece by taking a tracing 
of V w 12 in the side elevation and placing it as shown by. v° vt° 
12 in M. Extend the line ii" X, as shown by «■" i*, making the 
distance X i-* equal to the girth of the curve X v°. Complete 
the rectangle v' w' li' %■", making its width 1 in., as in the face 
of the dentils in ihe front elevation. Trace the side v° 12 w" X 
in M on the opposite side, X' W" 12' \', which completes the 
|jaitern, five of which are required. 

The next and last pattern is for the roof flashing, shown in 
the section <jf the mullion X" in side elevation by T S, with a 
water Irjck S attached. This lock can be used to lock in the metal 
roofing and also to catch the drip when slate, lile or shingles are 
used as a roof covering, about which more will be said as the 
studrnl proceeds. The pattern for the roof flashing is obtained 
by taking the various intersections on the roof line F D, in the 
sidf clfvalion, from 1" to 12" to a' down to 24' and placing them 
on viriical line U V in Fig. 222, as shown by similar numbered 
figures. At rif;ht angles to U V and through these small figures 
draw lines indefinitely. Extend the line U V of the cheek of the 
dormer iti the front elevation in Fig, 216, and measuring from 
this line take tbe projcctiun.s to points 2' to 12' in the crown mold 



Constructing a Dormer Window 171 

and to points a to 3 to 24 in the sill mold, measuring right and left, 
and place these distances on similar numbered lines shown in both 
cuts in Fig. 222 (see Folder 6), measuring to the right and 
left of the line U V, shown by points of intersections having simi- 
lar numbers. A line traced through points thus obtained, from 
2" to 12' to o to 7 8 to E, will be the cut of the roof flashing 
mitering against the return crown mold, cheek and sill mold of 
the dormer. 

Knowing the width that the flashing is to have (usually 6 or 
8 in.) measure off 6 in. and draw a vertical line, B C, drawing 
a curved outline, approximately parallel to the upper and lower 
molds, shown by the solid hne A B and C D, allowing a lap at 
E for joining. This solid outline from A to B to C to D is used 
when the covering on the main roof is of slate, tile or shingle, 
and in this case a water lock is allowed from A to B to C only, 
turning it upward, as at R. This lock is used so that when the 
slates, tiles or shingles are laid over it, as at N, and drippings 
from snow or rain should follow under the covering at a b, this 
drip would flow along the flashing and be caught by the water 
lock R', and following this lock would run over the roof covering 
at C, the end of the lock. No lock is allowed from C to D, as this 
part overlaps the slate, tile or shingle. 

If, however, the roof covering is of metal, laid flat seam, as 
at M, then the lock should be extended as shown by the dotted 
line from C to F to D and B to H. Enough material should be 
allowed to the pattern so that the lock along D F can be placed 
to meet the lock in the metal plates laid on the roof, bending the 
lock along D F downward, as at O. Enough material should 
be allowed at the top J to meet the seam lines in the roofing, bend- 
ing the lock upward, as at P. When the roof is laid standing seam, 
as at T, then enough material must be allowed along H F of 
the pattern to make one side of ihe standing lock, so as to meet 
the standing lock on the main roof. 

When the flashing, the pattern of which is Fig. 222, is 
soldered in position it will look as in Fig. 223, and necessitates, 
where slate tile or shingle is used, the cutting of the slate or tile, 
as shown by the shaded part A, from a to b. This cutting takes 
time, is likely to break a number of slates, tile or shingles, before 
a proper cut is obtained, and it makes a bad appearance. 

The roofer, as well as the architect and owner, desires to avoid 
any unsightly appearance on any part of a building and some- 
times require the sheet metal worker to form a pocket behind 



172 Hone iNSTKL'cnoN for Sheet Metal Woxkebs 

the crown mold in line with the check as in Fig. 224, which shows 
the pocket formed on to the Bashing and allows for three thick- 
nesses of slate, tile or shingle to pass behind the projecting crown 
mold in line with the cheek of the dormer and avoids any cutting 
of the slates, tile or shingles. 

It is necessar}' to know before patterns are laid out for the 
roof flashing and crown mold return if this form of pocket is to 
be used. Then the changes must be made in the patterns as fol- 
lows: Assuming that slates }i in. thick are employed, then 
3 X )4 = M + J^-in- playroom = 1% in-, which should be 
laid oS at right angles to the roof line in the side elevation in 



Fig. 216, and the line A= B= drawn, which represents the end of 
the crown mold return. Take a tracing of 2"' 2" 12" 12*' in the 
side elevation and place it in the pattern, Fig. 222, as shown by 
2" 2'" 12" 12'" and (race the cut 2", 2', 12', 12", as on the line 2" 
12'", shown by 2"' 2", 3", 12'", allowing laps to solder to the end of 
the crown mold return, shown by the dotted lines. Then if a 
pockot. Fig. 224, is to be used the pattern for the roof flashing 
would be similar to that in Fig. 222, minus the heavy outline of the 
crown mold, from 2' to 12'. The distance from 2" to 2'" in the 
side elevation, Fig. 216, would have to be deducted from the 
jmttcrn in I-'ig. 220, shown from 2" to 2'" by the doited miter line 
2*" 12'". No laps would be allowed on cut 2'" 12"', as they have 
been allowed on the head from 2" to 12'", Fig. 222. 



Constructing a Dormer Window 



173 



As before mentioned, sometimes the dormer windows are of 
such size that the cheek and mullion cannot be formed in one 
piece, making a seam necessary in the cheek, and can be made 
in three ways, which must be known, so that a workman can 
proceed intelligently when preparing. the patterns. 



""*"l-» 


"-^T* 


"-^T* 


^1 


J- 


J 


_Mu<lton 


MuIUoo 


Ntullion 



The first and simplest method is shown in Fig. 225, in which 
laps are allowed on the mullion as well as on the cheek at A, and 
riveted and soldered on the inside. The second method is shown 




Flc. 21S. Joining Chfek l„ Ctown Mc 



in Fig. 226, in which a hidden lock is formed on the mullion 
and a single lap on the cheek, then both are jciined ;it H and 
sweated with solder on the outside. This method gives a neat, 
strong seam, which can be scraijed clean and smooth. If there 
is no objection to a standing lock, the seam can be made as in C, 
Fig. 227, which explains itself. 



174 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

In this connection the student is shown three ways of joining 
the cheek to the crown and sill molds. In Fig. 228, A shows 
the first method, in which the cheek is soldered to the crown and 
sill mold. The second method, B, shows an edge hent to the top 
and bottom of the cheek, riveting at the sill mold at a, allowing 
a hem edge at b, so as to have the flange lie close and rigid when 
riveted at b. In the third method, C, a drip is formed to the 
crown mold and then turned down to form the groove e, into 
which the cheek is placed, avoiding riveting or soldering. 

As the student knows how to proceed with the seams, the pat- 
terns for the mullion and cheek can be laid out single or com- 
bined as required. All the patterns being developed, they are 
cut from sheet metal in the usual manner, and the work is ready 
for forming. Templets, stays or profiles must be cut from Fig. 
216 as follows : T' or T' in the crown mold can be used for form- 
ing the front and side. The profile 2 to 24 in the sill mold in 
the front elevation is for bending the returns of the sill, while 
the profile 1 to 20 in the side elevation is for bending the front 
of the sill. The mullion and cheek are bent according to section 
X" in the side elevation, all bends being square. The face of 
the mullion cap or bracket is formed after the pattern K. The 
laps on the pattern K are both bent to the inside, so as to obtain 
a flush surface when soldering them on the mull ion, as shown 
by the dotted line at 3 and 4, in section X" in the side elevation. 
The bends in the pattern L are all bent one way in the form of 
a pan, which completes the base S ( » H in the side elevation. 
The dentil M is also formed square, bending the 1-in. face with 
the thimib and finger to the required curve. 

When forming the crown molding, the same methods are 
emplojcd as in the preceding work, the only molding in this 
exercise requiring attention being the sill mold. Forming the 
front of tht; sill mold will be explained, which will also be applic- 
able to the return of the sill mold. When forming the front sill 
mold, start on dot 9 or 18, shown on the half pattern for sill in 
Fig. 216, using the profile in the side elevation as the templet 
or stay, and make a square bend if the start is on dot 9, Fig. 229. 
Place the proper size former A, in position, in the brake, fasten 
with clamp B, and press down the upper part of the sheet, so 
that dot 21 will be in a horizontal position, shown by 21', or that 
dot 13 will touch former A at 13'. Reverse the sheet and place 
it in the brake, Fig. 230, in the position shown by the dotted 
line A 21, closing the brake on dot 18 and make a square bend. 



Constructing a Dormer Window 



175 



as shown by B 21. Fasten the former C in position, and press 
B down until it has the position shown by 8', being careful to 
exert the most pressure between 13 and 14, so as not to press 
the upper curve 13-9 out of shape. This completes the ogee 8' 18 
and leaves a straight surface between 13' and 14'. 

The square bends are now made on dots 19 and 20, also on 
dot 8, after which it is placed in the brake A, Fig. 231, the brake 
closed on dot 7 and a square bend made, bringing the molding 
in position B. Leaving the sheet in the brake, draw it out to 
dot 4 and make a square bend. A, Fig. 232. Now place proper 
size former C in position and press A down, exerting the pres- 




sure at a, which should bring A in the jKisition B, being careful 
not to press the angle b out of square. The sheet remains in the 
brake, drawing it out and closing the brake on dot 3, shown by A, 
Fig. 233, and making a bend to the desired angle B, using the 
stay previously cut to test the accuracy of the angle. Reverse 
the sheet in the position A, Fig. 234, close the brake on dot 2, 
and make a bend at the proper angle B, which completes the 
forming of the front of the sill molding. 

Care should be taken, in forming the balance of the work, to 
bend it accurately to the various stay.s, it being better to spend a 
little more time to get all the bends accurate, saving time and 
labor when setting the work together. 

Having formed all the work, bend the laps and set tlie work 



176 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

together as shown by line diagrams in Fig. 235. Let the returns 
be soldered on the sill A, being careful to have them true and 
square, then solder the joint on the inside, so as to have a clean, 
sharp corner on the outside. Next, set the crown mold in the 
reversed position B, slipping it over a bench or board as wide as 
X and tack the two returns on the outside. When the miters 
fit snugly, reverse it and solder on the inside. Placing it again 



; IKJsition C, take the right and left mullion, one of 
which is shown by D, and tack it with solder to the crown mold- 
ing, D' and D-; make a smooth, clean seam at ii and b, using the 
steel square to obtain the true right angle, E F. It is best to 
make a small tack at first at c, pressing the miter cut of the mul- 
hon tight against the miter cut of the crown mold. This small 
tack acts as a pivot and allows the mullion to be bent inward or 
outward until it is true to ihe square E F, after which additional 
tacks arc made. I'eforc soldering out this much of the window, 
it is reversed in iK)sition (i and the mullions soldered to the sill 
at c and d. and if ]K-rfcctly true and square the seams and joints 



CHAPTER XXII 

Making a Hexagonal Ventilator 

The student is now ready to take up the fifteenth exercise, 
which is ventilator work, Fig. 237 shows the 2-in. scale drawing 
from which all dimensions are taken for the patterns to be 
developed. While this exercise shows a hexagonal, or six-sided, 
ventilator, the methods which will be shown are applicable to 
any ventilator, no matter how many sides it may present. This 
lesson drawing represents the front elevation of a hexagonal 
ventilator when viewed toward one of the comers as shown in 
plan. 

The base of the ventilator sets on the ridge of a roof. In this 
case the braces to uphold the hood on the ventilator are laid 
crosswise, as indicated by the dotted lines in plan A B and C D. 
As this manner of placing the braces is sometimes objected to, 
owing to reducing the area of the ventilator, other methods will 
be shown. The lower flange of the hood is ornamented by semi- 
circles 1 in. in diameter. The method of constructing the base 
will be explained as the student proceeds with the detail drawing. 
The points at which 45 degree angles are to be drawn are indi- 
cated in the elevation. 

Using the scale rule, obtain the vertical heights of the members 
on the center line in the front elevation and place them on 
the center line A B as shown in Fig. 238, making the total height 
from top to bottom 1 ft. 3J4 in. (see Folder 5). In a similar 
manner obtain the projections of the various members, measuring 
from the center line in the front elevation. Fig. 237, and place 
them on the left side of the front elevation in the detail in 
Fig. 238. Transfer these measurements on the opposite side 
and complete the outline of the ventilator and pitched roof. 

Notice that the shaft of the ventilator goes under the hood, 
shown by 8 7 6 5. and forms a catch al 5 6 7 to prevent snow 
from blowing into the ventilator. On some ventilators the entire 
opening between 3 and 6 is covered with jjcrforated sheet brass 
or, better still, tine mesh brass wire, which not only catches the 
snowflakes, but keeps out birds and insects which are likely to 
go inside when the ventilator is large. 
178 



Making a Hexagonal Ventilator 



179 



The U-shaped brace on the left side in the elevation rests upon 
the top flange of the shaft and is bent as indicated by 1 2 3 4. 

The half plan is all that is required in developing the pattern 
and is drawn as follows : Draw 
any center line in plan as H J 
intersecting the center line A B 
of elevation at l". Using 1° as 
center with any radius, describe 
the semi-circle D F E, intersect- 
ing the center line A B in F. 
Using the same radius with one 
leg of the compass in F intersect 
the semicircle on either side at c' 
and d'. This method, continued 
around an entire circle, produces 
a hexagon, while in this case it 
will produce a semi- hexagon. 
Draw hnes from 1° through c* 
and d' extending them until they 
intersect the vertical lines pro- 
jected, from the extreme point 2 
and 4" in elevations at 2° and 2» 
in plan. Take the length from 1° 
to 2" and set it off from 1° to 2* 
on the line A B and draw the 
semi-hexagon w 2" 2» 2° r. Then 
1° 2", 1° 2" and 1° 2° represent 
the miter lines in plan. 

Make the semi-length of the 
roof piece from r to s,5 in,, as in 
the scale drawing and complete 
the semi-plan r s t u. Number 
the corners in the hood in eleva- 
tion from 1 to 4, that of the shaft 

Fio. 2S7. Hexaconal Ventidlor. from 5 tO 10, and frOm thcse 

points project vertical lines in the 
plan, cutting the miter hne 1° to 2°, shown by similar numbers 
1° to 10°. Complete the half plan from these intersections, draw- 
ing the hnes parallel to 2°, 2" until they cut the miter line 1° 2° ; 
from these intersections lines are drawn parallel to 2" 2", cutting 
the miter line 2^ 1°, from which they are drawn parallel to 2" » 
until the center line is intersected. 




180 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

As ornamentations are to be cut in flange 3 4 of the hood 
in elevation, refer to the flange line, represented in plan on one 
side by 4° 4" which measures 4 in., and as the semicircles in the 
flange are to be 1 in, wide, then space this line 4° 4", so that 4* e, 
f fi, i j and k 4" will be each J4 in. and e f, h i and j k each 1 in., 
making the total of 4 in. 

Sometimes it becomes necessary to make a complete view of 
the elevation of the ventilator, showing the ornamental cuts in 
position, when the small semicircles must be projected in the ele- 
vation from the plan as follows : 

Take any one of the spaces h i, in plan, parallel to which draw 
the line 1 5 in V, upon which draw the semicircle 1 in. wide; 
space section V in equal spaces, in this case four, from which lines 
are drawn at right angles to 2* 2° until they cut 4° 4* between k 
and i. Take a tracing of V and place it in line with the bottom of 
the hood as at V, in elevation. This is divided into the same num- 
ber of parts as was section V, and from the various points in V 
horizontal lines are drawn, and intersected by vertical lines erected 
from similar intersections obtained between the points h and i in 
plan, resulting in the intersections 1°° to 5°° in elevation, which 
gives the form of a semi-ellipse. From the points e f j and k on 
the line 4° 4" in plan, lines are erected into the elevation, cutting 
the base line of the hood At e' f /' and k'. Then on e" f and ;' k' 
trace the semi-ellipses. In a similar manner trace these semi- 
ellipses to the left of the center line, which completes the elevation. 

Some students make the mistake of placing semicircles in the 
elevation, instead of projecting them from plan, as was just done, 
forgetting that the line 4" 4° in plan does not lie in a horizontal 
position, but runs off at an angle, giving a foreshortened view of 
these semicircles. As the corner 2" in plan or, rather, the miter 
line 1° 2" lies in a vertical line, then the miter line in elevation, 
on 1° 2" in plan, will be a straight line. 

Instead of placing the brace as in the plan, Fig. 237, it will be 
placed as in the detailed plan, Fig, 238, which will not interfere 
with the area of the ventilator, as it will be placed along the top of 
the shaft. As brace X in elevation sets upon that part of the 
shaft indicated by 6 7 on the right side, take a tracing of section 
X and place it at pleasure upon lines 6* and 7"' in plan, shown by 
X', numbering the corners 1 2 3 4 as in X. 

The plan and elevation having been completed the development 
of the patterns is now taken up. The first pattern to be developed 
is that of the hood. Therefore take the stretchout of 1 2 3 4 



182 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Then the distance from d to d gives the full girth of the roof 
piece. At right angles to d d through these small letters, draw 
perpendiculars, making d t' and d t" each equal to 5 in., as in 
plan from s to r. Complete the rectangle t' y s^ t". 

As two sides of the ventilator shaft meet the roof piece at a, 
on each side. Fig. 239, the intersections being shown by 10 in 
the front elevation. Fig. 238, then point 10 will meet the miter 
line in plan at 10°, which represents the intersection between the 
roof piece and shaft. Take the half distance from 10° to 10* 
and place it on the lines 10 in the roof pattern, measuring from 
the center line d d, and obtain the four intersections 10'. Two 
miter Joints of the ventilator meet the ridge hne of the roof piece 
at e. Fig. 239, and are shown in the front elevation in Fig. 238 
by o. The intersection between this point a and the roof piece 
in plan is obtained by extending the center line through a in ele- 
vation until it is intersected by a line parallel to 2° 2" in plan 
from 10°, resulting in the desired point at a". Take the distance 
from o° to 1° and place it in the roof pattern on the line drawn 
through a, measuring from the center line d d and obtain a" a". 
Connect the points thus obtained. Then will 10, 10*, a" 10' 10 
on both sides of the center line be the part to be cut out to receive 
the ventilator. Laps are allowed toward the inside. 

This method of obtaining the opening would be employed if 
the sheet metal worker had to furnish the carpenter with a tem- 
plet, giving the shape of the opening to be cut in the roof over 
which a curb would be placed to receive the ventilator. This 
method would also be employed to obtain the pattern for a roof 
flashing to be placed on the bottom of the ventilator. After the 
cut a" 10" 10'' a" is obtained, and knowing the width of the flange 
or flashing, which in this case is the width of 10 X, indicated on 
the horizontal line d d, then this distance must be laid off parallel 
to a' 10\ 10" 10" and 10" a- and the bnes a' 10^ 10^ a' drawn. 
Then a' lOf 10^ a' a" 10" 10" n" would be the flashings for one 
side, to which laps are allowed for riveting or soldering. The 
use of these flashing pieces in practical work will be explained to 
the student. The pattern for the head to close up the end of this 
roof piece can be pricked direct from the front elevation shown 
by fc f f ' b" a, to which laps are allowed as shown by the dotted 
lines, two of which will be cut. 

The last pattern required is that of the brace to uphold the 
hood in the ventilator, shown in elevation by X, and in plan by 
X', and is obtained as follows: Obtain the girth of 1, 2, 3, 4 in 



Making a Hexagonal Ventilator 183 

either section X or X' and place it at the left on the line H « in 
plan by similar numhers. Through these points draw lines at 
right angles to H « indefinitely. As 1 and 4 in section X in 
elevation intersect the outer edge of the hood at 1" and 4", and 
as this outer edge is represented by the line 2* 2", shown by the 
dotted hnes in plan, then project lines through I and 4 in X' until 
pattern. In a similar manner points 2 and 3 in section X in 
elevation intersect the hood at 2" and 3" ; and as the line of the 
hood is shown by dotted lines in plan by 4" 4", then draw lines 
through points 2 and 3 in X' until they meet this line at 2' and 3', 
from whichjoints horizontal lines are projected into the pattern 
cutting^slmilar numbered lines, V W then represents the cut. 
they meet the outer edge of the hood at 1' and 4', and from these 
points parallel to H m draw lines intersecting lines 1 and 4 in the 
Trace 4 WV 1 opposite H u and obtain T U. Then T ,U V W 
is the pattern for the brace, two of which are required. 

The next work of the student after developing the patterns 
for the various pieces is to cut them from sheet metal, in the 
usual manner, cutting out the opening in the roof piece with a 
hammer and chisel on a wood or lead block. When allowing 
laps on each of the six sides of the shaft, be careful to place 
the laps as in Fig. 240 on the same side of each piece as shown by 
a b c d e and /, to form them all one way, so that when the work 
is soldered together the laps will appear as in Fig. 241. The 
best way to avoid a mistake in forming is to mark the various 
pieces a b c, etc.. Fig. 240, with marking acid with the word "in," 
meaning that the sides marked will ^be bent to the inside. 

After all the work has been cut, templets for bending are 
required as follows: From 1 to 4 in elevation. Fig. 238, for bend- 
ing the hood; from Z to 10 for bending the base of the shaft, 
and the pattern for the head can be used for bending the roof 
piece. The method of bending the hood, the upper part of the 
shaft and the roof piece will be explained, as difficulties are likely 
to arise. 

When bending the hood, start on dot 3 and make a bend to 
the required angle A, Fig. 242. Reverse the piece in the position 
A, Fig. 243, close the brake on dot 2, and make a square bend 
from A to B; then B 1 completes the hood piece. The bending 
of the shaft, shown from 5 to 10 in the front elevation. Fig. 238, 
should be started on dot 6; for if started at a different point the 
last bend 7 6 5 could not be made without disturbing the angle 
6 7 8. 



184 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



The bending of the roof pjece-should be done as in Fig, 244, 
in which d C b is bent, care being taken to start the first brad 
at C. The jaws of the brake ai^ then opened as far as possible 
and it will be found that there is a depression in the lower table 
of the brake at D and one in the upper leaf at B, so that d Cb . 



and Joining Lapi on Vcnlilalor SbaCt Slidi 



□i ^- ^] Qi ^ ^i 

niilaior SbaCt ! 





!)C rcvorsfil :iii<i placed in this depression B D as shown by 
' b', and (/ C h bunt on the other end of the roof piece, again 



^(1 



/l^ 



X 



nc at f. When llii'; is <lync, the roof piece r 

brake and the upper leaf closed 
on dot a, making a square bend, 
as indicated by A. Then Kad' 
coniplelos the bending of the 

Alt the- sides having been 
foniKil, tlic laps are bent at 
hexagonal angles, a templet 
similar to D, in Fig. 245 be- 
ing used. This templet may 
be (jhtaincd from any one of 
the angles shown in plan, 
having hexagonal angles will 
a hole is punched in this templet in Fig. 245 at /, which 
■w« it to be hung on a nail for future use. At the school in 



Fig. 238, H 2" 2". 



Making a Hexagonal Ventilator 



185 



New York the hexagonal, octagon and right angle templet are 
placed in each student's drawer for future use. 

When the work is being set together, two sides are tacked at 
a time, as indicated by A B and C, Fig. 245, after which they 
are joined in one hexagon at a ^ and c. In no case should the 
joints be soldered through until the entire hexagon is tacked 
tt^ether, and, if true, it can be soldered complete. In a 
small ventilator of this kind the laps, braces and other parts are 
only soldered together, but when a large ventilator is to be con- 
structed the parts are joined by solder and rivets, which fastens 
all in a more substantial manner, especially the hood to the ven- 
tilator to withstand the force of wind and storm. The method 
of securing the ventilator to the roof construction will be ex- 
plained later. 

When riveting the seams they are first 

tacked with solder in sections, shown by 

^.gs. A B and C, Fig. 245, then with a solid or 

""^^■^^^^^ rivet punch. Fig. 246. holes are punched 

f^.''^"'^^^^^ the required size. Care must be taken to 
" have the punch sufficiently large, so that 

y^ ^^ the sheet iron will not be torn when the 
I punch is being used to obtain the proper 
I I size hole. The punch should be of such 

^s,,,,^^ size that the rivet will slip in snugly, as in 
Fic 245. Opernion. in diagram A. When punching use a piece 
rr™'j5i">;rMit«.."'"* of ^^^d wood or a block of lead, held 
by the helper on the inside, at at iii, and 
then punch from the outside, as at n, from which side 
the rivet is placed. When the punching on these sections 
of ventilators is done, they are riveted on the bench plate, 
X, or on the square head stake, a rivet sel, Y, being used, in 
which e is the setter and d the header, a hole iK'ing drilled at /, 
which connects with c to allow any burr or surplus metal to pass 
out. The setter is now used and the rivel well drawn, after 
which the rivet is struck with the hammer in position H, until 
the hole punched in the metal is filled out. 

A mistake often made is to keep on riveting with the hammer 
in a vertical position, resulting, if light-gage metal is used, in 
tearing the holes in the metal, as indicated in C, which shows 
the metal tearing around the rivet at b. After the hole in the 
metal is filled tight the hammer should be tilted as at E, which 
brings the rivet over the metal, diagram F. The header, d in Y, 



HI 

i 



M\ 



186 HouE Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

is then placed over F and with one or two blows a smooth, r 
button head is placed on the rivet H. 

After all the parts of the ventilator have been soldered tog 
in A C and D, Fig. 247, the various pieces are assemblf 
follows: The heads B and B are soldered in the roof piece, 
the two braces soldered into the hood as indicated by a a. 
surfaces c and d in the shaft C are soldered to the brae 
hood D, after which the ventilator is soldered to roof pie< 
The joints should be neatly soldered so that when complel 
will look as in Fig. 239. The roof piece is only soldered in 
tion to give the student an idea how the ventilator is conn 






Solid 


^s..^ 


il w»«^ 1 


■ -V-;-----'j/- - - 


Fl^. 246, 
, 2\6. Mtlh...i .if Rivelinu. Fic. 2-17. AsKn 


bline l>i,n ir 


Fio- 2*7. 
d Secured Ve 



to a pitched roof, also how (he opening in the roof and a 
flange arc obtained. 

While soldering the shaft to the hood is i»roper for a 
ventilator over n show window or flat part of a roof, for a 
ventilator, on the ridge of a steep roof, more substantial \ 
sions would have to be made to secure it against wind and s 
This is accomplished as in Fig. 248, in which A A show 
wooden frame or curb, flashed with metal around the main 
and curb. 1! IS the flashing extending to the top of the curl 
nailed, dver this flashed curb the ventilator is set, hav 
flange with a doubled edge drip around the bottom, C. 
wood screws are inserted at a and lead washers between the 
of the screw and the metal to insure against leaks. The 



Making a Hexagonai. Ventilator 



187 



washer being soft adjusts itself firmly between the screw head 
and metal. Wrought iron braces, made from ^ x IJ/^-in. band 
iron, are formed as indicated by the hatched lines D D and bolted 
to each side of the shaft by bolts d d, etc., the hood being fastened 
by bolts, b b, etc. Over these bolt heads on the outside raised 
buttons are soldered c c, etc., which prevent leaks around the 
bolts. The buttons are made by using scrap pieces of metal and 
a hollow punch 34 >i- wider than the diameter of the bolt head; 
disks are punched on lead or wood, and it will be found that by 
punching the disks they become slightly concave, in which posi- 
tion they are soldered as at c and c. These braces prevent storms 
from dislodging the hood. 




To prevent storms from blowing off the ventilator it will be 
noticed that in making the brace D sufficient material is allowed 
for it to be bent to suit the thickness of curb A, and holes are 
punched at e e, etc., into which large wood screws are placed, 
securing the entire ventilator. If the roof framing were of iron 
construction the same method would be employed, holes being 
drilled in the angle or T-iron to which to secure the braces, bolts 
being used instead of wood screws. 

To make a finish at the top, a finial E, Fig. 249, is sometimes 
employed. The student must bear in mind that it makes no differ- 
ence how large the ventilator may be, or what its shape or out- 



it 



Mi; 



188 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

line, ihe prjnci])lcs shown in Fig. 238 are applicable in the devi 
mcnt of the patterns as well as the constructive features. 
Sometimus the hood over the ventilator is of such size tha 
wind causes the metal to loosen about the holes, making it 
gerous to ihose below. This can be overcome by extra bra 
Fig. 249, in which a ventilator is shown, having the roof flas! 
a' 10' lO"" a' a" 10^ 10" o' in the pattern for roof piece in Fig. 
attached to the lower base, C, Fig. 249. This roof flashii 
only employed when the main roof covering B is of slate, ti 
shingle, and the roof flashing ac 
a cap flashing. In this case . 
shows the rafters, U U the sheai 
over which the roof covering is 
and then the ventilator with roof I 
ing attached is set over the cove 
The sheet metal ventilator sha 
bent as indicated from C to D, ■ 
the hood E is formed as shown. 
base of the shaft is molded, and i 
entire weight of the ventilator r 
uiKin it the weight would crusl 
mold and burst the soldered cot 
<'f To overcome this the wrought 

brace is bent with an angle, F, v 
blur. rests upon curb H, whether of : 
iron or wood, and bolted to the 
race extending to the hood and bolted 
extends to the hood, bolted to the main 1 
at c and to the hood at i\ .Ml the bolt heads on the hoo< 
iap[ie(l as iief(jre dt'scribed. .\n anchor to secure the vcnti 
til the raftiT is Ijultctl in the main brace at a and nailed t 
hcatn.-i witli anchor nails ur bulled to angle iron constni 
at ui and u. To keep tJie hood from wobbling a scroll i 
from hand iron is bultcd to llie main brace at t / and j. 
makes a lif,'ln, tirm job. 

While the ventilators just described depend for operation 
heated air rininj; from the inside, perha])S from steam coils p 
inside of the shaft or in a drum liekiw the shaft, it may n 
ont of place to show the student another form of ventilator \ 
gives good results and is shown in Fig, 250, In the half se 
view, the inner shaft is formed from A lu B and over thi 
the lower member 13, an outer shaft is ])laced, with semicir 




1 !' and c, t!u 
extra anchor 



Making a Hexagonal Ventilator 189 

openings cut into the base, a b and c in the half exterior view; 
these openings are shown in the sectional view by E. This allows 
the wind to enter at E through the opening rf or d' and rush out 
at /, carrying with it the air from the shaft h to the outside at i.- 

It is seldom that in practice the sheet metal worker must design 
the ventilator. These designs are usually made by the architect, 
but the sheet metal worker must know the various ways of con- 
structing and fastening, as he is held responsible for any defect; 
hence the foregoing hints on fastening. 



CHAPTER XXIII 
Construction o£ Flat Skylights 

The student has now reached that part of the course which 
covers skylight work and will doubtless find it a study of much 
interest, and rightly so, because it is a branch of the sheet metal 
trade which requires, in addition to skillful workmanship a con- 
siderable constructive knowledge. This exercise will cover the 
flat skylight on a pitched roof ; the doubled pitched skylight when 
placed on the ridge of a roof ; the flat skylight on a Sat roof, the 
curb having the required pitch ; the double pitched skylight on a 
flat roof, the curb having the required pitch; also where an 
extension skylight is used, which is simply a flat skylight in 
which, if necessary, provision is made in the construction to allow 
some of the sashes to be raised by worm gearings. The method 
of constructing these sashes, obtaining their patterns, applying 
the gearings and the constructive features of the various sky- 
lights just mentioned are explained to the student in regular 
order. 

In the sixteenth exercise, Fig. 251, it will be noticed that the 
plate contains no scale drawing but shows half-size sections. In 
the upper left-hand comer is a view of a flat skylight placed on 
a steep roof. In the right-hand corner the wood curb is shown 
with the dimensions. The student is to construct a flat skylight, 
1 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in., the bars running the 1 ft. way. In the half 
size sections A shows the section for the sides and top of the 
curb A A A in the perspective view, and IJ the section of the 
lower part of the curb It in the perspective view, C shows the 
common bar shown in the (jcrspectivc view by C C C, while D 
shows the cross bar or clip U D D in the pers]wctive view. This 
cross clip is used in large skylights where more than one length of 
glass must be used, the edges of the glass being protected and 
leakage prevented by the cross gutter D, which conducts the 
condensati<m fr<)m the inside or leakage from the outside, 
into the gutters of the skylight bar C. from which it is drained 
into the gutter of curb H to the outside, as indicated by the small 
arrows. An illustration clearly showing this construction, similar 
190 



Construction of Flat Skylight 191 

to the finished model provided for examination by the students 
at the New York Trade School, will be given later. 

While the sectional shapes of the bars and curbs are simple, 
they are true to the general principle followed in skylight con- 
struction for strength and to take care of the condensation and 
leakage; there are various other shapes of curbs and bars used in 



Fia. 251. Difffrenl Vi«i»j and Detail of Flat SkjhKhl. 

large skylights, many of which will be explained and illustrated. 
Some beginners do not understand what is meant by conden- 
sation in skylight work. The student has probably noticed on a 
cold day when the room is healed that the glass in the window.s, 
sweat on the inside, and when there is niucli moisture in the air 
the sweat or condensed moisture collects and runs lo the bottom 
of the sash. This condensation is caused by the warm air strik- 



192 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

ing the cold surface and is exactly what happens when a sky- 
hght is placed over the roof of a warm building. If no provision 
was made to catch this condensation it would follow the pitch 
of the glass and drop into the room below or soil the ceiling or 
decorations; hence the use of the condensation gutter on all 
modern skylights. 

Over bar C a V-shaped cap is placed, which makes a finish 
over the glazed surface, and is fastened by means of the copper 
clip b riveted to the doubled edge of bar C. The use of copper 
for the cli|) b, also the various ways of forming the caps and 
fastening them will be explained in detail. 

In (he sections the glass rests or rabbets of the bars run in 
one line, which is necessary in obtaining true surface, and 
is important when developing the patterns. As the width 
of the skylight to be made is to be 12 in. and the bars are 
to run parallel to the sides, refer to the half-size sections and 
draw llicm full size in position, as shown in Fig. 252 (see Folder 
6), where they arc lettered similar to the half-size sections 
in Fig. 251, the distance from outside to outside of the wooden 
curb in J-'ig. 252 being 12J4 in-, allowing J4-in. for the flashing 
which will be put around the curb as will be described later. 

The student will see that it is not necessary to make a sectional 
view of the various bars of the full width of the skylight to be 
ma<k', as the entire patterns can be obtained from the sections 
placed in a short s]>ace, J-'ig, 251, and after having the miter cuts 
the skylight can be made any size. The full width is placed in 
the ilelail in Fig. 252 because of its small distance, and the pat- 
terns obtained from it can be used for any size. 

Having drawn the section A at the lop left comer so that 
the rabbet or glass line 6 7 is in tine with rabbet line 6' 7' in 
section H al the right, make the distance ii ( equal to the thick- 
ness of the glass used, so as to allow the water to run off over 
H (. Section C and D can be ])laced in any position between 
sections .\ and H, care being taken that the rabbet c b c in C 
and / j in I) are in line with the rabbets in sections A and B. 
Connect sections .■\ and It by lines, as shown. 

Having placed section C in its proper or desired position, draw 
horizontal lines through bends 11 to /, intersecting the upper curb 
section A from a' to / and the lower curb section B also from a' 
to /', notching the gutter of bar C at the bottom at the right at <f 
c' /', which allows the drip or condensation to drop into the curb 
gutter below, as siiown by (he arrow. In a similar manner 



Construction of Flat Skylight 193 

through bends h to o in the clip section D, draw horizontal lines, 
cutting the bar section C from h' to o', notching the gutter of 
the clip D at m' n' o' to allow the drip to flow into the condensa- 
tion gutter of bar C. Of course the notches at e' f and »' o' 
should be at a distance equal to about one-half the width of the 
lower gutters into which the drip is to flow. Thus any leakage 
or condensation occurring in cross clip D is led into the gutter 
of bar C, as shown by the arrow o' n', from which it is led into 
the lower curb gutter at f e, thence to the outside through the 
small tube r s. 

Caps of V-shape are placed over the sections A and C. This 
as well as other forms of caps and the methods of fastening will 
be explained. The curb sections A and B are so formed as to 
have a shoulder to rest on curbs D* and D'. 

The sectional view having been completed, the development 
of the patterns is now in order. The pattern for the sides will 
be developed first. Number the various bends in the curb sec- 
tion A, from 1 to 11, and place this girth A on any vertical line 
as E F, by similar numbers I to 11. Through these small figures 
at right angles to E F, draw lines indefinitely, intersected by 
lines drawn parallel to E F from similar numbcreil intersections 
in section A. A line traced through points thus obtained as 
shown at the right by R /U will be the miter cut at the upper 
end of the side curb, joining the upper curb at a in the perspective 
view in Fig. 251. 

To obtain the miter cut at the lower end of the side curb 
to join with the lower curb, at b, proceed as shown at the right 
in Fig. 252. As the lower curb 15 is of a different profile than A, 
project points 1 to 11 in A until they intersect section B. shown 
by 1', 2', 3', 4'. a", a'". 5' 6'. V. 8', 9', 10' and II'. From these 
points, parallel to E F, lines are projected, cutting similar lines 
drawn through similar numbered and lettered points on and at 
right angles to E F, A line traced al the right through these 
points, S to T, will be the miter cut on the lower end of the side 
pattern. Then R S T U represents the |)attern for the sides of 
the curb, two of which are required, with laps as indicated by the 
dotted lines. 

As section A in the sectional view is the same for both siile and 
upper curbs, the miter cut R U in the i>attern tor the sides will 
also answer for the miter cut for the lop curb. As the upper 
curb is to be i ft. 6 in., it is only necessary to measure 9}/i in. 
from 12 to 13 in the side curb pattern. Fig. 252, and through 13 



194 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workeks 

parallel to E F draw the line V W. Then R V W U is the half 
pattern for the upper part of the curb, and when prick marked 
on to the metal is reversed on dots V and W, which will 
make the fult length 18^^ tn., thus making 34'iii- allowance in 
length to slip over the flashed curb or frame in the roof. One 
piece like this is required, minus laps. 

To obtain the pattern for the lower curb B joinii^ the side 
curb at b, in the perspective view in Ftg. 251, take the girth of 
section B, Fig. 252, as 1'. 2', 3', 4', Iff, 9", 7', & u t, these intersec- 
tions being numbered to coirespond to the points projected from 
section A, and place them as shown by similar numbered and let- 
tered points on the vertical line J K. Through these points at 
right angles to J K draw lines indefinitely. To the right of section 
A in ihc sectional view, erect any vertical line as E* E*, and in a 
similar manner parallel to the line J K in the pattern erect at 
pleasure the line K* E". Measuring from the line E* E* in the 
sectional view, take the various projections to points, 1, 2, 3, 4, 10 
and 9 and place tiiem on similar numbered lines in the pattern, 
measuring to the right of the line E'^ E". After obtaining the point 
9", erect the vertical line 9" A', meeting the rest of the lines drawn 
through 7' 6' u and (. The reason for drawing line 9' A* straight 
is that this part meets the flush side of the side curb from 4 to 5, 
section A, also shown from 9*' to C in diagram X". 

As the length of the skylight is to be 18 in., make the distance 
from W to Y in the pattern 9% in. and erect the vertical line 
Y X, meeting the line drawn through /. Connect lines from 9" 
to B°. Then A" IV Y X represents the half pattern for the lower 
end of the curb marked B in the sectional view. 

As the bottom of the condensation tube r j in sectional view 
meets the bend 9', yi-m. holes must be punched above the line 9" 
in the half pattern for the lower end of the curb at r*. These con- 
densation holes are usually placed between the lights of glass, as 
indicated by the small dots along the lower curb B, in the perspec- 
tive view, Fig. 251. 

When pricking this half pattern A= B' Y X, Fig. 252, on the 
metal, it is reversed on the dots Y X making the pattern 18J4 
in. long, or J^ in. allowance to slip over the flashed curb. One 
piece is required without laps. 

For the jKittern for common bar C, take the girth from f to a 
to / and place it on any vertical line G H from / to a to /. At right 
angles to G 11 through these small letters draw lines indefinitely, 
intersected by lines drawn parallel to G F from similar lettered 



196 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

skylight, notice that only one cross clip is placed between the two 
common bars, and as the length of the skylight is to be 18 in., 
and the metal curb sets inward ^ in. on each side, as in the sec- 
tional view in Fig. 252. then 18 — 1 — 17 ; 17 -^ 3 = 5 2/3 in., 
the length of the cross clip (roni O to C in the pattern. 

From C, transfer the miter cut C rf" as shown by C rf', being 
careful to have the cut C^ d' placed in its proper position, so that 
when a vertical line is erected from d' as d" a' the distance C 
a' will be similar to the distance a'' C* when a vertical line is 
erected from d''. This comjiletes the pattern for the cross bar or 
clip, one of which is required without taps. 

No i)atterns are shown for the caps covering the glass, as they 
are usually bent in long lengths and cut off as required. This 
completes the patterns required for the skylight under considera- 
tion. The same patterns can he used for a larger size skylight, 
and, for an example, assume that a flat skylight is to be laid out, 
say 3 ft. X 5 ft., the bars to run the 3 ft. way, as in diagram 
Y", Fig. 252, which is usually laid out so as to obtain the number 
of bars required and other essential data. The top and bottom 
of the curb being 5 ft. long, the pattern for the upper end of curb 
would be used, measuring 5 ft. from point 12 in the pattern for 
the curb side, and then reversing the cut R U on the S-ft. mark 
for the opposite side. In a similar manner, measure from point 
18 in the pattern for the lower end of curb, reversing the cut A' 
B' on the 5-ft. mark for the opposite side. As the side of the 
skylight is 3 ft. wide, make the distance from 14 to 15 in the pat- 
tern for the sides, 3 ft. wide, assuming that the J4 '"■ allowance 
for the melal flashing has been allowed in the roof curb. 

In this case five lights of glass of equal width have been divided 
in the S-ft. curb, ii, thus re^juiring 4 common bars. These bars 
woiild be measured from points 16 to 17' in the common bar 
pattern and be made J/S in. less than the length of the side 
curb, or 2 ft. Ilj/J inches, because the distance from 3 to 4 
in the curb section A sets inside of the curb line yi in. The 
length of the cross bar, if required, measured from 19 to 20 in 
the cross bar pattern, would be 60 — 1 — 59 ^ 5, or 11 4/5 in. 

Returning to the lesson, the various patterns are cut from sheet 
metal, punching the condensation holes r' in the lower curb pat- 
tern with a J^-'"- hollow punch before forming up on the brake. 
After all the pieces are cut. stays or templates are cut as follows: 
The entire section A for bending the top and sides of the curb; 
section B for the lower part of the curb; section C for the com- 



Construction of Flat 5kylight 197 

mon bar, and section D for the cross bar or clip. The girth re- 
quired for forming the V-shaped cap over the bar C is given in 
C*". The method of forming the various bars and curbs will be 
explained in detail, for it is very important to know how to make 
the bends so that the bars and curbs will spring together at 4 in 
section A; at ; in section D; at t/ in section C, and at 4' in sec- 
tion B. 

The patterns having been developed and the material cut out 
and marked with the prick punch at the proper points for the 
bends, the student is ready for the important work of forming 
the bars on the brake, and he will pay dearly for any carelessness 
or negligence, if he fails to form every piece right on the dot 
and at the proper angle. 

The section of curb A used for the back and sides of the curb 
will be formed first, and all that is required is the stay F, shown 
in Fig, 254; where the bends are square no stay is needed as the 
stops in the brake are set for right angle bends. Start the form- 
ing on bend 10, A, raising the bending leaf B until it meets the 
upper leaf C, bringing 11 to 11'. Open the jaw of the brake 
as far as possible, place 11' between the jaws, close the top leaf 
C, thus making the hem edge as in Fig. 255. 

Take out the sheet, reverse it as in Fig. 256, and close the brake 
on dot 9, making a bend to the required angle called for by the 
stay. Open the brake and draw out the sheet to dot 8, Fig. 257. 
Close the brake on this dot and make a bend to the required angle 
indicated by a. 

Reverse the sheet in the position A, Fig. 258, and make a bend 
on dot 7 to the required angle, bringing A in the position B. 
Reverse B and place it in the brake A, Fig. 259, where it must 
be forced into the brake so that the upper leaf can be closed on 
dot 6, in doing so a strikes against the lower leaf and makes 
a slight curve in the rabbet of the bar at b. Make bend on dot 6 
at right angles, bringing A in the position shown by the dotted 
outline C b'. The angle b' is now pressed together with the 
thumb and finger, bringing C into its proper position, as shown 
by the solid outline B. 

The sheet is now reversed on dot 5, Fig. 260, A, and A bent 
around as far as it will go, as indicated by B. Leaving the sheet 
in the brake, draw out to dot 2. Fig. 261, A, and make a bend 
on dot 2, as far as possible, as indicated by B. Open full the 
jaws of the brake, insert the bend just made and close to a hem 
edge, Fig. 262. Reverse the sheet in the position A, Fig. 263, 



198 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokkere 




BrndiiuOpf ration on Brake in Makinc Finiihed Curb 
fur Top *nil Sid« of Skylight. 



Construction of Flat Skylight 199 

and make a square bend on dot 4, as shown by B, Again reverse 
the sheet. A, Fig. 264, and make another square bend on dot 3, 
bringing the sheet into the position B. 

Open the jaws of the brake as far as possible and place angle 
5 into them, as shown by A, 5, 2, Fig. 265. Close the upper leaf 
slowly until bend 9, shown on the dotted lines, almost reaches the 
bend 4 in B, when it can be seen whether the joint 9 4 will spring 
together tight. If. there is any doubt that 9 and 4 in B will not 
meet, simply press together the angle at a and close the upper 
leaf C with a quick motion on bend 5, which will cause bends 9 
and 4 to spring together. 

It will probably be necessarj' for the student to try these bend- 
ing operations a number of times before he becomes proficient, 
and it is well to cut short pieces of curbs, about 3 or 4 in. long, 
to practice with. In Fig. 265, B represents the finished curb for 
the top and sides of the skylight. 

The method of forming the lower part of the curb is shown 
in Figs. 266 to 270. The stays required are shown by 4' and 9' 
being reproductions of similar angles marked 4' and 9' in 
section B in the shop detail in Fig. 252. The first four opera- 
tions, bending and closing tlie hem edge ( u in Fig. 266 and 
making the square bends 6' and 7', are omitted. After bend 7' 
has been made, place the sheet in the position A, and make a 
bend on dot 9' to the required angle called for by 9' in the stays 
as shown by B. Now reverse B in the position A, Fig. 267. and 
make a. bend on dot lO", turning it as far as it will go, as shown 
by B. Draw out the sheet and close the brake on dot 4', A, 
Fig. 268, make a bend to the required angle, as shown by B, and 
finish the hem edge at 2', after which reverse the sheet to the 
position A, Fig. 269, and make a square benil on dot 3', as shown 
by B. Open the paws of the brake and insert bend 10' in B, 
as shown by A a fc. Fig. 270. Close the upjier leaf B until A 
is broiight into the position C, springing the joint at D. This 
cotnpletes the bending of the lower curb. 

The forming of the common bar is next in order. In Fig. 271 
A is the stay, showing what angles are actually necessary for 
forming purposes. The first bend is made on dot c, bringing 
/ to the position f, as called for by the stay. The sheet is now 
drawn out and the brake closed on dot d. Fig, 272, and a bend 
made to the required angle, as shown by A. The sheet is now 
reversed in the brake, A, Fig. 273, and the proper angle bent on 
dot c, shown by B. Again reversing B. place it in the brake, 



200 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



B, Fig. 274, and make a square bend on dot b, shown by C. 
Reverse the sheet C and place it in the brake. A, Fig. 275, and 
make a bend on dot a as far as it will go, as indicated by B. 

Reverse B and place it in the brake in the position B, Fig-. 276, 
where, in forcing B to close the brake on dot b, the lower part 
of B will strike the bending leaf at 1, thereby causing a slight 
curve at 2, which wilt spring out again when a square bend is 
made on dot b, shown by C. The bar is now reversed. A, Fig. 277, 
the brake closed on dot c, and a bend made to the angle B. 

Again reverse B, Fig. 278, and make the pro(>er bend on dot d, 
shown by C. Draw out sheet C and close brake on dot c, C, Fig. 
279, and make a bend to the angle shown by D. Now open the 




FI9.M8 

Fius. 266-67-68 6970. Bendi 

jaws of the brake as wide as possible and insert the angle a, 
shown by D a. Fig. 280. Close the brake firmly, causing the two 
condensation gutters I and 2 to spring together tightly at b. 

The student is cautioned to be very careful to have each and 
every bend formed exactly on the dot and to its true angle, other- 
wise the result will be different from that shown by E. 

The last part to be bent is the cross bar or clip shown in section 
by D, Fig. 252. In Fig. 281, B shows the only angle or stay re- 
quired. Start this cross bar by placing sheet h 1 in the brake and 
make a stjuare bend on dot i, shown by A. Leaving the sheet in 
the brake, draw it outward and close the top clamp on dot /, 
Fig. 282, and make a square bend. In making this square bend 



Construction of Flat Skylight 



201 



the edge k is forced agiinsl the top clamp at a and presses the 
right angle t out of square, shown by r'. Leave the sheet in this 
position, reverse it and place it in the brake, A, Fig. 283, and 
make a bend on dot k to the required angle, shown by B. 

Place B / in the jaws of the brake in the position A /, Fig. 284, 
and clamp the bend k, shown by B. Leaving B in this position 




with the brake closed, as A, Fig. 285, use the hammer C and with 
light blows against the comer 1 bring A 1 into the position B 2. 
Now take a piece of band iron, slightly thicker than the thick- 
ness of glass used, place the band iron A, Fig. 286, in the groove 
1, 2, 3, and with the top clamp IJ squeeze 1 <lown. This maJ<es 
an even, uniform groove' to receive the glass. The rest of the 




bends on /, m and n in diagram X are made as explained in Figs. 
277, 278 and 279. 

Having bent the various parts the student is ready to put llie 
skylight together, Fig. 287. The back and one side of the sky- 
light should be joined square at A, then the front and o]>posite 
side at B. These corners should only be tacked and remain so 
until the opposite comers are joined at C and D. As the dis- 
tance between the bars in this case measures 5% in. as before 
explained, mark off the distances on the back and front curb 



202 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



and tgck in position the common bars E and F, after which cross 
bar G is tacked in tlie center between the common bars. If the 
skylight lies perfectly level, solder all the joints complete, when 
it will have the api)earance shown in Fig. 253. 

In the construction of large flat skylights, 50 or 100 ft. long, 
they are usually set together at the building, fitting all work at 




Rg.STS Rg.277 

Bending OpvratiLii on Brake in Forminfi 

the shop, and to speed the work at the job, instead of marking 
off the dimensions between the bars as in Fig. 287, a V-shaped 
stay is bent as in diagram X, which has the required length or 
distance between the bars and is used in spacing the bars, instead 
of the 2 ft. rule. 

After the model skylight is completed at the school, instruc- 





Fi9.280 



g Opcr, 



tion is given how to fasten the metal curbs to the wood or angle 
iron frames, how to glaze the skylight, and secure the capping 
over the joint between the bar and glass. 

The first thing to be considered is the fastening of the metal 
curb on ihc wooden frame. Fig. 288. W shows the roof sheathing 
and V the wooden rurb, which are flashed with tin, galvanized 
iron or copper and nailed to the top of the curb by wire nails 
at a. Over this flashing the metal curb .'\ is set, the shoulder ot 



Construction of Flat Skylight 



203 



the metal curb C resting on the wood curb. Through the cap 
flange A, the wood screw b is placed, having a lead washer be- 
tween the screw head and cap flange to make a tight joint. These 
screws are placed about 2 ft. apart. Brass screws should be 
used when the skylights are made o[ copper, and they should 
not be driven in with the hammer, a screw driver should be used. 



S/e iy 






F^ig-3« rig.S82 Flg.aSS 

Bending Opeiilion* (or Cross Bar. 

On fireproof structures where the framing is of iron, the curb 
of the skylight is bolted to the angle or T as in Fig. 289. In this 
case the flashing is carried up, and turned at a; over this flashing, 
resting on the angle iron, curb A is set, and a bolt b passed 
through the cap flange and angle through holes previously 
punched or drilled by the iron constructor. When the skylight 




is being fastened in this manner the fireproof blocks F P B 
should not be in place until the skylight is secured. Sometimes 
these are already in position before the skylights are set, in which 
case the blocks are drilled and the metal curb fastened by long 
bolts passed through F with a washer on the inside made of 
band iron about 3 or 4 in. long ard a nut placed on the inside of 
the fireproofing. A better job is obtained by tapping the holes 
in the angle iron, so that the curb can be fastened or removed 
at will, without disturbing the fireproof blocks, 



204 Home Instruction for Sheet Metai, Workers 



Sssh— 



When tlu curbs are in position and the bars in place, the sk)- 
light can be glazed in three ways. When the skylight is very 
steep the glass can be bid directly on the bars, Fig. 290, in which 
case ribbed glass is employed 
having a section similar to 
that shown by F, These ribs 
carry off the water and pre- 
vent it from running side- 
wise to the bar, which is an 
advantage when putty is not 
to be used. Its disadvan- 
tage, however, is that by 
having the ribs on the out- 
side the depressions fill with 
dirt, which is hard to clean, 
and darkens the space below. 
The second way of glazing 
when the skylight is not 
steep is to lay the glass di- 
rectly on to the bar A and 
■t the putty over the joint a. In this case, if ribbed glass is 
iiployfd, the ribs may be placed downward, which acts similar 
a prism liglit. 








The 'thiril and best method is to bed the k'^i^s in the putty as 
shown to the left of A, Soft putty is tirst laid on the rabbet 
of bar A, then glass G imbedded in it, which causes the putty 



Construction of Flat Skylight 



205 



to squeeze out of the joint at b and c. The surplus putty is 
cleaned off with the putty knife, leaving a layer as thick as c, 
while at thfe bottom it is cut off in line with the bend e'. When 
cutting oH this putty, b, care must be taken to keep the gutter, e, 
of bar A clear of the putty, which would clog the gutter of the 
bar. 

When all the glass has l>een laid a metal capping is placed over 
the joint to make a clean 
finish, as in Figs. 291 and 
292. These cappings are 
secured to the bars by soft 
copper clips or wire fas- 
tened to the top of the bar, 
as will be understood by 
referring to Fig. 290. These 
clips are secured to the 
bars at the shop before 
being sent to the build- 
ing and placed about 18 
in. apart. Soft copper is 
glass the clip or wire can 
glass and cap inserted, when 





the clip is again ready for use. lieing of soft copper, it 
is pliable and will not break. If galv;mized iron were used it 
would be likely to break when being rebent, which would necessi- 
tate new wire or clips and rc(|uire the same work to be done over 
again, as will now be described. 

When clip B, which is cut J.^ in. wide by 1 in. long, is to be 
fastened, it is riveted to the bar at d Fig. 290, holes having pre- 



206 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

viously been punched in clip B as well as in the upper part of bar 
A and 1-lb. tinned rivets employed. When a wire clip is used a 
hole is punched through the doubled metal, as at C, with a prick 
punch and hammer until the hole is large enough to receive 1/16- 
in. thick wire. The wire D is then inserted about j4 in. inside 
as at d'. Fig. 290, and soldered to the bar, the joint being sweated 
well so that the wire will not loosen when turned over. 

If a V-shaped cap is to be fastened as in Fig. 291, by clip B, 
a slot is cut from the inside, in the top of the cap in its proper 
position by a hammer and small chisel, diagram X, where the cap 
is laid on a block of wood or lead, b showing the cut slot. The 
cap A is now set over the bar H, and the clip B allowed to pass 
through the slot previously cut and B turned over as at C. WTien 
the wire is used as a fastener, a rivet punch of the required siic 
is used to punch the hole a in X. When the wire D is passed 
through the cap, it is turned over as shown by E, Before the 
clips are dressed down with the hammer, cap A is pressed firmly 
on the glass and, while held in this position, clip B or D is turned 
down and dressed lightly with the hammer. Where the caps 
intersect one another they are mitered and soldered. 

Another form of capping is shown at A, Fig. 292. This form 
can be fastenc<l by small brass bolts c or copper wire b twisted 
at the top, cither of which is passed through the proper size hole 
punched at a. A mistake often made is to use iron instead of 
brass bolts, and, in case of breakage and when the cap must be 
renioveil, it is a hard job to remove the iron bolt, as it is thor- 
oughly rusted by the weather. 

The method of forming the capping A is explained in con- 
nection with Fig, 29.1. in which A shows the capping when bent 
in a manner similar to that explained in connection with the 
skylight Kirs. A is placeil in the jaws of the brake at B, and a 
piece of hand iron C having the proper thickness is placed in B, 
the loj) damp closed, bringing the cap in the desired position 
indicated by 1). When the caps have been fastened and their 
intersections soldered the outside work at the building is complete. 

While llic patterns, in Fig. 252. were developed for a flat 
skylight, the) could also be used, with a few minor adjustments 
of some of the miter cuts, for a double-pilch skylight on a flat 
roof. Fig. 294, or for a double-pitch or ridge skylight on the ridge 
of a roof, Fig. 295. That is. the bottom pattern cut S to T of 
the side curb A, of Fig. 252, and tlic bottom cut W to X of the 
pattern of bar C remain as shown. In addition a pattern is 



Construction of Flat Skylight 



207 



wanted for the gable miter on the side curb and a pattern for a 
ridge bar. This gable miter on the side curb is to be obtained 
from the shop detail as follows : First obtain the bevel of the 
gable in either Figs. 294 or 295, as A, 
Fig. 295, and place it as shown by A* B* 
C" in the sectional view, Fig. 252. Bisect 
this angle by using B* as center, and with 
any convenient radius draw arcs inter- 
secting lines A' B' and B" O at I> and C'. 
With the same or any other radius and D" 
and C* as centers draw arcs intersecting 
each other at E". Draw a line from B* 
to E", which represents the miter line. As 
the side curb is represented by section A, 
then from intersections 1 to 11 in A, draw 
lines parallel to B* C' until they intersect the miter or joint line 
B* E», as shown by the intersecting dots numbered 1 to 11, from 




■■J\^ 



T-Shajwd Cap 



ti Skyljghlg for Fill Ruufi. 



which points, at right angles to B" C", draw lines intersecting 
similar numbered lines in the pattern for sides of curb, shown by 



t Ridge SkjIiKhi. 



the dotted lines, A line traced (hrough points thus obtained, 
H" L" N' /", will be the miter cut for the side curb to fit over the 
ridge of the roof at the required angle. Allow laps on one side 
from H* to J*. 



208 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

To obtain the true section of the ridge bar, take the dis- 
tance from 6 to 7 or the width of the raKbet in section A and 
place it, from 6 to 7*, measuring from the miter line B* E*, and 
draw a line from 7" to 8, corresponding to the line from 7 to 8 
in section A. Take a tracing of B* 6, 7*, 8, 10 and place it, as 
shown, by similar numbers in X. Reverse it by similar numbers 
in Y, and add the condensation gutters F" F*. Then X Y shows 
the true section of the ridge bar which will pass above the gutter 
line 10 in section A. 

For the jrattern for the ridgi bar X Y, take the girth of X Y 
and place it on ;.ny line O" P', shown by similar numbers, through 
which draw lines at right angles to O* P", and draw the line 
O* P* parallel to O P" at any convenient distance from it. As 
this ridge bar must miter with the side curb, take the dis- 
tance of the rabbet 6 7 in section A and place it in the pattern 



yi<i. 296. Mcisurtmcnts for Frame for Ridge SkylighL 

for the ridge bar on the lines drawn through 7', measuring from 
the line O* I"', thus obtaining the jjoinls 7* 7'', from which lines 
are drawn to 6* and 8* on both sides, which completes the pattern. 
The pattern of the top cut of the bar, C, with this ridge bar, 
would be obtained by projecting lines down to the pattern from 
points, on line IS' !■>, as B' 6 7" and 8. 

When measuring the wood curb for the ridge skylight, the 
extreme outer upper edges should be measured from e to a. Fig. 
296, which, assume will, measure say, 3 ft. 6 in., and from 
a to b, which measures 6 ft. To these measurements, %-m. 
should he added when measuring the metal curb to allow for 
the flashing turning up against the wood curb. Then, when lay- 
ing out llic metal curb, measure 6 ft, ^ in. from point 18 in 
the pattern for lower end of curb. Fig. 252, to a similar point on 
the opposite side of the jiatlern when reversing the cut, and when 
laying out the metal gable curb for a e. Fig. 296, measure on the 



Construction of Flat Skylight 209 

pattern for sides of curb in Fig. 252 from the arrow points 
L* to M", making this distance 3 ft. 6J4 in- 

When laying out the full pattern for the ridge bar, measure 
from B^, reversing the «ut on the opposite side to a distance of 
6 ft. Ji in., as in Fig. 296. Laps should be allowed to the ridge 
pattern in Fig. 252, as shown by the dotted lines. 

The forming of the ridge bar is the same as for the common 
bar already explained. The ridge bar is capped in a manner 
indicated in section X Y. 

Sometimes a flat skylight is placed on a flat roof, Fig. 297, the 
wood curb having the required |3itch. The patterns developed 
in the shop detail, Fig. 252. for a flat skylight, can be used for this 
style of skylight. Fig. 297. The student will readily understand that 
the set of patterns developed in Fig. 252 can be used for flat or 
double pitch skylights, whether on level or steep roofs. Also 
this type of skylight would be used for a curb like in Fig. 251, for 
skylight like Fig. 294 and Fig. 297 by simply tilling out the tri- 
angular cheek or sides with sheet metal. 



Pic. 297. Single Titcli Skyliglit for Fkl Roiif, 

The size section of the bars shown in Fig. 252 should not be 
used for bars longer than 6 ft., as the weight of tlic glass, the 
exposure presented to catch snow, sleet and ice would be too 
great a strain on the bar. When the span of the skylight is wide 
and the run of the bar long, provision must be made in the con- 
struction of the bars and curbs to withstand wind pressure as well 
as dead loads of snow and ice. The strength of the bars of differ- 
ent sizes made from various gages of sheet metal, can only be 
determined by actual tests; that is. pieces of bars arc formed of 
different sizes to given lengths, the ends placed upon supports 
and the center weighted until a defleclion or bend is noted, which 
shows the weight it cannot sustain. .-\ trial is again made until 
the safe load is obtained. In many cases of skylights of large 
si2«, the architect furnishes full size sections of bar and curb, or 



210 



Home Instkuction fou Sheet Metal W( 



the construction is of angle iron made by the iron constructor, 
and covered by the sheet metal worker. 

To give the student practical forms of skylight bars. Figs. 298 
to 308 inclusive have been prepar^. A reinforced bar is shown 
in Fig. 298, the general shape of which is similar to that already 




Shttt Jttal Core. 



described, excepting that a reinforcing strip is placed at A A, 
which locks over the lower part of the bar, holding walls B and 
B together, imparting great rigidity to the bar, 

A similar bar is shown in Fig. 299 which, in addition to the 
reinforcing strip A A, has a sheet metal core B extending through 




the entire width of the bar, and clamped tight at C. This core 
\i is cut from 22 gage iron and is inserted before the bar is 
clamped at C Afier C Iras been clamped the reinforcing strip 
A A is slipped over the lower part of the bar and clamped in 
the jaws of the brake at A and A. When (he reinforcing strip 
\ .\ is being formed, it is bent in the hand brake as shown by 
: solid line b' a a h, a strip of iron 1/16 in. thick is placed at 



Construction of Flat Skylight 211 

c, and a b' closed over it, which prevents the upper damp from 
closing this edge entirely when making the slight bend at t. 
The strip c is nowr removed and d i b' slipped over the lower part 
of bar A A and the edges clamped in the brake, thus completing 
the bar. 

In Fig. 300 a larger size bar is shown with a central core plate 
.B added for wide spans. Modifications of this bar are made by 
increasing its depth and varying the thickness of the core plate. 
Note that the reinforcing strip A A is added to keep the walls of 
the bar in rigid position. With this style of bar holes are 
punched in the core plate, about 30 in. apart, through which the 
brass bolt, C, is passed to hold down the cap, a a, as well as 
to form a rigid construction between the core plate and metal bar. 
The size of the core plate should be regulated according to the 
span of the skylight. To find the safe uniformly distributed 
load that the core plates will carry, the student is advised to 
consult any engineers' pocket book or the schedules furnished by 
rolling mills producing these core plates, which will give the 
safe strength of the skylight bar. When finding the safe load, 
the span of the skyjight, the distance the bars arc placed apart 
and the exposure presented for wind pressure, snow, sleet and 
ice, must be considered. 

A ridge bar reinforced at e « is shown in Fig. 301 with a sheet 
metal core a. The joint between the glass and bar is pro- 
tected from leakage by the cap c b d fastened as previously de- 
scribed. If desired the bar and cap may be made in one piece. 
Fig. 302. Note carefully , how this bar is bent. The walls of 
the bar are held firmly by the reinforcing strip A A with caps 
formed at B B, then closed with a standing seam a( D. Soft 
putty is inserted between the cap and rabbet of the bars and the 
glass C C pressed in, which will make a tight job. 

In the five illustrations next shown, the various shapes of curbs 
which may be modified to suit the pitch as occasion may demand. 
The simplest form for small size skylights is shown in Fig. 303, 
and is bent in one piece from A to B, with a cap flange resting 
over the wooden curb C, through which screws are inserted at 
D. Holes for the escape of the condensation are punched at E, 
allowing the drip to rttn to the outside. 

Note that bar F miters to the curb from A to G, as shown 
by the dotted lines, and gutter b in bar F is notched at c to allow 
the drip from the bar to flow into the gutter of the curb as shown 
by the arrow. When this style of curb is used and the doubled 



212 Home Ixstsuctiox fob Sheet Metal Wcakexs 

metal al a is not soldered, it h well to make a few notches, as at 
/, to allow any drip running between the folded metal at a, to 
escape at c. 

Another simple form for small size lights is shown in Fig. 304. 



^ 



Fitti, JHJ4. T»r, Simiilc Fotm. ai Curb iof FUt Skjlight. 

'J'his airlj is hcnt in one piece from A to B to C to D with drip 
holes at K. Note that the wood curb is beveled at the top to 
siiil the pitch of gutter li C, and that no joint is presented in the 
giillir to catth any drip as was the case at a, Fig. 303. 

I- 



A hiilldw form of curb i.-; sliown in !''ig. ,105. btnt in one piece 
I'oni .\ III li Ki (.' tu I), wilb condt'nsation boles punched at 

;inil />. If (be ji)int at !■' is not soblercd on the inside notches 
lionid lie iiiridf ;il tbi> lower end of Hange C at f. to allow the 
misinrc to fM-ape. wliich may enter at top of F. 



Construction of Flat Skylight 213 

In joining bar E to this style curb the corners / of bar E are 
notched as e' e" e'" to allow the rabbet of the bar to rest upon 
the rabbet of the curb. The gutter ft i/ of bar E is notched at the 
bottom, a distance indicated by ft' g', allowing the drip from the 
bar to enter the gutter of the curb, as shown by the arrow. If 
desired flange h g oi bar E may be riveted to flange D of the 
curb as indicated by F". 

A section of a curb is shown in Fig, 306 that is used for 
larger skylights and has the advantage of being easily bent; the 
weight of the skylight rests directly upon the main curb D, 
which must be cut to suit the bevel of the skylight. The curb 
is bent in one piece from A to B to C, with drip holes punched 
at intervals at E. The elevation of the bar is shown by the dotted 
lines a to b, the lower part of the bar resting directly upon flange 
B to which it is riveted, bringing the direct weight upon the 
curb D. The notch c indicated in the bar is for condensation out- 
let into the gutter of the curb. 

A similar form of metal curb for heavy skylights is shown with 
Fig. 307 in which A B C is added, flange H C being riveted at a. 
In this case drip holes are punched at d, e, etc. When the sky- 
light is of great span, provision is made to keep the metal curb 
from spreading by adding the double bend D K in diagram X. 
This is so bent that the metal curb slips over the flashed lower 
curb. Should the bars in the skylight contain a core as in Fig. 
300, and as indicated by F D, Fig, 307, the metal curb is rein- 
forced by the wood core M, and the core plate F D cut out so as 
to rest firmly on the metal curb, the cut being indicated by ft i / /. 
In this case, where the wood core M is employed, holes are 
bored through M to admit the condensation tube / /. These 
tubes are made of soft copper to avoid rusting. The form of 
construction in diagram X is for skylights having great spans 
and long runs, and if wocKlen curbs are used as a base, they 
should not be Iftss than 3 in. in thickness and well braced to pre- 
vent spreading. 

A view is given in Fig, 308 of the various parts of a double 
pitched skylight using the bars and curb previously described, 
A is the ridge bar. B the cross bar or clip to support the glass 
in lai^ skylights, where more than one length of glass is re- 
quired. Leakage is prevented by means of the cross gutter, 
which conducts the condensation or rain into the gutters of the 
skylight bar ; D is the common bar ; the metal curb is set over the 
wood curb C as shown the curb C. of course, is first flaslied. 



214 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

With this form of const ruction, which gives great rigidity-, any 
length of skyh'ght can be constructed, similar to the one shown in 
Fig. 309, which is a double-pitched skylight with cross clips, 177 
ft. long, 16 ft. 16 in. span. 



Fig. 308. Sectional View ol Dnuble Tilcb Skfliihl. 

When flat skylights are laid on sleep roofs where no base 
curbs are employed and the line of the glass is to run flush with 
the line of the roof, the construction of the metal curb is the 
same as in Fig. 310, which shows a section taken through A B, 




Fig. 311. Note how curb A, Fig. 310, is constructed. It is 
formed in one piece with a condensation gutter at B and riveted 
together at C. The metal cajiping over the glass is bent directly 
to the curb, as al IJ, and a lock attached at i-" on which to join 
the rooting. 

The size of the curb is measured from the arrow point A to 



Construction of Flat Skylight 215 

suit the opening in the roof. This curb rests upon the roof line 
F. The common bars are formed as indicated by H, allowing 
the top to pass under the metal capping of the top curb which is 
similar to D. Over the bar Ha flat cap J is secured by copper 
cleats as previously explained. Cap J should also pass underneath 
the metal cap of the top curb. The condensation gutter of the bar 
H passes above the gutter of top curb A, Fig. 312, which makes 
a neat job and avoids mitering or notching the gutter of curb A. 
As the water of the main roof flows over the glass, great care 
must be taken to solder all joints and cleats watertight. The 
glazing must also be carefully done, with the glass well bedded 
in white lead putty to avoid leakage. 



Fic. 310. Section Through A-B in FiRure 311. Fin. JI1. Flal SkyliKhl Fluih With 
Roof Lint. Fig. 312. Srction Throimh CB F«urc 311. 

A section through C D, Fig. 311, is shown in Fig. 312, which 
also shows the top and bottom of the curb. The lop curb A 
is similar in construction to the side curb A, Fig. 310, but the 
bottom curb B, Fig. 312, has the condensation gutter C as well 
as the glass stop b formed in one piece. When glazing at b, 
care should be taken to have a tight joint. Should any leakage 
occur it is taken care of by the condensation tube D, which is 
joined to the gutter at C, passing through the header and roof 
at D at a pitch to carry off the water. Care should be taken 
to solder tight around the roof at a. 

When the condensation tubes arc being put in the skylight is 
set and the holes marked, after which the curb is raised and 
holes bored at the proper angle through the roof, the curb reset 
and the tube, which should be made of copper, passed through 
from the outside and soldered at c and a. Should there be any 
danger of snow entering these tubes a small shieh' can be placed 



216 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

over each outlet as shown by the dotted line e. A view of the 
lop and side curb is shown in X. The patterns for a skylight of 
this kind are developed in similar manner, as already explained. 
With the information given for forming the bars and curbs 
in the brake, the student should have no difficulty in forming the 
various shaped bars and 
curbs described. Practice 
is best obtained by cutting 
strips of metal about 2 or 
3 in. wide having the 
required girth, and form- 
ing them in the brake 
until proficiency is at- 

Fio. 31J. Raising SmiU Fiat Skyliiihl. taincd. 

Construction of Raising Gear for Small Flat Skylights 

When small flat skylights are to be used for light and ventila- 
tion, provision for raising them may be made similar to that in 
Fig. 313, in which a ratchet, A, is secured to the center part of 




llie skylight bar as in Fig. 314, in which .\ A shows a truss shaped 
band nuidc from J^ x ij<j-tn. band iron riveted lo the two center 
bars at the lower flange at a. a. a. and <i. In the center of A A 
a cast iron hinge, li, is riveU-il at h and b. These hinges may 
be obtained from dealers in skylight gearings. To hinge B a 
ratchet or raising rod C is pivoted at d. and while it can be made 
by hand it may be obtained cheaper from dealers or manufac- 
turers, who cali tbeni skylight lifts. Such ratchets allow any 
small flat skylight to be openetl and closed and locked automat- 
ically cither way. 



Construction of Flat Skylight 217 

For these raising skylights a special hinge is required and may 
be made cheaply and quickly with a few pieces of band iron 
and rivets. Fig. 315 shows the parts of the hinge quarter size. 






The band iron should be 1 in. wide by 3/16 in. thick and inade 
in sections. The holes should be punched in the exact position . 
shown. In the upper part A, two holes are punched at e and e 
to admit rivets '/^ in. in diameter. Hole / will correspond to / 



in the middle piece B ; / in U is placed on / in A and riveted 
tight and rigid to form a right angle. l"ho hole /i in B corre- 
sponds to the hole h in C. and h in H is laid over It in C and 
riveted so as to allow h to act as a jiivoi in the hinge. In piece C 
the holes / and »i are punched and countersunk on the outer 
side, to allow the heads of wood screws to be flush with the hinge 
surface. 



218 Home Instiuction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Applying the hinge to the skylight and curb and the method 
of operation are shown in Fig. 316, in which D represents the 
that the upper part of hinge A is riveted to the flange d of the 
metal curb at e and e with flat head rivets inserted from the 
inside so as to have a smooth surface where flange d sets over 
curb D, A hinge being riveted at each side, the skylight is set 
over the base curb and screwed to the base curb at / and m. 
When raising the skylight k becomes the pivot upon which the 
hinge turns. The solid lines show the skylight closed and the 



dotted lines show the skylight open. Nutc how the metal curb 
a b c dh thrown away from the base curb, at a' b" d d' , the sweep 
being indicated hy the dots am! dashes. I(y using the patterns. 
Fig. 315, iliL'se hingLS may easily be made by the student from 
scrap bands and punching the J^-in. holes on the punch machine. 

CuNSTRL'CTIUN OF EXTENSION SKYLIGHTS 

A view of a flat extension skylight at the rear of a store or 
other building is presented in Fig. 317. The upper sides and 
the ends are flashed into the brick walls and pointed with water- 
proof cement, the lower side resting on the rear wall, to which it 
is securely anchored. The water flows into a molded gutter 
and a leader carries it to the ground or sewer connection. It is 
usually advisable to erect a wire guard over skylights so located 
to prevent breaking the glass by falling objects. 



Construction of Flat Skyhght 219 

The method of obtaining the patterns for a skylight of this 
kind is similar to that already described, but shaping the various 
curbs and securing them is different from those previously de- 
scribed and will now be taken up. A sectional view is given in 
Fig. 318, taken through A B, Fig. 317, showing how the upper 
curb is formed when it is to rest direct upon the flange of the 
iron beam. In Fig. 318, A, shows the iron beam and B the for- 
mation of the upper curb. Note that this is bent in one piece 
with a standing lock at the top, the angle at the bottom being 
made to conform with the flange of the beam. The section of 
the skylight bar is shown at C and miters with the curb B. If 
desired a wood core, D, may be placed inside of curb B, the cores 
being cut to slide in easily. 




Fics. 31S-19. Slru«tural Dclaila of Small Skylighli. 

When the skylight is of such size that it cannot be made com- 
plete in the shop it is usual to set it together at the building, in 
which case all measurements are carefully laid out so that the 
space between the bars will be e(|ually divided. This being done 
glass E is laid in pulty and a combination flashing and cap, F, 
placed over the glass flashed into the joint of the brick work at a 
and fastened with flashing hooks and cement. 

When this work is being done the glass, of course, is all in 
place, and a number of planks are laid across the bars to avoid 
breaking the glass. The lower part of F forms a cap over the 
glass at b. When flashing F is secured, caps are placed over the 
skylight at H in the manner already described, and mitered to 
flashing F at & and then soldered. In this manner the upper part 
of the curb is made watertight. 

Sometimes when a flat skylight is placed over a shaft or other 
enclosure, and is of small size, it may be fastened direct to the 
brick wall, Fig. 319, in which A is the curb, formed so as to 



220 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

have the lock come at the bottom as at C. Through the upper 
flange a, anchor nails are driven in the joints of the brick wall 
B as indicated by b. If these nails are placed 12 inches apart, 
it will be sufficient. The method of obtaining a watertight joint 
is similar to that in Fig. 318. 

Spiking the upper curb to the wall on a large skylight would 
not afford the recjuired strength to sustain the weight, and where 
no beam flange offers a bearing, provision must be made for a 
solid support. This can be done as shown in Fig. 320, in which 
an angle iron is secured to the wall by means of expansion bolts 
similar to that in Fig. 321. Securing the angle iron is done as 
follows: If J-2-in. bolts are to be used, holes are punched into 




the angle iron 9/16 in. in diameter, about 18 in. apart, the angle 
iron to be 3 X 3 X J4 in., or heavier, according to- the size of 
skylight. After the angles are punched they are held on the 
wall in (heir proper position and the holes marked on the brick 
wall. Moles are drilled about 3 in. deep in the wall, then sleeve 
a of the expansion bolts in Fig. 321 inserted, and passed through 
the hole in angle A, Fig. 320, and then screwed in the sleeve 
already in the wall, which causes the sleeve to expand, thus secur- 
ing the angle to the wall at I'. Upon this angle A curb C can 
be placed, and a wood core inserted in C if desired. 

Where the side of the skylight in Fig, 317 butts against the 
wall, a half bar is used. Fig. 322, which shows a sectional view 
through F 1^: in I-'ig. 317. Xotc in Fig. 322 the half twir A is bent 
in one piece with a lock at the top, through which, if the bar is 
long, it is nailed at proper intervals, as indicated at a. The joint 
between this kir and the wall is made watertight by the flashing 
cap R, which is flashed and cemented in the brick joint at c with 
the lower end covering glass b at d. 



Construction of Flat Skylight 221 

Three simple ways of constructing the lower part of the curb 
through C D, Fig. 317, may be used. The first. Fig. 323, gives 
the formation of the curb when it is to rest upon a cast-iron gut- 
ter furnished by the iron constructor; the second. Fig. 324, when 
it is to rest upon wood curbing furnished by the framer, and the 
third. Fig. 325, when it is to rest directly ujwn the brick wall, the 
sheet metal worker furnishing the gutter, curb, etc. : The student 
should carefully note the formation of these constructions, a 
knowledge of which will enable him to construct other shapes 
as occasion may demand. 

In Fig. 323 A A shows the cast-iron gutter with a drip at a 
set over the walL Drip a is placed so as to keep the water from 
flowing underneath the gutter and through the wall, should the 
gutter overflow. The metal curb B, or the lower part of the 
skylight, is formed from & to c to d, the groove d B filled with 
roofer's cement, and then clamped over the cast-iron gutter, the 
flange at c being riveted to the lower flange of the skylight bar 
C at e /. Holes are punched between the lights of glass as at rf, 
to allow the condensation to escape, as indicated by the arrow. 
Care must be taken to form the curb B so that c will come above 
the upper line of the gutter as indicated by the dotted line A, 
so that if the gutter becomes clogged and the water rises it will 
overflow at A and not run inside the building. The gutter is 
usually drained to the inside by a cast-iron or copper pipe. 

When the frame is constructed by the carpenter, as is usual, 
then the sheet metal construction is arranged as in Fig. 324, in 
which A is a wooden plate on -which a curb 3-in. thick is fastened 
at B. Over this plate and curb the sheet metal gutter is placed. 
It is bent to the top of the wooden curb at D and with an ogee or 
any other shaped mold on the front to C. Care must be taken to 
have the top of the mold C lower than the top of the gutter at the 
rear D, shown by the dotted line and a, so that in case the gutter 
overflows the water will not pass inside the building. 

To prevent the water from getting inside of the wall when 
the gutter overflows and to protect the wooden plate A, a drip 
angle is soldered to the bottom of the gutter at E. The front 
part of the gutter is held down by placing a few brass wood 
screws at r and nailing to the top of the curb D. Over this wood 
curb the lower metal skylight curb is set, having a shape shown 
by F, it beii^ bent in one piece as from t to c to rf to e to /, and 
flange b is riveted at o. The skylight bar H joins the curb, and 
is riveted through m k. At intervals a copper condensation tube 



222 Home Instkuction* roc Sheet Metal Wmkeis 



Construction of Flat Skylight 223 

is placed at / t. By having the double flange e attached the curb 
is prevented from sliding. The outlet for the main gutter is car- 
ried to the inside by means of a tube L carried through the wall 
and connected to the drain pipe. 

When the brick wall is left as indicated by X Y in Fig. 325 
and no provision made for fastening the skylight curb, the wall 
is protected and the necessary curb constructed as follows: A 
sheet metal hanging gutter is hung over the wall shown by A B 
so as to cover the entire wall with a standing edge at C and D, 
and then turning down on the inside of the wall with a hem 
edge at E, nailed close to the wall at b. Braces are used to 
secure the gutter at .r and the gutter outlet is shown by V. The 
standing edge at C prevents the water from flowing inside the 
building, the top edge of the main gutter A being placed below 
the top of C, indicated by the dotted line and a. 

The lower curb of the skylight F can be made in two pieces, 
locked at H and G. The bottom and rear part of this curb is 
bent from H to K to J to G, the V-shaped form K being set over 
C. The front and top of the curb is formed from H to L to F to 
G, F being the gutter to catch the condensation, with outlets at 
e f. The lock at G is close tightly with the dolly and mallet, to 
which skylight bar M is riveted through c d. At H the lock is 
closed and soldered and the flange H is sweated to the gutter 
lining B C. While this curb is soldered to the gutter at H the 
standing edge C acts as a guard to prevent leakage should the 
seam along H burst at any point. 

If the skyhght is very large and heavy the hollow curb K J may 
be filled with cement or wood blocking at the building before it 
is set, say in 2-sheet lengths or 16 ft. About 2 in. from the ends 
should be reserved to join the seams. 

With the information given about the various styles of curbs 
in flat extension skylights, the student should have no difficulty 
in devising other shapes, practicing in his spare time on his draw- 
ng board, and he should try to bend these sha|)es on the brake 
so as to acquire accuracy, which is vitally important. Bends 
which are not true make a lot of work in erecting on a building 
or in putting parts together, so that accuracy is imperative. 



CHAPTER XXIV 
Construction of Raising Sash for Plat Skylights 

111 the flat extension skylight shown in Fig. 317 provision is 
often made to use it for ventilation by raising one or more 
sashes, a h, hinged at tlie top with worm gearings on the inside 
and operated from the floor below. The sash is constructed so 
as to have watertight joints when closed. This necessitates a 
change in the construction of the skylight bar in which the sash 
is to operate, and the student will now refer to the one-quarter 
size detail in Fig. 326 (see Folder 7).. A section view is in- 
cluded which clearly shows the quarter size sections of the vari- 
ous bars and curbs. At the right near the top the I-beam up(Hi 
which the brick wall K is built is indicated by L, against which the 
upi>er curb G is fastened by either the method of Fig, 319 or 320. 

Note the formation of curb G, Fig. 326. It is bent in one 
piece from 1 to 8. A woo<ien base curb M is shown at the left 
upon which rests the metal curb D, formed from one piece of 
metal from 1 to 10. 

These two curbs D and C represent the lower and upper parts 
of the skylight frame, to which ihe full bars are fastened for the 
stationary lights as well as the half bars for the raising sash, 
Fig, 327. The shape of the l>ar in which the raising sash will 
operate is a half bar with full condensation gutters as in Fig. 326, 
section B. It is formed in one piece, as shown by the small fig- 
ures from 1 to 9. Over tliis lialf bar B the sash bar is drawn 
with plenty of play room, as indicated by A, the formation being 
as shown by )ii h o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Note that 5 6 7 form the cap 
to .set over the glass in the adjuiiiing stationary light when the 
sash is closed and m n o sets in the condensation gutter 9 8 7 of 
the half bar I!. Over this sash bar the sash cap C is fitted, as 
indicated by 10 4 .1 II 12 1,1 forming a finish over the glass laid 
on the rabbet 1 2 of sash bar A. Ry referring to diagram X^ the 
student will sec these same sections with the parts somewhat ex- 
tended which more clearly depicts the .shapes of the parts. The 
cap C last referred to is indicated by C°. 

Over the lower curb D, in the sectional view, sash curb E is 
drawn with plenty of play room to keep it from binding when in 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skylights 225 

operation. Care should be taken to have the glass line 14 IS in 
E in line with line 1 2 in A. 

The formation of curb E is shown from 11 to 18, holes being 
punched in the angle 16 to allow any condensation or leakage 
to flow into gutter 3 4 S of curb D, thence to the outside through 
the tube at 4. The upper part of the sash curb is indicated by 
F F and the student's close attention is called to this formation. 
Note that the shape starts at 1 to 2, to 3, to 4, to 5, the distance 
from 5 to 6 being % in. more than the thickness of the glass 
used, as 6 7 8 is doubled over, forming a cap which makes a tight 
joint between the glass and curb at the upper part of the sash. 
Then 8 9 10 11 12 13 and 14 show doubled metal formed in a 
louvre shape, which, with the formation of the hood H, makes a 
watertight joint, whether the sash is open or closed, any snow 
or rain driven upward is caught by the louvre-shaped formation, 
thus preventing any leak at the hinged joint F*. Should any 
snow or rain find its way in 2 3 of hood H it is carried to the 
outside through holes punched in the angles at 2 or 3 before 
bending. 

To prevent rusting brass hinges are used for the raising sash. 
These hinges are riveted to the doubled metal at 8 9 and screwed 
to the hinge support, J, formed from 9 to 12, in which a wood 
core is placed. The height of 10 11 in J is regulated according 
to the size hinge used. Having this hinge support J separate 
from the curb G allows the entire raising sash of the desired 
dimensions to be finished complete in the shop and then J is set 
in between the half bars and soldered thoroughly to the half bars 
and curb G at the upper part, after which the sash can be raised 
or lowered, turning on the pivot in the hinge. 

The hood H with flashing combined is made in one piece from 
1 to 7 and flashed into the joint of the brickwork, where it is 
fastened with wall hooks and cemented with roofer's cement or 
paint skins. 

The sectional view or diagram X' at the right shows the cap 
flashing over the stationary skylight in which the glass 2^ rests 
upon the rabbet of 1* and is flashed by the cap 3*, finishing in 
the brick joint, as previously described. 

In the lower part of the detail the diagram X' shows a hori- 
zontal section through the sash with the half bars, sash bars and 
sash caps, showing how one fits into another. 

The two half bars B", B", are shown with the glass of the 
stationary lights on their rabbets. Over these bars and glass sash 



226 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wobkeks 

bars A", A* arc raised or lowered. The glass of the raising sash 
is placed on the rabbets of the sash bars A", A", over which the 
sash caps C", C" are slipped. This detail being reduced ont- 
fourth size or 3 in. to the foot, the student should work oat his 
full size detail carefully, when ready to lay out the patterns for 
the various i»arts. 

The first pattern to be laid out is the lower metal curb D which 
is obtained by taking the girth of the lower curb D, shown by 
the small figures 1 to 10, and placing them on any straight line, 
as d 6 at the left, and adding an edge to 10 and 1. At right angles 
to d 6 draw lines in length about 6 ins., which will be used as the 
pattern for the lower curb D. As the condensation tube passes 
through and over angle 4 in the sectional view D, punch K"'"- 
holes, tangent to line 4 in pattern for D between 3 and 4, at f. 
When making this raising sash in the school a short piece is made, 
which demonstrates every point as if it were made full size, and 
the same course can be pursued by the home student. If the 
length of the skylight in question is to be 50 ft., as from L to M, 
Fig. 317, then the measuring points would be from 9 to 9° in the 
pattern for curb D, Fig. 326. 

The pattern near the bottom for the upper curb G 
is obtained by taking the girth of 1 to 8 in that section and plac- 
ing it on any line as r d, as shown by similar numbers, and com- 
pleting the rectangle of any desired width. Knowing the length 
of the skylight as from M to L, Fig. 317, the measuring points 
in Fig. 326 would be from 7 to 7" in the pattern for the upper 
part of curb li. 

The girth is now taken for the hinge support J in the sectional 
view, as shown from 9 to 12, to 9, and place it on any straight 
line as c f, at the lioliom, allowing an edge above 9 for lapping. 
At right angles lo c f complete the rectangular pattern. 

To obtain the length of this pattern J it is only necessary to 
know ihc distance bftweon ihc half bars in diagram X*, shown 
by the arrow points B° to H". Assuming that this distance is 12 
in., then make the distance from 12 to 12° in the pattern for the 
hinge support J that leiiglh, allowing a lap from 11 to 12 to solder 
to the half bar. Just as many hinge supports should be cut as 
there arc sashes to be raised. 

In the last three pallerns no miter cuts were required, because 
the ends of the pieces butt against flat surfaces. In the patterns 
to be developed miter cuts will be required, and all are developed 
in this r 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skylights 227 

The pattern for the bottom of the sash is developed as follows: 
Take the girth of E in the sectional view, shown by the small 
figures 11 to 18, and place them on any vertical line as g h 
near the center, as shown by similar numbers, and allow an 
edge over the point 11. Complete the rectangular figure, making 
i' / any required length. As the lower part of sash curb E in 
section view from 16 to 18 is to miter with the gutter on sash bar 
A, take the projections from 7 to « and / to m with the dividers 
and place them on the corresponding lines in the pattern for 
the bottom of the sash, from o' to n' and from I' to m' on either 
side, and draw the miter cuts o', ii', m'. Punch Y^-'m. holes cen- 
tral over line 16, shown by m" and n", which allows the conden- 
sation to pass through. If the width from center to center of 
the half bars B" in diagram X' is 12 in. then the distance from 
i' to j' in the pattern for the bottom of sash should be J4 '"■ '^ss, 
or 1 1 J4 '!>■. indicated by the arrow pointed line i J" in diagram X*. 

The pattern for the top of the sash F F in the sectional view is 
laid out by taking the girth from 1 to 14 and placing it on the 
vertical hne p r at the right of the drawing and completing the 
rectangular figures r^ s" t" it", making the distance from i" to /'" 
equal to i' f in the pattern for the bottom of the sash or J4 in. 
less than between the half bars in diagram X^ As the lower 
part, 1 2 3, in the section view F F miters with the gutter in sash 
bar A, obtain the cuts N and O in the pattern for the top of the 
sash in the same manner as explained in connection with similar 
cuts for the bottom of sash E. 

To avoid leakage at the hinged joint at F* in the sectional view 
the louvre-shaped formation in section F F from 8 to 11. to 14 
is extended over the half bars on each side, not less than 2 in., as 
shown from o' to a' in diagram X*, also in the pattern for the top 
of the sash as W" V" and in Fig. 328 at A. Allowing 2 in. on 
each side of the pattern for the top of the sash in Fig. 326 necessi- 
tates four notches to be cut. The height of these four notches 
will equal the height in the sectional view from the top of cap 7 8 
in section F F to the top of the half bar A. also indicated by the 
arrows between s, and the width t, of the pattern, of all four 
notches is equal to width ( in diagram X*. When the pattern for 
the top of the sash is formed the two notches on each side will 
fit directly over one another. 

When the location of the brick joint K° in the sectional view 
is known, that is, the distance the joint is above the glass line, 
then bend 6 of the hood pattern can be made in the brake. If this 



228 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

measurement is not known metal is added to the girth and bent at 
the building with flat pliers, roofing tongs or with a mallet over 
the edge of a beam. 

Assuming that the location of the joint is known, the pattern 
for the hood is obtained by taking the girth from 1 to 7 in H and 
placing it on the vertical line u v in the pattern for H, allowing 
an edge below 1 for stiffening. This girth allows for the U- 
shaped formation to hook under the louvre-shaped formation in 




the sectional view F F, and the distance from b' to b' for the 
hood should be made 2 in. longer than from P to R in pattern 
for the top of the sash, which will bring it 1 in. on each side of 
the half bar, from b* to b* in diagram X' 

Referring to Fig. 329 it will be noticed that the end of hood A 
extends to the top line of the glass of the stationary light and a 
flat head is soldered to the end of the hood, which prevents rain 
and snow from driving in and allows the sash to be raised without 
interfering with the hood, Fig. 330. The open end of the hood 
minus the head is shown in Fig. 331 by c. The portion of the hood 
resting on the stationary light is added to the pattern for the 
hood in Fig. 326 by taking the girth from the corner 3 in the 
sectional view H to the point a" on the glass line and 
"'acing it on the pattern for the hood from 3' to a' on each side, 
ig a double edge below a" for stiff'ening and makit^ the dis- 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skylights 229 

tance from of to 3' not less than Ij^ in., which will bring the 
hood Ij^ in. to the right of ft' in diagram X*, at c", thus bringing 
the end of the hood 2J-S in. on either side of the half bars. 

A slot is cut in the pattern for the hood from b' to of, because 
the center of the hood has a different shape from the ends, shown 
in sectional view H. A square bend is made on 3' 3' in the pat- 
tern for hood when forming, and the bend of, a* drawn back to 
the angle 4 3 o" in sectional view H. On line 2 or 3 in the pat- 
tern for the hood one or two Y^-'ya. holes are punched to allow 
any possible rain or snow to escape should it chance to blow in 
the angle 1 2 3 in sectional view H. 

If the joint in the wall where the cap flashing will enter as in 
diagram X' is known, the girth of the flashing for the stationary 
lights is obtained from I to 5 in the cap 3* and placed on the line 
A* B', at the top, as shown by similar numbers. At right angle to 
A* B* the pattern is drawn any desired width. 

For the pattern for the head to be soldered in the end of the 
hood, as at A, Fig. 329, take a tracing of the head in Fig. 326, 
shown in the sectional view by 5, 4, 3, a", a°°, 5 and place it at H" 
by similar numbers. Edges should be allowed all around for 
soldering and stiffening. 

To obtain the pattern for the half bar B, in the sectional view, 
take the girth of half bar B, from I to 9, and place on the line 
E* F' drawn at right angles to the pitch of the skyhght, shown 
by similar numbers. Through these points at right angles to 
E* F* draw lines, intersected by lines drawn at right angles to 
the pitch of the skylight from similar intersection with curb D 
at the bottom, and from intersections with the upper part of 
curb G at the top. By carefully following the dotted lines the 
points of intersections will become clear. For example, 9 and 8 
in half bar B is cut off at 9" and 8° in curb D a trifle above 18 
and 17 in sash curb E, and from 9" and 8° lines are projected to 
the pattern on similar numbered lines. 

The straight surface of 7 up to the top of the half bar B inter- 
sects the lower curb D at 4, 3, 2, 6" and is reproduced in the pat- 
tern, shown by b*, 5*", 5°, 6"; the top point, also 5 and 4 of the 
half bar B intersect the line 2 &■ in the curb D and from this a 
line is projected to the pattern intersecting lines 6 5 and 4. All 
points from 4 to 1 in the half bar section B intersect 3 4 of the 
lower curb D, from which a line is porjecled to the pattern inter- 
secting lines 4 to 1. In a similar manner are the upper intersec- 
tions obtained; 9 8 of the half bar B is cut oflf below the point 1 



230 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

in the upper part of the sash F, while point 8 and the straight 
part from 7 up to the top of the half har B intersect the upper 
curb G at 4, 5, 6 and 12 and is reproduced on the pattern, shown 
by 8*, C, 5' y and 6*. Then 4 to 5 and the straight part above 5 
of half bar B intersect curb G at 12, 6 and 5, and from these 
points lines are projected to lines 6, 5 and 4 in the pattern. Points 
4 to 1 in half bar B cuts curb G on line 5 4, from which a line 
is projected to the pattern. 

A line traced through points thus obtained will be the pattern 
for the half bar B. 

Knowing the length of the bar required from the line 4 5 in 
curb G to the line 3 4 in curb D, this distance is laid oJT and 
measurements are made from (K to c' in the pattern for half 
bar B. 

To obtain the [»attern for sash bar A draw any line at right 
angles to the pitch of the skyilght, C, D', upon which place the 
girth of the sash har A, from hi, h, o, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 and 7, shown 
by similar letters and figures on C D=, Through these points 
at right angles to C D' draw lines which are intersected by lines 
drawn at right angles to the pitch of the skyhght, from similar 
intersections on the bottom of tlie sash E and the top of the 
sash F, shown by the dotted lines drawn from sections E and F 
to the pattern for sash bar A. For example, hi and « in the sec- 
tion A intersects section E at 18 and 17, which points are pro- 
jected to the pattern on lines m and n. 

Points 0, 1 and 2 in section A intersects section E at 16, 15 
and 14, which points are projected to the pattern on lines o, I 
and 2. 

Points 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in section A intersects section E at 
12 and from this point the intersection is projected to the pat- 
tern to lines 2 to 7. The edge 13 14 in E represents the thick- 
ness of the glass and is set off on the pattern between lines 2 
and 3 on the hne projected from point 14 in E, as indicated by 
a' in the pattern. 

In a similar manner the student should follow the intersecting 
points between sash bar A and the top of sash F. A hne traced 
through points thus obtained will be the pattern for sash bar 

A. The measuring points are indicated on bend o from d' to e* 
and should always be 'A in. less than the lengtli of the half bar 

B, shown in the pattern from b^ to c'. This ^ inch allows the 
sash to work easily between the top and bottom curbs G and D 
and also for the thickness of the metal and laps. 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skylights 231 

The pattern for the sash cap is obtained by taking the girth of 
10 4 3 11 12 and 13 in section C and placing it on E' F', shown 
by similar numbers, and making its length from r* to d' as long 
as from C to d' in the pattern for sash bar A. 

This completes all patterns required for the raising sash, and 
in making up this exercise the student should make a sash the 
length of which will be as long as in the full-size detail and the 
width about 10 in. This will give the same practical knowledge 
as if the skylight sash were larger. 

The forming of the sash bar A and the half bar B as well as 
the sash cap C, is done as explained in previous exercises. The 
method of forming the lower curb D will be illustrated and ex- 
plained in detail. In Fig. 332 is shown the operation where the 
first bend is made on dot 7, turning the metal as far as it will 
go, from 10 to 10'. At 10 a hem edge has been bent as called 
for in profile D, which is a reduced reproduction of the curb D, 
Fig. 326. In Fig. 332 10' 4 is reversed and placed in the brake 




at 10 b. Fig. 333, in which case b will strike against the lower 
bending leaf A. In forcing 10 & so as to close the top clamp 
B, the part 7 b will curve as shown by 7 a. A bend is made on 
dot 8 as much as called for by angle 8 in the profile D, Fig. 332, 
when the curve 7 a, Fig. 333, will spring to its original shape as 
shown by 7' a. 

The partly formed member 10 a' is now reversed in the brake 
in the position 10 4, Fig. 334, and a bend having the proi)er angle 
is made on dot 6, shown by 10' 4. The bend 7' is now closed 
tight in the brake and brought to the positions 10 7 5 in A, after 
which it is placed in the brake A 10, Fig. 335, and a bend made 
on dot 9 to suit angle 9 in D, Fig. 332, shown by 10 5' in Fig, 
335. It is then reversed as shown by 10 1, Fig. 336, and a square 
bend made as on dot 5. A hem edge is bent at 1 and the various 



232 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokkeks 



square bends on dots 4, 3 and 2 are made as in D, Fig. 332, and 
by A, Fig. 337. At bend 5 the angle is turned and closed 
tight in the brake, as indicated by the arrow from 1 to 1', which 
completes the forming of curb D, Fig. 332, shown in perspective 
by B, Fig. 337. 

The bending of the lower part of sash F, Fig. 326, is simple 




fig.3M 
c Bcniling Operalioi 



and needs no explanation. The bending of the upper part of 
sash F is somewhat complicated and will be demonstrated. A re- 
duced reproduction of F is presented in Fig. 338, in which are 
shown the first, second and third operations in bending it. The 
first and second operations are to make a bend on dot 11, and 
close it tight in the brake, bringing dots 10 over 12, and 9 over 




13. The third operation is to make a square bend on dots 10 
and 12 from 11 to 11'. Leaving the sheet in tins position in the 
brake, draw it out on dots 9 and 13, Fig. 339, and make a bend 
to the angle in V, Fig. 338, as shown by 1 1' 7, Fig. 339. 

Again draw out the sheet to dots 8 and 14, Fig. 340, and make 
a square bend. Next reverse the sheet and make a square bend 
on dot 7 from 12 to 12', Fig. 341. Reverse the sheet and make 
a square bend on dot 6, from 12 to 12', Fig. 342. Leaving the 
sheet in the brake, close the top clamp on dot 5, Fig. 343, and 
turn bend 5 until bend 7 strikes the top clamp. Reverse the 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skylights 233 



sheet and close the top clamp on dot 4, Fig. 344, but in doing so 
it will be found that the lower part 4 to & will have to be pressed 




against the lower leaf which will give a sliglit (.urve between 
bends 6 and 7 shown by a, which will resume its original shape 
shown by 12' and 4, when the bend on 4 has the angle called for 
by 4 in F, Fig. 338. 



234 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokkeks 



The bends 3 and 2 are made in the shape shown in A, Fig. 345. 
To close the groove 7 6 5 4 in A, Fig. 345, insert a piece of band 
iron having the proper thickness and close the top damp over 
it, a, Fig. 346. The bend at 7 is now closed in the brake from 
3 to 3', Fig. 347, which completes the forming of the upper part 
of sash F, Fig. 338. 

The curb G in Fig. 326 is 
bent or formed as explained 
in connection with previous 
skylight bars and will have 
the appearance shown by G, 
Fig. 348. Bend 3 is closed 
tight in the brake, making the 
formation shown by 3 7 8, 
Fig. 349, after which 7 8 is 
turned over as indicated by 8'. 
The hood H and hinge support J in Fig. 326 are simple bends 
which require no explanation. 

The various pieces having been formed, the method of joining 
the skylight is as follows, whether a small model is to be made 
as in this case or a large skylight for a building is to be built: 
After the curbs are in position at G and D, Fig. 327, the distances 




Fig.M8 






Fici. 31B'49. 




Fi9.350 



Fig*. 3Sa-5I. Hinges A 



Fig.551 
d Wuthei Proof Hood for Hinse. 



from center to center of the bars are marked on the curbs, and 
in this case the two half bars are soldered in position at right 
angles. 

As the width between the half bars and their length are known, 
the sashes can be made complete in the shop and one flap of the 
brass hinges riveted to the upper part of curb F in Fig. 326. The 
other flap may be screwed to the wood core of the hinge support 
J, as in Fig. 350. These sashes when laid between the half bars 
will be shown in Fig. 328, with the rain or snow guard A uncov- 
ered. The heads are soldered to the hood, Fig. 351, and when 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skylights 235 

hooked over guard A, Fig. 328, it will appear as shown by A, 
Fig. 329, and prevent leakage at the hinged joint in Fig, 350. 

A view of the sash raised is shown in Fig. 330, while Fig. 331 
shows the sash raised higher, and at a the groove bent in the 




upper part of sash to receive the glass. One side of the hood 
is open at c, while d and e are the sash caps raised, which are 
pressed down firmly when the glass has been slid into groove a. 
The band iron truss b is riveted to the bottom of the sash bars 
when the sash is to be raised or lowered by means of worm gear- 
ings. The detailed construction of the truss in diagram X', Fig. 
326, shows that in this case the band iron truss is made of 3/16 
in. X 1J4 in- band iron, properly bent and riveted to the walls of 



'toT*i03r '"^^ '^" *** obtained 

in various sizes, the 

more usual being for J-^ in. or 1 in. pipes, outside diameters. 

The method of setting the gearing when in use is shown in 

Fig. 3S3. A represents the wood frame whieh is flashed with 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skyliguts 237 

metal, and over this the lower skylight curb C is set, when the 
finished wood trim B is put in position. The upper curb of sky- 
light D, into which the hinge support E is thoroughly sweated 
with solder along a and the sides of the half bars. After E is 
securely fastened to the half bars the upper curb hood F is placed 



being sent to the job, the length of t!ie strap and 
arm being regulated according to the height that the sash is to 
raise above C. Bracket K is fastened to the wooil work with wood 
screws at b and c, and L is the section of the gas pipe passing 
through the bracket and to which quadrant M and the arm arc 
fastened by the set screws d. The extension N is screwed to the 
wood work at e and / and is the guide through which the rod O 
slides, being fastened in position by the set screw h. The handle 
bar X and the handle T, are riveted to the iron pipe at / m. These 
are kept from the wall at any distance desired by means of rod O. 
The quadrant M should be so fastened by the set screw d that 
when worm P is placed in position it can be turned to raise or 
lower the sash without passing outside of the teeth in quadrant 



238 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

M. The worm P is held in position by the handle rod passii^ 
throuRh the suiijiorts S and R, and projecting about ^ in. above 
R. A pin, i /, is inserted to keep the pipe from slipping. 
Wliun the sash is being operated handle T is turned until the 



desired licij,dil fnnii C tu C" is obtained, and the turn in the handle 
is reversed lo rlosi- the sasli. The turn of the sash takes place 
in (lie pivol uf hiii(;e L', wliich when closed brings V in the posi- 
liiiii shown by llie doited line VV, insuring a tight joint. When 
handle T is lou far above the floor a pole is employed, to which 
the pole liouk shown in Fig. 351 is fastened. 

When one sash is tu Ik- raised it is only necessary to use two 
brackets an<l a short piece of pipe, as in Fig. 354, pipe L L" being 
kept from moving from the brackets by placing at each end a 



Construction of Raising Sash for Flat Skylights 239 

collar with a set screw, as in Fig. 352. Where each alternate 
sash is to be raised in a long stretch a run of pipe is set into a 
number of brackets to secure rigidity, and a hand wheel shown 
in the illustration is secured to the end of the handle bar to 
enable more power to be applied in operating the sashes. 



When it is not desirable to use the handle bar, or the sashes 
are too far above the floor to use the pole hook, or the number 
of sashes is such that more power must be used to raise them, 
the gearing in Fig. 355, can be used, which is a modification of 
the regular gearing with a wheel and endless chain of suitable 
length attached. 

When a case arises in which the handle bar T, Fig. 353, can-, 
not run down straight, owing to some obstruction, and must pass 
over this obstruction at an angle, the operation of the sashes is 
obtained through the universal joint shown in Fig. 352, the 
method of construction being clearly indicated in Fig. 356, in 
which A is the universal joint. 

The miter gear in Fig. 352 is employed when the sashes in 
two or more sides of a skylight are to be operated with one lift- 
ing power, the method of placing this gear is indicated in Fig. 
357. Any of these parts can be obtained from dealers in sky- 
light gearings, and it would be well for the student to buy a full 
set, which he can obtain for a dollar or two, or he may borrow a 
set from a shop and then set them up for practice. 



CHAPTER XXV 

Making Hipped Skylights 

The seventeenth exercise begins with Fig. 358 and covers all 
forms of hipped skyhghts with common, jack, hip, valley and 
ridge bars and a type with a ventilator at the ridge instead of the 
ridge bar. Also hipped skylights on turret frames contain- 
ing fixed sashes or fixed louvres or movable sashes or louvres 
operating by gearing, chain or other devices. Any explana- 
tions in the last exercise on flat skylights, curbs, bars, gearing, 
etc., which arc applicable to hipped skylights, are omitted in this 
exercise. The persi>ective view in Fig. 358 gives the student a 
good idea of what be is to make in sheet metal, namely, a hipped 
ventilating ridge skylight whose curb will measure 1 ft. 9 in. by 
2 ft. 9 in. with a ridge ventilator 4 in. wide. The names of 
the i>arts in a hipped skylight are indicated by the letters A to 
E. Thus A is the ventilator, B the hip bar, C the jack bar. D 
the common bar and E the curb. The explanation on ridge 
and valley bars will be taken up separately. While the size of 
the skylight to be made is given in this case, the student will be 
instructed how to find the true lengths of the ventilator, ridge, 
hi]>, common, jack and valley b;irs, no matter what size the curb 
may be, using three different systems of measurement, namely, 
by the triani;le, by scale measurements and by mensuration. The 
details of the skylight will be so arranged that the measure- 
ments of the bars will be taken upon the glass line so that in large 
work tlic glass can be ordered long before the skylight is com- 
pleted. When the detail and pallcrns of the skylight are devel- 
o|>C(l the sectiuns of the various parts will be of a size that can 
he used for practical work. If the student has developed his 
patterns accurately he can employ them in shop use. 

The half sectional view is drawn to a scale of tyi in. 
to the foot, and shows the section of curb A, the common bar B 
and the various jwirts of the ventilator. The pitch of the sky- 
light, as will be noted, is one-third; that is, the height 
on its center line is one-third the span. Fuller instruc- 
tions on pilches will be given. Half size sections of the curb and 
common bar are shown to the right at A and B, the J4"i"- C H 
240 



Making Hipped Skylights 



241 



indicating % in. condensation hole to be punched where indicated. 
When drawing the detail the full size section of curb A will be 
slightly changed so as to bring the curb line perpendicular to the 
glass line which facilitates obtaining the glass measurements. The 
small perspective marked H B represents the hip bar, to which 
an extra member has been added, shown by the arrow, allow- 
ing jack bar C in the perspective view, when mitering against 




A-Vtnt!lato 
C' JockB. 



Fig. J 



SCALE l/alN-IFT. 

ipwlivi and Seclioni o\ Hipped Sk^lighl. 



hip bar B, to pass above the gutter of the hip bar and in no 
way interfere with the flow of the drip in either. A sketch show- 
ing this construction and mention of same is made later. 

From the amount of work shown in the shop detail some stu- 
dents get the impression tiiat there is something very diflicult 
about laying out hipped skylight work. This is not so, the only 
diflicult part being to project the various points to the plan, thence 



242 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

into the oblique view for obtaining the hip bar which becomes a 
simple matter if careful attention is given to the instruction. In 
this case the skylight is to have the regulation one-third pitch. If 
however, it is desired to make it one-fourth or one-fifth or any 
other pitch it is only necessary to divide any given span by the 
number the pitch is to have to get the height. For example, if 
the span of the skylight is 12 ft, as in Fig. 359, a third pitch 
would rise on the center line one-third of 12, or 4 ft. Should 




a fourth pitch be desired llicn the rise on the center line of a 
12-ft. span w-oujd be one-fourth of 12, or 3 ft., as in Fig. 360. 
Supim.sc a fifth pilch is desired, and the span is 10 ft. as in Fig. 
361, then one-fifth of 10 is 2 ft., or the rise in diagram A. It 
makes no dilTercnce what the span may be, always divide the 
span by the desired [litcb as in B, where the span of 5 ft. is 
divided by the fifth pitch, giving a rise of 1 ft. Thus a & in Figs. 
3.=;<^, 360 and 361 shnw 13. 1/4 and 1/5 pitches. 



Making Hipped Skvlights 243 

When drawing the shop detail for a one-third pitch sky- 
light draw any line as A B shown in Fig. 362 (see Folder 8), 
and from any point as C draw the horizontal line C O equal 
to 12 in. Double 12, which makes 24, and divide by 3, or the 
pitch desired, which gives 8, and make the distance from C to 
D equal to 8 in. and draw the hypotenuse of the right angle 
triangle D O. Then D O represents one-third pitch. Next 
draw the section of curb E, placing the edge of the glass line 
upon the point of the triangle O, making the formation of the 
curb as shown. This makes the curb of different shape from 
that in the half size sections in Fig. 358. as previously explained. 
Any other shaped curb could be placed at E, Fig. 362, similar 
to those in Figs. 303 to 307, in the last exercise. The profile simi- 
lar to the half size bar B in Fig. 358 is now drawn in the detail in 
Fig. 362 upon the line D O, or glass line, as indicated bv F, it 
being immaterial on what part of the line D O, section Kis set, 
so long as the rabbet or glass lines 3, 2, 3 are on the line D O. 
Next from the 1^-in. scale drawing in Fig. 358 take the heights 
and projections of the various parts of the ventilator and place 
these measurements as shown by G, H, J and K in the shop 
detail in Fig. 362. The section of the inside ventilator is placed 
a distance of 2 in. from the center line, as at G, H the outside 
ventilator J4 !"■ over the inside ventilator and J the hood 1^4 in. 
over the inside ventilator. Section K shows the U-shaped brace, 
which supports the hood while resting on the outside ventilator. 

The one-half sectional view being drawn, the patterns for 
the parts of the ventilator will be developed upon the line 
A' B', Take the girth of 1, 2, 3, 4 of hood J and place it upon 
the line A' B', from I to 4, through which draw horizontal lines. 
Measuring from the center line A B in the sectional view, take 
the horizontal projections to points 2, 3 and 4 in J, using the 
dividers, and place these distances on each side of line A' E' 
on similar numbered lines. A line traced through points thus 
obtained will be the pattern for hood J. In similar manner 
take the girths of the outside ventilator H and inside ventilator 
G in the sectional view, numbered from 5 to 9 and f-om 10 to 
13, and place them upon the line A' B', shown by similar num- 
bers, through which horizontal lines are drawn indefinitely. 
Again, measuring from the center line A B, take the horizontal 
projections to points 5 to 9 in H and 10 to 13 G and place them 
on similar numbered lines, measuring on each side of line A' B', 
resulting, when a line is drawn through points thus obtained, in 



244 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

the patterns for outside ventilator H and inside ventilator G. 
Referring to the sectional view, it will be noticed that cap 8 9 
of section H sets over the glass a' b', necessitating the notching 
of this cap 8 9 as high as that from 8 to 8° or as much as the 
outside ventilator sets over the common bar. Therefore, take 
this distance from 8 to 8° and set it off in the pattern for out- 
side ventilator H, from 8 to 8° on both sides, about J^ in. wide, 
as indicated by the shaded part. This notch allows H to set over 
the hip bars. The method of cutting this notch in the long side 
of the ventilator will be explained. The girth of brace K in the 
sectional view is placed on the line A' B', shown by similar num- 
bers, the length of the brace being made as long as the hood pat- 
tern J. This completes the full set of patterns for the ventilator, 
whose various measuring points are indicated by a b, c d, e f and 
g h for the brace K, hood pattern J, outside ventilator H and in- 
side ventilator G, and will be used when laying out the desired 
lengths, which will be determined later on. 

The student will next devote himself to the development of 
the pattern for the curb E by taking the girth o{a234bcde 
f g and placing it as shown by similar letters and figures on the 
vertical line L M. Through these points at right angles to L M, 
horizontal lines are drawn. Through c in curb E or any other 
point, erect the vertical line / m and from this Hne measure the 
horizontal projections to points a to t; in E and place them on 
similar lines, measuring to the right of line L. M. Trace a line 
through points thus obtained, which will give the miter cut or 
pattern for curb E. The drip hole is punched above the bend b 
as shown by y; the measuring point of the curb is the arrow n. 

The pattern for the common bar F is next in order. Note that 
the lower part of the bar joins curb E at 1 2 3 4 5 and 6, the con- 
densation gutter of bar F being cut out as indicated by 4 5 6 
at the bottom to allow the drip to escape to the gutter 4 6 c of 
curb E, thence to the outside through tube x. The upper part 
of bar F joins the inside ventilator G as shown by 1 2 3 4 5 and 
6. Knowing the points of intersection at the bottom and top, 
take the girth of the full bar F, from 6 to 1 to 6 and place it on 
line O P drawn at right angles to the pitch of the bar, as shown 
by similar numbers. Through these figures at right angles to 
O P draw lines, intersected by lines drawn parallel to O P from 
similar intersection in curb E and ventilator G. Trace a line 
through these points, and / u it' x will be the pattern for the 
common bar. 



Making Hipped Skyliguts 245 

Before the hip bar can be developed, a plan view showing 
the intersection between the hip bar and curb and the ventilator 
must be drawn, as in the quarter plan below the sectional view. 
As the angle of the skylight is to be a right angle, then from any 
points as D' on the center line A B draw the hip line at an angle 
of 45 degree, which is the bisection of the right angle, and inter- 
sect this line by a vertical line projected from point 1 in the sec- 
tional view in curb E, at 1 on hip line D' a". From o" in plan draw 
the horizontal line o" B, and from D' draw the horizontal line D' 
o' and D' B and D' a' will represent the center lines in the quarter 
plan and of a** and a" B the extreme outline in plan. 

From the intersections between the common bar F and curb 
E in the sectional view, indicated by 1 2 3 4 5 and 6, project 
lines to the plan cutting the hip line D' o", shown by heavy 
dots, from which draw lines parallel to a" B to the center line. In 
a similar manner from the intersections between the common bar 
F and ventilator G in the sectional view, indicated by points 12 3 
4 5 and 6, drop vertical lines to the plan cutting the hip line D' 
o", shown by the heavy dots, from which points lines are drawn 
parallel to D* a* to the center line. Note that 1, 2, 4 and 5 fall on 
one line, D*. 

Take a tracing of the common bar F in the sectional view and 
place it in plan upon the hip line, in the position F'. The stu- 
dent should understand that bar F' will not represent the sec- 
tion of the hip bar, but is placed in this position to obtain the 
horizontal projections of the hip bar only. Number F' similar 
to F, and parallel to the hip line in plan, through 1 to 6 in F', 
draw lines intersecting similar lines previously drawn from the 
curb E and ventilator G, from 1 to 6 at o", and I to 6 at t, 
and which represents the plan view showing the intersection or 
miter between the hip bar and curb and hip bar and ventilator. 

Having obtained these miter lines draw the true elevation of 
the hip bar as follows: Parallel and equal in length to D' 2 in 
plan, draw any line as C 2 at right angles to -which from C 
erect the line C D' equal to C D or 8 in. Draw a line from D* 
to 2 in the true elevation of the hip bar, which represents the 
true length of the hip line D' 2 in plan on a one-third pitch sky- 
light. From the intersections 1 to 6 in a" and from 1 to 6 in ( in 
plan, erect lines indefinitely to the true elevation of the hip bar at 
right angles to D' a". Measuring from line C 2 in the sectional 
view, take the distances to points i to 6, showing the intersec- 
tions between the common bar F and curb E, and place them 



246 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

on similar numbered lines erected from the plan in a", measuriDg 
in each instance from line O 2 in the true elevation. 

In a similar manner, measuring from ihe line C 2 in the sec- 
tional view, lake the distances to points 1 to 6, showing the 
intersections between the common bar F and ventilator G, and 
place them on similar numbered lines erected from the plan in t. 
measuring in each instance from line C 2 in the true elevation. 
Through these intersections trace the mtler line 12 3 4 5° and 
6° at the top and bottom, and if the intersections are true the 
lines connecting similar |>oints at the top and bottom will be 
parallel to D- 2, shown I>y lines drawn from 1 to 1, 2 to 2, 3 to 3, 
etc., in the true elevation of the hip bar. 

To strengthen the hip bar and to make allowance for the con- 
densation gutter of the jack bar to pass over the condensation 
gutter of the hip bar, as explained in diagram H B, Fig. 358, a 
distance of '/^ in. will be added below intersections 4, 5° and 6° 
in the true elevation in Fig. 362, placed at right angles to C 2, as 
4°, 5 an<l 6 at the top and bottom, and connect these points by 
lines. It should l>e noted that a greater distance could be added 
to the hip bar IJian '/i in., which would, however, necessitate 
making the distance from 4 to fe curb E and 4 to 12 in the venti- 
lator (j a corresi>ondingly greater distance so as to receive the 
hip bar. 

The true profile of the hip bar is obtained by taking a tracing 
of the normal or common bar profile F and placing it at right 
angles lo I)" 2 in the true elevation of hip bar F', numbered from 
1 to 6. From the small figures at right angles to D* 2, draw 
lines intersecting similar lines shown. A line traced through 
these intersections at K will give tiie true profile of the hip bar, 
with ihe ^j-in. allowance from 4 to 4°. This makes a strong 
hip bar on which there will be no clioking of condensation gut- 
ters, as clearly shown in Mg. 363, in which A iS the hip bar, b 
the gutter and a the allowance: H the jack bar mitering to the 
hip liar al .V ami crossing above the gutter b, the object desired. 

The pattern for the hip bar is obtained by taking the girth of 
hip bar K. Fig. 362, and placing it at right angles to D' 2 on the 
lines S T, shown by similar figures, through which at right 
angles to S T. lines are drawn and inlcrsecied by lines parallel 
to S T from similar numbere<i intersections in the miter lines 
at top and bottom in the true elevation of the hip bar, A line 
traced through these points, L' \' & Z V, will be the pattern for 
the hip iKir. 



Making Hipped Skylights 247 

For the pattern for the jack bar, draw any line in plan as a' b' 
at right angles to the line of curl a' a'; upon which place a dupli- 
cate of the common bar profile as F', numbered from 1 to 6 as in 
similar profiles. Through these points parallel to a' b' draw 
lines, which intersect similar numbered lines through the projec- 
tions of the hip bar in plan, as shown by the short cut from 1 to 
6 and the long cut from i to 6, which represenls the miter joint 
between the hip and jack bars in plan. From these intersections 
parallel to the center line B A erect lines into the sectional view, 
partly shown, until they intersect similar numbered lines drawn 
through the profile F of the common bar. The intersections of 
the short cut 6 to 1 in plan or 1", is shown in the sectional view 




. Diagnm Showing Allowance in lliii Il;ir 
1 Bar Pui Ovfi Guliri in Hip Bar, 



by the miter line 1 to 6; and the intersection of the long cut 
1 to 6 or 2" in plan, by the miter line 1 to 2 to 3' to 4 to 5' to 6' 
in the sectional view. 

At right angles to D 2 in the sectional view from the intersec- 
tions of the short miter cut 1 to 6 and the long miter cut I to 6' 
lines are drawn intersecting the common bar pattern on either 
side from 1° to 6° for the short cut and 1° to 6' for the long cut, 
as shown by the dotted lines. A line traced through points 6' 
to 1° to 6° is the miter cut of the jack bar niitering with the 
hip bar. The lower cut of the jack bar miteriug with curb E 
is similar to the lower cut on the common bar. 

This completes the developments of all patterns required for 
constructing hipped skylights having one-third pitch with ridge 
ventilators, the bars placed similar to those in Figs. 364 to 367, 
the intersecting bars being shown in detail in diagram A', Fig. 



248 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workebs 

362, in which the intersection g f g o( the common bar shows 
the miter with the ventilator G, shown in pattern for common bar 
hy / 2° u. The inlersection between the hip bar and ventilator 
G by the miter hne ft a fc in diagram A', is shown in the pattem 
for hip bar by U V &. The intersections between the jack bar 
and hip bar are shown in diagram A' by the miter line e c d, 
and in the pattern for jack bar by 6' 1° 6°. 

When the hip bars join in a skylight without a ventilator or 
a skylight with a ridge bar, as Fig. 368, then another cut will 
be necessary in the hip bar through c t, as shown in diagram 




A", Fig. 362, where the two hip bars join the ridge bar and form 
the miter Hue d c I on both sides. The cut d c is seen in the pat- 
tern for hip bar from & lo V or V to U, but the intersection c t 
between the two hip bars in diagram ;\° is obtained by extend- 
ing the line I 2 4 5 in plan, outward lo /, which will intersect the 
plan of the hip bar at 3° 6° and 5°. From these intersections at 
right angles lo D' a'-' lines arc erected until they intersect similar 
numbered lines in the true elevation of the hip bar 3" 5* 6*, the 
balance of the intersections, 1, 2. 4 and 4° being in similar position 
as previously obtained. From the intersections 3' 5' and 6* lines 
are drawn at right angles to D' 2 intersecting similar numbered 
lines in the hip bar pattern, as sho.wn on either side by 3* 5' 6* 



Making Hipped Skylights 249 

and 3" 5" 6" and would be the cut required if four hip bars were 
joined as in diagram A* where the miter or joint Hnes between 
the 4-hip bar are indicated by c (; 6' 5' 3' V and U is also the miter- 
cut for the two hip bars of diagram A", / 

In Figs. 369 to 374, are shown several other types of skylights 
that may be required in practical work, with the names and posi- 
tions of the various bars. Ail these miter cuts are shown in 
the shop detail in Fig. 362, the detailed plan of intersections being 
shown in diagram A". The ridge bar requires no miter cut, 
but is cut off at a right angle by a b, forming a lap under the 
hip bars d a and d b. 

The true profile of this ridge bar is shown by G' and is simply 
the halves of the inside ventilator G in sectional view placed to- 
gether. The pattern for the ridge bar at the right of the ven- 
tilator patterns contains double the girth of the inside ventilator 
from II to 13 in the pattern for inside ventilator G, from 13 to 
11 to 13 in the pattern for ridge bar G". When laying out the 
length of the ridge bar it is measured from II to 11'. 

If a center jack bar is required, as in Figs. 371 and 372, the 
miter line between the jack and hip bars would show in diagram 
A°, Fig. 362, as indicated by c f on both sides and would require 
the long cut of the jack bar on both sides of the pattern by 6" 
S*" 4 3'' 2 1° 2 3' 4 5' 6' for the jack bar. If a common jack bar 
were required, as in Figs. 372, 373 and 374, the miter line be- 
tween the bar and the hip and ridge bar would show in diagram 
A°, Fig. 362, by c f and c It and would require on one-half the 
bar, the miter cut between the common bar and ventilator and on 
the other half of the bar the long miter cut of the jack bar, as 
shown in the pattern for comnton bar by I 2° and 2" s r s p. 

The lower miler cuts between the hip, common and jack bars 
with the curb, are similar for any of the styles in Figs. 364-374. 

Having all the cuts for any skylight, the student will learn how 
to obtain the true lengths of the bars no matter what size curb 
the skylight may be, by means of the triangles in the sectional 
view and hip bar elevations in the shop detail in Fig. 362. The 
triangle in the sectional view is D C O, the base C O is 12 in. long, 
divided into 12 parts and each part into quarters, thus represent- 
ing the quarters, halves, and full inches, from O to 12. From 
these divisions vertical lines are erected intersecting the hypo- 
tenuse or slant line D O- It is from tliis slant line that the true 
lengths of the common and jack bars are obtained. 

The triangle in the true elevation of the hip bar is C D' O, 



230 Home iNSTst'criox fob Sheet Met.u. W'cmxxxs 

the lM<ie C O, U as long as the hip line 1/ 2 in plan, previooslr 
obtainvd frr^m C O in the sectional view. .^ C O in the sectioiial 
vifrw is 12 in. long, then C O in the true elc\-alion of the hip 
must alM> )k rlivided into 12 equal parts from O to 12. and ead 





\ 


FO^fir 


f 


/ 


1 


f\ 



\ 






€: 




J 


g 




/ 






\ 



\ 




/ 




i 


sffi 


/ 




\ 






,'■£ 



711. SktliRh 



r. Jack lUii 



(if llicsv jiaris tiiust he ilividcd into (tiiartcrs. From these divi-. 
^ilh1l^ liiu^ iirf vrifUil at riglit anglfs to C (> until they intersect 
tlic liyi'utrim^c (ir shitit liiir I)- ( ). I-'rom this line D' O the true 
IcMHtli^ iif llif lii]> tmrs only nrt- ohlaint-d. 

'I'livn- arc certain riik-s (o follow in fniding the lengths of the 
vcniilalDr, ridKc, liip, common or jack bars, and before this can 



Making Hipped Skyliuiits 251 

be done the size of the curb and the width of the inside ven- 
tilator must be known. These dimensions form the basis for 
obtaining the lengths of the different parts of the hipped sky- 
light. The seven rules which the student should observe are as 
follows : 

Rule I, To obtain the true length of the inside ventilator G 
in the sectional view deduct the shortest side of the curb from 
the longest side and add the width of the inside ventilator. 

Rule II. To obtain the true length of the outside ventilator 
H in the sectional view, add to the length of the inside ventilator 
previously obtained twice the projection that H sets over G, or 
twice 34 '"■ 

Rule III. To obtain the true length of hood J in the sec- 
tional view, add to the length of the inside ventilator twice 
the projection that the hood sets over the inside ventilator, 
or 3 in. 

Rule IV. To obtain the true length of the ridge bar G", Fig. 
362, deduct the shortest side of the curb from the longest side. 

Rule V. To obtain the measuring length of the common and 
hip bars when a ventilator is used, deduct the width of the in- 
side ventilator from the shortest side of the curb and divide by 
two. 

Rule VI. To obtain the measuring lengths of the common 
and hip bars when a ridge bar is used, divide the shortest side 
of the curb by two. 

Rule Vil. To obtain the measuring length of the jack bar 
use dimensions which will be given with Fig. 377. 

While the ventilator in the detail is made in three parts, some- 
times it is made in one or two parts. In Fig. 375 it is made 
in two parts, the lower part being bent from A to B with a cap 
bent double shown by c d, to protect the joint between the glass 
and metal against leakage, the hood being made as usual. With 
this style ventilator the portion a b ai the bar must be notched 
at the top to slip between the doubled cap flange c d. 

To obtain the length of this ventilator, Rule I is employed 
after the width from point D is known. The length of the hood 
is obtained by adding twice the projection c f to the length of 
the ventilator. When the ventilator is made from one piece, as 
is sometimes done. Fig. 376, being bent in one piece from A to B 
and holes punched along C D as indicated by a a, etc., then Rule 
I is used to obtain the length of the ventilator. Measurements 
are made from the arrow point E. To prevent insects and snow 



252 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



from passing into the holes a a convex wire mesh pieces are 
soldered to the outside, as in F. 

The instructor figures out the first skylight for the student, 
after which two examples are given with and without ventilators 
for the students' study. 

To show the practical application of the foregoing rules the 
student should figure out the various lengths required for the 
skylight in the lesson shown in the perspective view in Fig. 358, 
being 1 ft. 9 in, x 2 ft. 9 in., with a 4-in. wide ventilator. 

After the size of the curb and width of the ventilator are 
known, prepare a rough sketch, as in Fig. 377, giving the title 
of the various parts of the skylight as well as the divisions of 




the glass. Thus in the diagram, A the outline of the skylight cuib, 
is drawn with the measurements reduced to inches, or 21 x 33 in. 
Draw a rough outline of the ventilator, B, in this case 4 in. wide. 
Connect the hips as shown. The rule to follow in obtaining 
the glass divisions is as follows: Divide the narrow side of the 
curb into the desired divisions, in this case three, making each 
space 7 in., showing that two jacks will be required. 

If the jack bars are 7 in. from the corners on the narrow side, 
they nnist lie placed 7 in. from the corners of the wide side, so 
that they will meet al the hip and form a right angle. As the 
two divisors a and b in (he wi<Ic side amount to 14 in., deduct 
14 from 3.1, which leaves 19. and suggests two divisors of 9J4 in. 
each, thus retjuiring one common bar on each side. Thus to build 



Making Hipped Skylights 



253 






the skylight shown will require 4 hip, 2 common and 8 jack bars, 
the jack bars being formed right and left. 

Following the rules previously given, the dimensions of the 
parts of the skylight are computed as follows: The size of the 
curb being 1 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. and the width of the inside ven- 
tilator 4 in., the length of the inside ventilator is obtained by fol- 
lowing Rule I. Thus the longest side of. curb 33 in., minus 
shortest side of curb, 21 in., leaves 12 in., plus width of inside 
ventilator, 4 in., gives the true length of inside ventilator, 16 in., 
as in Fig. 377. 

The length and width of the outside ventilator is obtained by 
following Rule II ; thus 4 in., width of inside ventilator, plus 
twice '/i in., equals 4}/^i in., also 16 in., length of inside ven- 
tilator, plus twice 14 '"-. equals 16>4 in., as in Fig. 377. 

The length and wid^i of the hood is obtained by following 
Rule III ; thus 4 in., width of 
inside ventilator, plus two 
times projection of I'/i in., 
equals 7 in., width of hood, 
and 16 in., length of inside 
ventilator, plus two times pro- 
jection of lyi in., equals 19 
in., length of hood. Fig. 377. 
To obtain the measuring 
length of the common and hip 
bars, Rule V is employed, 
thus, shortest side of frame 
minus width of inside ven- 
tilator = 21 — 4 = 17 in., 
and 17 in. divided by 2 
leaves 8j^ in., the measuring 
length for common and hip 
""'"«"' '■""'■ bars. 

To obtain the true length of the common and hip bars, the 
triangles in Fig. 362 are used. For ihe common bar use the 
triangle in the sectional view, following the base line C O to Syi, 
the measuring length, then upward to where it intersects the 
hypotenuse D O, and it will measure from this intersection to O, 
10 3/16 in., the true length of the common bar- in Fig. 377. 
Using the same measuring length of Syi in. and the triaitgle in 
the elevation of the hip bar in Fig. 362, follow the base line 
C O to S'/i, then upward to where it intersects the hypotenuse 



HipBar I'li' ' 



■jackBor^ 



Measure fran arraivpoinis 
sfxxm an ollpaHerns m 
shop detail In Rgm 




254 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

D' O and it will measure from this intersection to O, 13 5/16 
in., the true length of the hip bar in Fig. 377. 

The true length of the jack bar is obtained by using the measur- 
ing length in Fig. 177, or 7 in., and the triangle in the sectional 
view in Fig. 362 ; follow the base line C O to 7, then upward to 
where it intersects the hypotenuse D O and from this intersection 
to O or 8^ in. will be the true length of the jack bar in Fig. 377. 

This completes the dimensions of the pieces required for the 
skylight shown in Fig. 377, the measuring points being indicated 
by the arrows in the patterns in Fig. 362. 

The two examples given to the student to figure out are pre- 
sented in Fig. 378 and Fig. 381 and should be carefully studied, 
for it is important that he understand these simple rules, which 
will make him independent of any chart or books in which 
measurements are given, but cannot be proved, unless the student 
has the knowledge which this exercise should impart. 

A skylight is shown in Fig. 378 with a curb measuring 3x5 
ft. with a 5-in. ventilator. The length of the inside ventilator 
is found by using Rule I, thus, 60 — 36 ^ 24 -|- S ^ 29 in. 
The length of the outside ventilator is found by following Rule 
II, thus, inside ventilator is 29 and 29 + (2 X M) = 29}^ i"- 

As the pattern for hood J. Fig. 362, is laid out for a 4-in. inside 
ventilator, and the skyhght in Fig. 378 calls for a 5-in. inside 
ventilator, then to obtain the pattern for the hood for a 5-in. in- 
side ventilator, take one-half the difference between the 4-in. 
and the given size, 5 in., in this case Yz in., and place it in Fig. 
362 in the sectional view of the hood J from 2 to 2* or the dotted 
section line of the hood. 

If the given size of the inside ventilator were 8 in. or any 
other size, take one-half the diiTerence between the 4 and 8, which 
would he 2, and place it from 2 to 2" to obtain the extra girth of 
material required for the top of hood 2" 1. The reason for this 
is because the shop detail has been laid out for a ventilator 4 in. 
wide on the inside, one-half or 2 in., shown in G in the sectional 
view. 

Take the girth from 2" to 1 in the section of hood J and place 
it in the pattern for hood J from 2 lo 1". Then measuring from 
the center line 'A B in the sectional view to 2", in hood J, place 
this distance in the pattern for hood J, on either side of the center 
line A' B', as 2" and 2", and draw the dotted lines, which represent 
the pattern for the end of the hood for a 5-in. inside ventilator. 

It should not be forgotten that whatever the -width of this hood 



Making Hipped Skylights 



255 



may be the pattern for brace K must always have a similar width, 
and in this case would have to be lengthened to the width 2" 2' 
of the hood pattern J. 

To obtain the length of the hood for the skylight in Fig. 378, 
follow Rule III, thus: As the inside ventilator equals 29 in., 29 
+ (2 X ^W) = 32 in. when measured from c° to rf* in pattern 
for hood J, Fig. 362. 





&«! (/t>* Sff- So' 






InsdB^ntHatrrff'ZS' 






OufsidB \4snfM3>orsi'-2'^' 






Hoode^-Ztr 






Carmen Bar I'ff 






HipBorgOX 






JaekBarfl^' 




















"*"**''"''''"' 




























A 












"^ N. 


> 




/ 


/ a 










" 


rr t 


A 


.....-, 


3 b 


r.'i 




■ 


1 


/ 






\ 




^/ 








^\ ° 






, 


/«. 


. a 


C 


«* 
















1 












1 



To obtain the measuring lengths of the common and hip bars 
in Fig. 378 follow Rule V, thus : 
^= 15/. or I ft. 3/. in. 

To obtain the true length of the common bar use the triangle 
in the sectional view in Fig. 362, where the 12 in. on the base 
line equals I4J^ in. on the hypotenuse, or to be strictly accurate, 
it is 14.42, but 14J/j can be safely used for practical work. The 
iYi in. on the base line equals 4J4 in. a.s shown on the hviJOtenuse. 
Then 14J^ + 4H = 18^ in.. Fig. 378. 

Using the same measuring length of 1 ft. 3>^ in., obtain the 
true length of the hip bar by the triangle in the true elevation 



256 HouE Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

of hip bar in Fig. 362, where the 12 in. on the base line measures 
18J4 in. on the hypotenuse, and the i'/j in. on the base line 5j4 
in. on the slant line; then 18^ + ^J/j = 24% in.. Fig. 378. ' 

In Fig. 378 the student will find that the jack bar is placed- 
12 in. from the corner. This becomes the measuring length men- 
tioned in Rule VII with which to proceed to the triangle in the 
sectional view in Fig. 362, where 12 in. on the base line equals 
14//4 in. on the slant line, giving the true length of the jack bar in 
Fig. 378. 

When the inside ventilator is long and a number of com- 
mon bars intersect it, as at a and b, it is well to place cross 
braces between the common bars on the inside of the ven- 
tilator at a and b. These braces keep the ventilator from sag- 
ging, thereby causing a collapse of the skylight, and in skylights 
where the length of (he ventilator is less than 6 ft. metal braces 
can be inserted between the common bars. These braces should 
be bent in rectangular form as in the sectional view in Fig. 362, 
indicated in G by I, 11, III and IV. No pattern is shown for this 
brace, as it is simply a rectangular section as long as the width 
of the inside ventilator. 

In large skylights where the surface is large and exposed to 
great pressure, the inside ventilators are sometimes made 2 ft. 
wide, and must be reinforced by angle iron frames, as in Fig. 379, 
where angle iron having unequal legs is used, forming the sheet 
metal part a b, then flanging around the angle iron on the inside 
as shown. This forms a solid bearing, against which bar A can 
rest without collapsing. Additional supjKirt must be placed 
between the common bars c. c, c, c. Fig. 380, where cross angles 
b and b are riveled to the frame a. This secures a firm support 
which will withstand snow, wind pressure, etc. 

The second example for the student to figure is Fig. 381, 
which shows a skylight 6 ft. x 8 ft. in size, without a ventilator 
and with a ridge bar. This will indicate how to find the length 
of one or more jack bars whether spaced e(|ua!Iy or unequally. 

The true length of the ridge bar is obtained by using Rule IV, 
thus, 96 — 72 = 24 in., the length desired. 

To obtain the measuring lengths of the common and hip bars 
when no ventilator is employed, use Rule VI. thus. 72 -^ 2 =; 36. 
or the measuring length with wliich to proceed to the triangles 
for obtaining the true lengths of the common and hip bars in 
Fig, 362. As 12 in. on the base line of the common bar triangle 
represents Hyi in. on the hypotenuse, then 36 in. on the base 



Making Hipped Skylights 



257 



line will be 3 times Hyi, or 43j4 in., the true length of the com- 
mon bar, Fig. 381. 

Again, as 12 in. on the base line of the triangle for the hip bar 
in Fig. 362 measures ISfij in. on the hypotenuse, then 36 in. on 
the base line will equal 3 times 18^ or 56J4 in., the true length 
of the hip bar, as in Fig. 381. 

Two size jack bars are shown in Fig. 381, each spaced 14j4 in. 
apart, so that the true length of Jack bar No. 1 will be doubled 
for jack bar No. 2. As the measuring length of the first jack 
bar is 14J/4. or 12 and 2J4, then use the triangle for the common 
bar in Fig. 362, and it will be found that 12 in. on the base line 
measures 14j/^ on tJie slant line, and I'/i in. on the base measures 
3 on the slant. Then 14j^ -|- 3 ^ 17j^ in. the true length of 
jack bar No. 1, Fig. 381. 




\JUL/ 



'/TTX 



f,r. Fio. 380. Plan Vic* n( Reinforced Veil 



As the second jack bar is also placed \Ayi in. apart, the true 
length of jack bar No. 2 is twice the length of No. 1, or 35 in,, 
which is proved by adding the distance the second jack sets from 
the corner, or 29 in., the measuring length, being equal to 
2 X 12 + 5. Twelve in. on the base of the triangle for common 
bar in Fig. 362 equals I4J^ on the hypotenuse and 5 on the base 
line equals 6 on the slant. Then Hyi -j- \4'/i -|- 6 ^ 35, the true 
length of the second jack bar in Fig. 381. 

Sometimes the jacks are not equally spaced, as a and b, Fig. 
381, where a is 12 in. from the corner and b 17 in. from a. 
The same rule is applied as before, following the base of the 
triangle for the common bar in Fig. 362, the length of the slant 
line at the intersection 12 is Hj^ in., the true length of jack bar ■ 
a. Fig. 381. To find the true length of the second jack b, simply 
add the two divisions 12 and 17 and 29 in. is the measuring length, 
with which proceed to the proi>er triangle and obtain the true 
length of jack bar b in the same manner as for No. 2. 



258 Home Ikstructiox for Sheet Metal Workers 

These rules apply to any size skylight having any width vdi- 
tilators.- It makes no difference whether they contain ridge, com- 
mon, hip, jack, center jack or common jack bars. 

When the curb of the skylight is equal on all sides, that is, per- 
fectly square, if it contains a ventilator it will also be square, 
equal to the given width of the ventilator desired. 




Tlif sccoikI iiK'thoii i»l (ibiaining tlie Irue length of bars is 
by ])liiciiiK tlic two iriauf^k'S on one base line as in Fig. 382. 
Tht-sc Irianjjlt's arc drawn for one-third pilch and are similar 
to lliost in rig. .562. but obtained in a ditTcrent manner. If pat- 
terns were al hand for pilch skylights it would be an easy 
niailtT lo construci tlie two triangles shown, by simply changing 
the ri.-*^ '» 6 in. instead of 8 in. as now done. 



Making Hipped Skylights 259 

Draw the line o 12 equal to 12 in., Fig. 382, and erect line 12 
A at right angles, making 8 in. for 1/3 pitch and draw line A o, 
from which obtain the true length of the common and jack bars. 
Take the distance A o and set it off on the center line from 12 to 
B and draw line B o, from which to obtain the true length of the 
hip bars. If the student will compute the lengths of the bars 



Fic*. 3t2-3. Kctbod of Obtaining Lcnithi of Skylighi Ban. 

for the three skylights of the sizes given in Figs. 377, 378 and 
381 he will find that similar lengths will be obtained from Figs. 
362 and 382. 

The principle involved in finding the two triangles in Fig. 382 
is explained in Fig. 383, in which A is the plan, say, of a 
raised cover, the section indicated by d a b, the rise b" a being 
of e f. Then a b represents the amount of material required for 
one side, and in a skylight represents the length of the common 
bar A o, Fig. 382. If the distance a fe is placed on the line a' b' 



260 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wobkers 

at right angles to e f, measuring lines drawn through and inter- 
sected by points e and / in plan, thus obtaining c' and cf, then 
lines drawn from a' to c' and c" will form the pattern for the 
end A and a' c' will be the miter line, and the true length of the 
hip line. 

The same pattern could be obtained by taking the distance 
from a to & and placing it in the section from b" to a", drawing 
lines from a" to b and d. This is exactly what was done in Fig. 
382. The distance o A has been placed from 12 to B, thus obtain- 
ing the true length of the hip line B o. 

Another method of finding the true lengths of the bars is by 
scale drawings, and is the method used in many shops, illus- 
trated in Fig. 384 which shows a J^-in. scale drawing of a sky- 
light with a ventilator 5 in. wide, the curb of which measures 
3 X 5 ft. 

While this diagram is drawn to J^-in. scale for want of space, 
it is usual to lay out the diagrams in the shop to 3 or 4 in. to ihe 
foot, using the most convenient scale. 

Asstmiing that patterns are on hand for a third pitch skylight, 
the curb outline is divided as required, into divisions showing the 
number of bars required. Extend common bar a b to the center 
of the ventilator and erect the perpendicular line b c equal to 1/3 
of the narrow side, 3 ft. or 1 ft., and draw the line c a. This line 
c a represents when scaled the true length of the common bar if 
no ventilator is required. 

In this case a 5-in. ventilator is required, therefore the linq of 
the ventilator is extended until it meets c a aX d. Scale the line d 
a and it will measure 1 ft. 6^ in., the true length of the common 
bar. In a similar manner extend the hip bar until it meets the 
center line of the ventilator at i, and from i at right angles to i h 
erect the perpendicular line i /, also equal to 1/3 of 3 ft,, or 1 ft., 
from ;' to i. 

This length ;' h would be the true length of the hip if no ven- 
tilator were u.sed. In this case a 5-in. ventilator is used, and for 
that reason a line is erected from the corner of the ventilator at 
/, parallel to i j. until it intersects die hip hne / h at m. \i tn h 
is scaled it will give the true length of the hip desired and will 
measure 24/4 in. 

The true length of the jack bar is obtained by extending the 
line of jack e until it intersects c a of the common bar at /. Then 
/ a will scale 1 ft. 2]/^ in., proved by using the j4-in, scale rule. 

Another example for obtaining scale measurements in a sky- 



Making Hipped Skylights 



261 



light with ridge bar is given in Fig. 385. The size of the curb 
is 6 X 8 ft. with glass divisions. The pitch being one-third, then 
one-third the span of the narrow side or 6 it. is 2. 

At right angles to the common bar c e and hip bar b i erect 
the perpendiculars c d and b h equal to 2 ft. each, or 1 in. in the 
scale drawing. Draw the slant lines d e and h i which will equal 
the lengths of the common and hip bars, the common bar measur- 
ing 3 ft. JYi in. and the hip bar 4 ft. 8j^ in. 



Silt of Curb S-0''S-O' 

>Tik>ror Computed oa in Fig. 37a 
Common Bar acoiec/ frofn a fo d, ■• l'-6f 










Fin. ja4. Mcthnd nf OhlnininR Lrn«lh of Dan by Scnic DrawinRS. 

Two jack bars are shown. The lengths of Nos. 1 and 2 are 
obtained by exiending these two lines until they intersect the 
common bar at / and g. The length of / c or jack No. 1 will 
scale 1 ft. SYi in. and \o. 2 j/ c, 2 ft. 11 in., or twice as long as 
No. I, because both divisions between the jack bars are equal. 

Some students at the school bring up the question, "Suppose 
the drawings were destroyed and the metal patterns were at 
hand, would there be no way of finding the true length of the 
bars by mensuration without drafting another set of triangles or 
making scale drawings; or, in other word.s, could not the num- 
ber and decimal be found which could be used as a multiplier 
in obtaining the lengths of (he common jack and hip bars after 
the curb measure and widlh of the ventilator were known?" The 
question raised is a practical one and requires the extraction of 
the square root in solving, and will be explained in connection 
with Fig. 386. 



2G2 HoxE Ix?r«rcTios rw Sheet Metal Wouceks 

In fiiwlii ^ ibe matdpbcr nsurc oo a sJnrtight havii^ one-third 
pitch so thai comparifoas in the rrsohs can he proved by nKas- 
arenKnts ohutoMl in Ftgs. 362 and 382. Sbooki the skylight 
hare a dittereiu ri$c than 8 in. to tbc foot tbc same rule nill 
bold good. 



In I 



h 



Referring lo Fig. 386, il the base ol the common bar a" b" is 
12 in. and the rise a' .- 8 in., the length of ihe hypotenuse r b" 
will equal ihe square root oi the sum of base and rise squared 
thus: 

V 12^ + 8" = \ \u + (A = ^"2^ — HA222. 

The square of the base, that is, muUiplying 12 x 12, gives 144; 
sqttaring the rise, or multiplying 8 X ^'^ gives 64; adding 64 to 
144 gives 208, from which the square root is extracted as fol- 



Making Hipped Skylights 263 

lows : The number 208 is pointed off into periods of two figures 
each from the right, as 2, 08. Then proteed as below : 



Trial 


Correct 




Divisor 


Divisor 


Numlxir Root 


20 


24 


2,08 (14.4222 + ans. 



1200 
1136 



6400 
5764 



63600 
57684 



591600 
576884 



It will be noted that the greatest number the square of which 
is contained in 2 is 1. Therefore 1 is the first root of the figure; 
1 X 1 = '■ Subtracting 1 from 2 and bringing down the next 
period (Xi, produces the first partial dividend 108. The double 
of 1, the partial root already found, is 2, and when a cipher is 
added, 20 is the first trial divisor. This trial divisor is contained 
in the partial dividends 108, five times, which suggests five as 
the second figure of the root, but on trial proves too high. There- 
fore take the next lowest number 4, add it to 20, making the cor- 
rect divisor 24, giving the second figure of the root of 4. Multiply 
24 X ^ ^^ ^ ^'^^ subtract this product from the partial divi- 
dend 108, which leaves 12, to -which add a period of two ciphers. 
The double of 14, the partial root already found, is 28, to which 
add a cipher, and 280 is the second trial divisor. This trial 
divisor, 280, is contained in the partial dividend 1200, four times, 
which suggests 4 as the third figure of the root. Add 4 to 280 
and 284 is the correct divisor. 

When the product 4 X 284 = 1136. this is subtracted from 
the partial dividend 1200. There is a remainder of 64, to which 



264 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



add a period of two ciphers. Again double the partial root 14.4 
already found, which will be 288, to which add a cipher and 
2880 is the third trial divisor. This trial divisor is contained 
in the partial dividend 6400 two times, which suggests 2 as the 
fourth figure in the root. Adding 2 to 2880 gives 2882, the cor- 
rect divisor. 

When the product 2 X 2882 
= 5764 is subtracted from the 
partial dividend 6400, there is 
a remainder of 636, to which a 
period of two ciphers is added. 
Proceed in the manner shown 
in the example, until 4 Bgures 
are obtained after the decimal 
point. Thus 14.4222+ is the 
length of the hypotenuse e h". 
After this length 14.4222, 
has been found, divide it by 
12, the length of the base, 
and the quotient will be 
the multiplier to use for 
finding the length of the 
common and jack bars. Now 
divide 14.4222 by 12. which gives 1.2018. In practice 1 2/10 is 
used as the multiplier. 

In a similar manner the multiplier for the hip bar is found. 
As the square of the hip bar d b in plan equals the sum of the 
squares of the two 12-in. sides of a fc and & c, or 12 X 12 X 2 ^ 
288, then the true length of the hip bar c' b' will equal the 
sfjuare root of the sum of the squares of the two 12-in. sides 
and the square of the 8-in. rise d' c', thus, V 288 -|- 64 = V 352 
= I8.;616. 

To find the multiplier for the hip bar divide 18.7616 by 12 
and the tiuotient will be 1.5634. In practice 1 56/100 is used. 

To prove these multipliers compute the lengths of the bars 
required for the skylight in Fig. 381 and see how they compare 
wilh measurements obtained from the triangles in either Figs. 
362 or 382. 

Referring to Fig. 381 divide the short side of the frame by two, 
as in the rules previously given. Thus 72 ^ 2 = 36, the measur- 
ing length. Multiply this measuniig length by 1.2018 for the 
common bar and by 1.5634 for the hip bar, as in Fig. 386. Thus 




Making Hipped Skylights 265 

36 X 1-2018 = 43.2648. the length of the common bar, and 36 
X 1.5634 = 562824. the length of the hip bar. 

Referring to the diagram in Fig. 381 it will be noticed that 
the length of the common and hip bars when obtained from 
the triangles in Figs. 362 or 382 measure 43j^ and 56j4 in., 
showing that by using the multipliers the common bar is 0.23 
in. less and the hip bar 0.03 greater than the measurements 
obtained from the triangles. This difference is because the true 
lengths of the hypotenuses of the common and hip bar triangles 
in Figs. 362 and 382 are really 14.4222 and 187616 in. long, 
Fig. 386, but are measured 14. S and 18.75 in Figs. 362 and 382, 
that being as close as can be obtained with a 2-ft. rule. 

Using the multiplier 1.2018, Fig. 386 for finding the length 
of the jack bars Nos. I, 2 and b in Fig. 381, the result is 14.5 X 
1.2018 = 17.42+ for jack bar No. 1. Again, 29 X 12018 =i 
34.85+ for jack bar No. 2 and b. Comparing these measure- 
ments with the figures in Fig. 381, there will be a fractional 
difference of 0.08 and 0,15 in. less by using the multiplier, for 
the reason above stated. 

Whether the length of the bars should be found by mensura- 
tion as in Fig, 386 or by using the triangles in Figs. 362 and 
382, or by means of scale diagrams in Figs. 384 and 385, depends 
upon the student. However, all methods considered the best 
results are obtained by using the multiplier, and for this reason 
the student should master the method on mensuration, when he 
can prove and compare lengths by using cither method. 

The student should now proceed to lay out the various pieces 
required to construct his model skylight of the size given in 
Fig. 377, in which arc shown the sizes of the ventilator, bars 
and curb, using the patterns developed in Fig. 362. It is usual 
in shop practice to prick off the various patterns from this 
sheet, punch a hole in each, and hahg together on a hook, marking ■ 
the name of the pattern on each one, also the measuring point, 
using marking acid, mixed as previously explained, which will 
not rub out. 

The patterns in Fig. 362 are reproduced in Fig. 387 (see 
Folder 9) to show their appearance when cut from metal for 
use in laying out various size skylights. In addition to this the 
stays or templets for forming up the bars, ventilator and curb 
are also shown. The patterns and stays should be kept together 
for future use. All measurements should he taken from the 
arrow points on all patterns, which include cuts for any style 



266 Home Ixstrlctioj; for Sheet Metal W' 

of hipped skylight. So that no pattern may be lost, it is well 
to hang a card on the hook containing the full set as indicalcd 
in A, stating "this hook contains 14 patterns and 7 stays." This 
reminds the workman to count the patterns and stays and avoids 
any being mislaid when in use. 

In Fig. 362 the laps are shown on all patterns in their proper 
position. In Fig. 387 the laps are also indicated on each pat- 
tern, but reversed on the inside, showing where the laps should 
be placed on the opposite side when full size work is being laid 
out. Marking acid, which becomes indelible when dry, is used 
to show the location of the laps on the different patterns. 

It will be noticed that the measuring point for any of the bars 
is taken on line 2. This is because the curb line in the sectional 
view. Fig, 362, / e, is in line with the glass line 2 of the bar, and 
the triangle from which measurements are taken is constructed 
from or to this point. 

In the patterns for the various bars in Fig. 387 U indicates 
the upper cut against the ridge or ventilator and L the lower 
cut against the curb. If the patterns have been cut from sheet 
metal, as in Fig. 387, the various parts called for in Fig. 377 
are laid out as follows: 

The size of the curb is to be 1 ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 9 in. Use the 
pattern for the curb in Fig. 387 and let A B C D in quarter 
size drawing. Fig. 388, represent a sheet of metal cut to the re- 
quired width by the squaring or hand shears. Place the lower 
edge of the curb pattern a h flush with the lower edge of the 
sheet A B and mark with the scribe awl the miter cut c d, also 
indent the prick marks indicating the bends. Measure 1 ft. 
9 in. from c to /, slide the pattern to the opposite end at /, 
making a' b flush with A li and mark the miter cut g h. Then 
g b c d will be the pattern for the short side of the cut, two 
of which are required without lap. The condensation holes are 
indicated by m and n, placed at pleasure. In a similar manner 
two pieces are cut 2 ft. 9 in. long, allowing laps, as on the curb 
pattern. 

In precisely the same manner the inside ventilator, common, 
hip and jack bars are laid out, equal in length to the measure- 
ments in Fig. 377, these being made from the arrow points on the 
proper patterns in Fig. 387 and laps allowed. 

Fig. 389 shows the pattern for the outside ventilator, laid out 
as previously des' ribed, but shown to make clear the notch A. 
In Fig. 377 ^ common bar intersects the ventilator in the center 



Makinu Hipped Skvliuh 



y\ 



\ 



notch cut for il, as at A. Fig. 389. as high as a in the out- 
side ventilator pattern 
B. This notch allows 
the outside M 

set over the bars as far 
as from 8 to 8° in the 
sectional view. Fig. 362, 
Should the bars be 
spaced as in Fig. 378, 
then the notches in the 
pattern in Fig. 389 
would be made by find- 
N.— t— Ul o '"S '^^ center of the 
pattern and measuring 

6 in. on either side of 
this line, which would 
give the true position 
for the notches over the 
common bars in Fig. 
378. 

The length of the 
hood in Fig. 377 is I ft. 

7 in. and is laid out in 
one piece minus the 
ends, as follows: As 
the width of the inside 
ventilator is 4 in., use 
the [lattern for hood in 
Fig. 387 and cut a strip 
of metal equal in width 
to twice the distance 
from a to b, shown by 
A B C D, Fig. 390. At 
right angles to A B, us- 
ing the steel square, 
draw lines B C and d f 
1 ft. 7 in., or the length 
of the ventilator, shown 
by c d. Set a fr of the 
hood pattern flush with 
A B of the metal strip. 

makitig the edge of the pattern e even with the line B C, and 



i ^ 



268 Home Ixsrsi-cnc-s fc* Sheet Metal Wokkebs 

draw the mher cm b e c. Sow slide the panera to the opposite 

end at d. making ti' ^" of the pattern dn^h with A B of the 

metal <tnp and scribe ihe miter tmi a' dif. In a similar manner 

place the «^ of the hood pat- 

, tern iT* fr" and a' b' Ba$h with 

,__^ . the edge of the nietal strip C D, 

*> ;_.— ^ - y making the mhers evMi at the 

y ""^ "—f ■ lines B C and d /. and scribe the 

cuts I.- fr* and c" a'. Then b c b^ 
\ q u' r* a' is the pattern for the 

M ' ■ ■ ± hood H-ith laps alktwed. 

' j : J In ihe waste angles X and X, 

' ' I ' -^ ^^^ heads of the hood can be 

■ ^ : ^—^-. i marked off. which avoids waste 

^-' ■ ill of material. 

Two braces will be required 

to support the hood, cut after 

. ..the pattern in Fig. 387. The 

I ' ' • I ^ "^""^ pie».-e required for the curb 

^' \ ' - in Fig. 377 hanng been cut, as 

I ! I well as the four for the inside 

i ^ ventilator, four for the outside 

\ - ventilator, three for the hood, 

'■".'. \ two braces for the hood, two 

■ ' .^ _ ■_ _ I ,-' — common bars, four hip bars and 

; i [ ' E eight jack bars, then flatten the 

. : . 1. hurs with the mallet when the 

, j ■ - student is ready for bending on 

i I ■ \ '■ the brake. 

I ■ S. The only pieces to be bent 

I right anil left are the jack bars. 

l~ — I gg . — ""X The stays for formii^ are clear- 

-^ ~ ^ ly shown and marked in Fig. 

587. The method of forming 

.— - — ~ ■ ^ — _ the various parts will be omit- 

— ted. as this will be done as 

explained in bending the bars 
anH curli> in the flat -kylight given in the last exercise. 
.\mr all jiiivi;- an- fnrmol, the laps on ihc ventilator, curb and 
bar- are l>tnt oft" at rtghl anglis and the various parts assembled 
as fullows: In Fig. .591 i.^ .-hown how ihe ventilator, hood and 
curb &t-t. together.'. The plan view of the inside ventilator A, 



Making Hipped Skyughts 269 

illustrates how the narrow sides a and a' are joined at ri^t 
angles to the long sides b and b'. The two halves should be 
soldered and then joined together at c and d. 



The same applies to the outside ventilator. Curb B is set to- 
gether in the same manner. The short sides e and e' are first 
tacked with solder to the long sides / and f and then joined to 
the opposite comers, g and ft, and the four corners thoroughly 
stddered. 



270 Home Instruction fok Sheet Metal Workers 

In the hood C, the heads t and j are soldered. Inside of this 
hood braces D and E are well soldered, with the distance m and /, 
such that when the outside ventilator F F is placed in position the 
tipper ledge will meet the cross braces D" and E", so that an edge 
will be exposed at n and o for soldering. 

Thus the outside ventilator and the hood are joined, forni- 
inf. the ventilator H, with the notches r, s and t in position, v 
and H showing the cross braces on the inside. 

When the vei.tilator is large and it is possible that a storm may 
blow otr the hood, it will he advisable to secure the hood as 
at X, where hood J is fastened to the outside ventilator K by the 




Fli:. .IVl. .\[, 



brace I, ni;i<lc from j-i, X ]!j-in. bands and bolted to the hood 
and ventilator at w. x and v. 

The skyliglit bars are assembled as in Figs. 392 to 396. Fig. 
392 shows the Iwo common bars attached to the inside ventilator. 
As the common bar is to meet the ventilator in the center as in 
Fig. 377, the student will mark off the center on the ventilator 
in Fig. 392 and lack connnun bars a and /> with solder, using 
the small sijuare c il. 

The curb iij is Ticxt placed on the lu'ncli, Fig. 393, the location 
of the various bars marked on the glass line according to dimen- 
sions in Fig. ^77, and the ventilator with the common bars 
attached in I'ig. 392 set on the curb, r d. I'ig. 393. Care should 
be taken to have bars r and d al right angles to the curb and the 
line of the ventilator 1 2 run iiaralk'l to the line of curb 3 4. 

When this is done the four hip bars are placed, one on each 



Making IIiitku Skylights 



corner, as in Fig, 394, in which two hips, a and b, are shown in 
position with the third hip c ready to be placed. If the miter 




cuts are true, a snug fit is the result, as at the upper intersection 
at e. The small square /, in Fig. 394, is used in stjuaring the 




jack bars, as in Fig. 395 where a, b and r, have been put i 
according to dimensions previously placed on the curb. 




Wlien all the bars have been placed true and .square the joints 
are well soldered, or riveted where convenient, and the fasten- 



272 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



ing cleats riveted or soldered in position. When completed the 
work will look as in Fig. 396, which is a hipped skylight with 



square curb, and ventilator, without glazing or capping. Some 
shops rivet or solder the cleats on the bars before building the 



R«.5«6 

Fiu, ite. Fiiiiahcd SkyliRhl with Square ( 

skylight, while others only put the cleats o 
bct-n constructed. 



I after the skylight has 




A finished skylight, is shown in Fig. 397, with ridge bar, center, 
jack, common jack and senii-interseciing hip bars. In this case 



Making Hipped Skylights 



273 



the four hip bars would have to be placed first and tacked with 
solder slightly to the corners of the curb, then set in ridge a, b. 
Care should be taken to have the line a b of the ridge parallel to 
c d oi the curb when sighted from top to bottom. The common 
and cented jack bars are tacked square in position as before, and 
the work soldered or riveted where possible, as desired. 

At the beginning of this exercise, it was stated that in large 
work when the skylight is so constructed that the curb line runs 
perpendicular with the glass line, the dimensions of the lights can 
be secured before the skylight is completed. In large work this is 
important, especially when a large (juantity of wire glass is to be 
used and must be ordered from the factory. The method of 
computing the sizes of the lights is explained in Fig. 398. which 




« fig 370 
if Glaia Required fi>r Skyliglil. 



is based on the measurements given for the skylight in Fig. 378. 
In Fig, 398 are presented rough diagrams of the lights of the 
shapes desired, on the basis of those in plan .\, Fig. 378, in which 
two lights would be required as c; two right and two left of d; 
four right and four left of e and two of /, The width of the 
lights in plan A minus ^ in., will give the width and the length 
of the common and jack bar, minus J4 i"-. will give the length of 
the glass, because the bars have been measured upon the glass 
line or line 2 in the patterns. This % in. allowance is made to 
provide for expansion and contraction of the metal and give 
the glass slight play room all around. 

The width of c is 12 in. and the length of the common bar 
1 ft, 6^ in. Therefore allow J4 in. both ways, making diagram 
c. Fig. 398, 11^ in. X 1 ft- 6>4 in., two of which are required. 
In Fig. 378 the width of d is 12 in., the length of the common bar 
1 ft. 6^ in.; length of jack 1 ft. 2j/^ in. and of the inside ven- 
tilator 2 ft. 5 in. Take the width of c from 2 ft. 5 in. and there 
remains 1 ft. 5 in., which, divided by 2, shows 8j/i in. to be the 



274 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

distance from a to h. Therefore make the diagram d. Fig. 398, 
11^ in. wide; 1 ft. 6j^ in. long on the one side, dedncting 14 it'- 
in the width and length ; no allowance has been made on the top 
width of 8}4 in. or the opposite side of 1 ft. 2yi in., for the 



reason that where the jack iKtr forms an obtuse angle with the 
hip bar at 1, 2 and 3 in <l, I'ig. 378 or the hip bar forms an obtuse 
angle with the ridge or ventilator a( 2, 1 and 7, the full measure- 
ments must be taken, as sbuwn iu (/, Fig. .VJS. No measurement 
need be given for ;/ i, for this is obtained by eounecting g of the 
lop to i of the si<le. Twii vi<;iit and lwi> left of these lights are 
required. 

In Fig. 378 the width of / is 12 in, ; the lengih of the jack bar 
1 ft. 21^ in.; the distam-e ihningh tliu cciUer in h the same aa the 



Making Hipped Skylights 275 

length of the common l>ar, or 1 ft. 6>S in.; the width of the ven- 
tilator is 5 in., whkh is directly in the center of the light, and the 
angle 6 5 4 and 4 1 2 arc obtuse on both sides. Therefore make 
the diagram /, Fig, 398, 1 1 )4 i"- wide ; I ft. 6>2 in. long through 
the center; I ft. 2j^ in. at the sides, and 5 in. wide at the top, 
placed in the center, and connect the lines m / and n o when cut- 
ting the glass, two being required. 

In Fig. 378 e is 12 in. wide and the length of the jack bar on 
the glass line 1 ft. Zy^ in. and 6 2 3 is an acute angle. Where the 
angle between the jack and hip bars is acute J4 in- deduction 
should be made. Therefore make the diagram e Fig. 398, 11 J^ 
in. wide and 1 ft. 2J4 '"■ long> and draw the connecting line r s 
and this gives the size of lights. Four right and four left are 
required. 

In this way, no matter how large the skyltght, the glass can be 
ordered before the skyltght is built, providing, however, that the 
curb hue runs perpendicular with the glass line; measurements 
are taken on the glass line, 2, of all bars, no deduction being made 
for any obtuse angle, but % in. deductions are made for all 
acute and right angles. 

The method of glazing and capping the skylights is similar to 
that explained in connection with the Hat skylights in the last 
exercise. Fig. 399 shows the illustration of a group of hipped 
skyHghts, glazed and capped at the building, having ridge, com- 
mon, hip, jack, center and common jack bars. Thus it will 
be seen from the illustration that it makes no dilFerence how 
long the skylight may be. only four hips and eight jacks are re- 
quired whether the length of the curb is 3 ft. or 300 ft., the bal- 
ance of the bars being common bars. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

Developing the Valley Bar in Pitched Skylights 

In building hipped skylights the curb sometimes contains an 
interior angle as A, Fig. 400, or a single pitch skylight, B, Fig, 
401, is placed along the interior angle of the wall. These interior 



N. Han / 

— 5 — 




angles require a valley bar, F, and the miter cut of the jack 
and common bars as in Figs. 400 and 401, a and h. The student 
will understand how these bars are developed with the aid of the 
quarter full size shop detail in Fig. 402 {see Folder 9). From 
this the student is to develop his detail and the patterns full size 
for tlie model skylight in Fig. 403. 

In the shop detail in Fig. 402 the profiles of the ridge and 
common bars and the curb are the same as those used in the 
shop detail of the hipped skylight. As the principles in develop- 
ing the valley and jack bars are similar to those in the hip bar, 
this detail will be briefly described. As in the last exercise, the 
student should draw the pitch 1/3 or 8 to 12. Draw the center 
line A B, at right angles lo which from O draw the base line of 
the triangle, 12 in. long. Make the distance O C, 8 in. high, and 
draw the hypotenuse C 12, which represents one-third pitch. 
Place the section of curb D in its proper position so that the curb 
line r c will be vertical with the glass line, or the point of the 
triangle, at 12. In a similar manner place the full section of the 
ridge bar C in position so that glass line 2 3 of the ridge bar C 
276 



Developing the Valley Bar in Pitched Skylights 277 

will lie on the hypotenuse C 12, Place the section of the com- 
mon bar £, and the section of the jack bar J, so that the glass 
line 2 3 in both sections wilt lie on the hypotenuse. 

The section of the common and jack bars are similar, with 
the exception that in jack bar J the standing ridge 1 2 is made 
only as high as the thickness of the glass in use. This is done 
so that when the two jacks meet at the valley, as at a and b, dia- 
gram A', the water will pass over the top surface of the glass, 
whereas if the standing ridge 1 2 in jack bar, section J, were 
made as high as 1 2 in the common bar, section E, a pocket would 
be formed, which would catch the water. Through the bends 
1 to 6 in both the common and jack bar sections draw lines 
parallel to the hypotenuse until they intersect ridge bar C from 
1° to 6 and at curb D, also from 1° to 6, allowing the opening 
at 4 5 6 at the lower part of the bar for the condensation drip 
to pass into the curb gutter, then to the outside at m, indicated 
by the arrow. This completes the sectional view of the skylight 
from which the patterns for the curb, ridge and common bars 
will be obtained. 

Inside miters will be required for the curb and ridge and to 
obtain the interior right angle miter for the curb, draw any ver- 
tical line as C° D", on which place the girth of the curb D, 
shown by similar letters and figures. From the small figures 
1, 2, 3, /, m, n, etc., at right angles to C D" draw the usual 
measuring lines, intersected by vertical lines drawn parallel to 
C D" from similar letters and figures in section D. Trace a 
line through points thus obtained, shown by f° h° i°, which will 
be the inside miter cut for the curb. When using this pattern 
measure from the arrow point S, the size curb required, allow- 
ing laps as shown by dotted lines. 

The cut /° h" i° could be used for an outside miter or for an 
exterior angle by simply using the opposite side of the pattern 
shown dotted by f h" t° k° j". 

The pattern for the half ridge bar is developed by drawing 
the vertical line A" B° above the ridge C and placing the stretch- 
out of C on A° B° at 1' to i, through which points lines are 
drawn at right angles to A" B°, and intersected by lines drawn 
parallel to A" B° from similar numbered intersections in C. 
Trace a hne through points thus obtained. Then l" m" n" will 
be the miter cut for the interior angle, representing the one-half 
pattern for the ridge bar when the skylight lias a single pitch. 

If the double pitched or hipped skylight is used, as in Fig. 4(y 



27H liftne. I^STtL'CTTOs fo« hREET Met.u. Woueexs 

thf. paft*:rn would fie doubled, by reversing it on tlie line /" I' Fig. 
4(f2. Thi> «wnic oil /' m' « ' muid be uje.! a> the pattern for an 
r.xtr.ritit or fful^i'le miter, by sitnidv u^iug the opposite side of 
thr iiaitcrii fth*^iwn dotted by i" /' m' n' r' . When laying out 
the |iaItcrTi<< always measure from arrow point /, allowing laps 
f/n one ^ide as indicated by the dotted lines. No matter what 
formalirfn the curb D or ridge C may have, the same rule is 
u-m;*! when developing the inside miters. 

The next pattern to be developed is common bar E. The girth 
of IC is placed on K L, drawn at right angles to 1° 1°, the usual 
tn«;a.4uring lines drawn and intersected from intersections on curb 
J) and ridge C. The developed pattern is shown by P O N S. 
When full size lengths are laid out, measurements are taken 
frt^m the arrow ]*oints d b or glass hne 2. 

The most important part of this problem is to draw the plan 
view showing the intersections between the valley bar and the 
curb and ridge, from which the valley bar section and pattern for 
the valley liar is obtained. From any point as G on the center 
line A \^ draw the line G F. From G at an angle of 45 degrees 
draw the valley horizontal line, G H. This valley line G H is the 
bi»eHion of the right angle B G F. Should the angle B G F be 
other than a right angle it would simply be bisected and the line 
thu« obtained would be the center line of the valley bar, the same 
an (i 11 is the center line of the valley bar am] the bisection of 
the right angle. 

From the various intersections between jack bar J and ridge 
bar C in the .sectional view and jack bar J and curb D, from 1 to 
6 ill C and 1 to 6 in I), drop vertical lines in the plan indeBnitely 
as shown by similar numlwrs in the plan of the ridge and curb. 
Where these lines intersect the valley line G H, as shown by 
the heavy dots in ridge and curb, horizontal lines are drawn 
indelintely, also shown hy similar numbers. Take a tracingf of 
the jaiU bar J with (he minibers on it in the sectional view, and 
place it on the valley line (i 11 in plan in the position J'. It is 
innnatcrial at what part of the valley line it is placed, as long 
as 1 4 of the liar is directly on the line tl H. This profile J' 
rcprcsi'til^ the horinontal projections of the valley bar in plan 
bnt does not ^how the true section of the valley bar. Parallel 
lo G II from the lici)il> in J' lines are drawn intersecting similar 
lunnlnTcd linos in both llie ridj-c and curb as shown by the miter 
line nnnibi-red un one side I'roni 1 to fi in the cnrh and from 1 to 
in the lidge. 



DEVELOPmc THE Vaixey Bar in Pitched Skylights 279 

The miter lines in plan having Ikvh obtained, the valley section 
is (levelo|>e(l as folloAs: K(|ual in length anil {Kiratlcl to G 1, 
draw ihc line 12 U at right angles lo which from 12 erect the line 
12 2 equal to 8 in. or to (_) 2 in llie sectional view. Draw a line 
from 2 to O in the valley section. From the intersections between 
the valley bar and ridge in plan from 1 to 6, and the intersec- 
tions between the valley bar and curb also from 1 to 6, erect 
lines indefinitely at right angles to G H. 

Measuring from the line () 12 in the sectional view take the 
vertical distances above and below this line to jwints 1 to 6 in 
the curb as well as above the line O 12 to points I to 6 in the 
ridge in sectional view, and place these distances on corresponding 
lines previously erected from the plan, measuring above and 
below the line 12 O in the valley section, from 1 to 6 in the curb 
and 1 to 6 in the ridge. Trace the miter lines through points thus 
obtained and connect them by lines shown, which then completes 
the true elevation. 

To obtain the true profile of the valley bar, take a tracing of 
profile y in plan and place it in any location shown by J', being 
careful that the center 1 2 of section J' is at right angles to 2 O. 
From the same figures in J' draw lines at right angles to 2 O 
intersecting similar numbered lines in the valley section, A 
line traced through jwints thus obtained, shown by A', will be 
the true section of the valley bar. Note the acute angles between 
1, 2 and 3. As in the jack bar, the standing edge 1 2 in the val- 
ley bar A' is as high as the thickness of the glass so as to form 
an open valley to allow the rain and snow to run off. 

The pattern for the valley bar is obtained by taking ihe girth of 
A' and placing it on line E° F" drawn at right angles lo 2 U in 
the valley section. At right angles to E° F° Hnes are drawn 
through the small figures and intersected by lines drawn from 
similar numbers in the ridge and curb in the valley section at 
right angles to 2 O. Lines traced through these points, shown by 
t u V and y x iv, will be the pattern for the valley bar. 

In laying out full size patterns for the valley bar, measure 
from the arrow points d" and c" , which represent line 2 or the 
glass line, allowing laps as shown. 

The last i>attern retjuired is that of the jack bar. If the stu- 
dent will refer to his detail on hipped skylight he will notice 
that the jack bar in (he hipped skylight runs upward from the 
curb to the hip bar. In the valley skylight the jack bar runs 
downward from the ridge to the valley bar. Therefore take a 



280 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal W 



tracing of tlic jack bar and place it at right angles to G B, as 
shown by J^. Through the figures in J' and at right angles to 
It (j draw lines inlt-rsccling similar numbered lines on one side 
of the valley bar as shown by the miter lines 1 to 6 in both the 
long and short cuts. From these intersections as in the hipped 
skylight erect vertical lines until they intersect similar numbered 
lines in the seclianal view. The miter line 12 3 4 5 6 represents 
the short cul ;md llie miter line 1 2 3'' 4 5*' 6'' the long cut. 

As the standing e<lge 1 2 in jack bar J in the sectional view 
is less th;in 1 2 in the common bar E, a new stretchout must be 
taken of J finil placed on the line T U drawn at right angles 
til 2 12, The usual measuring lines are dra-wn through the small 
figures on and at right angles to T U, intersected by lines drawn 




parallel Ui V U from the intersections 1 to 6 on the ridge C and 
from the lung an<l short jack intersections in R, the short cut in R 
prnjocli'd being to one siilc of the jack bar pattern and the long 
int ill \i 111 (be nilicr side. When a line is traced through points 
thus oblaincd. ilien V VV X Y Z will be the pattern for the jack 
hnr. W / ii" being the short cut of the jack and a° b" c° V the 
lung cnl. All measurements are taken from the glass line 2, 
indicated by llu- arrow points c, /. Laps are allowed at the 
rirlge cul as shuwn. This eom])leies the fidl set of patterns. 

I laving c(jni])leled the pallerns for constructing the model 
skyligbl. the sliident will find that the ridge C A in Fig. 403 
should measure 1 ft. 6 in., and the curb U, 6 in. ; the horizontal 
distance betweeti the ridge and curb 12 in. The skylight to 
contain one valley \, two common C, and two jack bars D, the 
working jilan being shown in diagram B' in the shop detail in 
l'"ig. 402. in which arc shown the various divisions and lengths. 
Using ibe one-half pattern for the ridge bar the student should 



Developing the Valley Bar in Pitched Skylights 281 

cut from galvanized iron two pieces 1 ft. 6 in. long, measuring 
from point ;'. In a similar manner, using the pattern for the 
curb and measuring from point S lay out two pieces 6 in. long. 
Referring to diagram if' the horizontal distance between the 
ridge and curb or the measuring length is 12 in., and the jack bar 
is to be placed from the ridge a horizontal distance of 6)4 in. 
As the detail contains these measurements, namely, 12 in. from 
the center line to the outside curb line in sectional view, and the 
jack bar 6yi in. from the ridge line in plan, then the patterns ob- 




Cop ovwJack Bar 



Cop over Vail«y Bar 



tained from the common, jack and valley bars in the detail are 
the true lengths and can be pricked directly on to the metal in 
making the model skylight. One valley, two jack and two com- 
mon bars are required. 

When all the pieces have been cut from sheet metal, they arc 
ready to be formed on the brake after their rcsijectivc profiles 
in the same manner as in previous exerci.ses. 

Care must he taken to have the angles true in the valley bar, 
and when it is fornicd as far as A, Fig. 404, it will be found 
that the parts 1 2 cannot be clamped in the brake owing to its 
narrow width. This is overcome by using the tongs shown by 
B in diagram C which presses the edges 1 2 together as shown by 



282 lIoMii Instkuctkin for SuiiiiT Metal Workers 

the dotted lines. Tongs can also be used to advantage when 
forming the jack bars. 

When setting this model together, mark off the dimensions on 
the ridge and curb as in diagram B', Fig. 402 and set together, 
al right angles, the ridge D D and the curb B B, Fig. 403. Tack 
the center of llie common bars C C at right angles to the ridge, 
then set them on the curb B B in their proper location or 4 in. 
from the corner. Tack valley bar A, place the jack bars D D 
in position, then the joints can be Jully soldered. This mode! will 
prove the miter cuts, and show the appearance of a valley bar in 
an interior angle whelhcr in a single or double pitch skylight. 
While this model gives the student practical experience on joining 
the bars, a larger skylight would have to be put together at the 
job, as mentioned in the exercise on flat skylights. 

When glazing the valley the glass should be laid in white 
lead putty so as to make a tight joint in the valley. Sometimes, 
lo make a neat finish over the jack and valley bars, a plain metal 
capping is placed so as to be in keeping with the balance of the 
common bars and is done as in Fig. 405 in which A is the jack 
bar, H B the glass and C the capping fastened either by copper 
cleats or wire fr, as mentioned in a previous exercise, being care- 
ful to solder the cleat or wire where it turns down over the cap- 
ping. In capping the valley bar the same method is employed, 
bending the cap as in the angle a c in D. As before mentioned. 
the glass must be laid in white lead jnitty to insure a tight joint, 
before the caps arc put in place. The common bars are capped 
in the usual manner. 

To show how the leiifjlli of (he bars would be obtained, refer 
to diagram A"^, Fig. 402, which shows a single pitch skylight set- 
ling again.-it the interior angle of the brick wall, the ridge 7 ft. 6 
in., Ihe horizontal projection from wall to curb 3 ft. 8 in., making 
the curb 3 ft. 10 in. because 3 ft. 10 in. + 3 ft. 8 in. = 7 ft. 6 in. 
The bars are spaced !8 in, apart, reijuiring six common and two 
right and two left jack bars of different size and one valley bar. 
The horizontal projection of 3 ft. 8 in. between the wall and 
curb, forms the basis from which to obtain the true length of 
the various bars. Reducing the 3 ft. 8 in. to inches gives 44. 

As this .skylight has 1/3 pitch, the mnllipliers previously ob- 
tained can be used fur 1/3 jiitcli. natnelv, 1.2018 for the common 
and jack bars an,l 1.5634 for the hip 'or valley bar, as in Fig. 
386. Thus, lo find ttic length of the common bar 1.2018 X 44 = 
52.8792. For Ihe valley bar 1.5G34 X 44 ^ 68.7896. As the 



DEVELOriNG THE VaLLEY UaR IN PiTCIIED SKYLIGHTS 283 

horizontal distance between the ridgeand jackbar I is 18in. then 
jack bar I will be equal to 18 X 1.2018 or 21.6324. As the dis- 
tance between the ridge and jack bar I! is 36, then jack bar II 
will be equal to 36 X 12018 or 43.2648 or twice the length of 
jack bar I, because ihe two divisions 18 are equal. The student 
now has the true lengths of all the bars required in diagram A', 
the fractional part of the inch being given in decimal. The deci- 
mal equivalents to fractional i>arts of lineal measu >;^<i 
given below in a table taken from "The Tinsmith's Helper," 

Decimal Equivalknts to Fractionai, Pahts of Lineal Measureuent 
(One Inch the Integer or Whole Number) — 

0.96875 equal j^ and 3/32 

0.9375 equal ?i and 1/16 

0.90625 equal ^ and 1/32 

0.875 equal }i 

0.84375 equal ^ and 3/32 

0.8125 equal ^ and 1/16 

0.78125 equal ^ and 1/32 

0.75 equal ^ 

0.71875 equal ^ and 3/32 

0.6875 equal ^ and 1/16 

0.65625 equal ^ and 1/32 

0.625 equal ^ 

0.59375 equal y^ and 3/32 

0.5625 equal J^ and 1/16 

0.53125 equal J^ and 1/32 

0.5 equal i^ 

0.46875 equal ^ and 3/32 

0.4375 equal ^ and 1/16 

0.40625 equal H and 1/32 

0.375 equal ^ 

0.34375 equal % and 3/32 

0.3125 equal 14 and 1/16 

0.28125 equal % and 1/32 

0.25 equal J4 

0.21875 equal J^ and 3/32 

0.1875 equal % and 1/16 

0.15625 equal yi and 1/32 

0.125 equal '/i 

0.09375 equal 3/32 

0.0625 equal 1/16 

0.03125 equal 1/32 



284 Home Instructiun for Sheet Metal Workers 

The common bar is 52.8792 long. Following the table, the 
nearest decimal to 0.8792 is 0.875 which equals % in. The com- 
mon bar will be 52% in., as in diagram A'. The length of the 
valley bar is 68.7896. The nearest decimal to 0.7896 is 0.78125, 
which equals ^ and 1/32 or 25/32 in. The valley bar is then 
68 25/32 in. long, as shown in diagram A', The jack bars I and 
II are 21.6324 and 43.2648 in. respectively. The nearest deci- 
mals to 0.6324 and 0.2648 are 0.625 and and 0.25, which equals 
^ and }i in. The lengths of the jack bars I and II are then 
215^ and 43J4 as in diagram A*. 

By using the multiplier the true lengths of the bars arc thus 
obtained. These lengths could also be obtained by dividing the 
triangles in the sectional view and valley section in 12 equal 
spaces, as explained in connection with the hipped skylights, 
obtaining the lengths from the hypotenuse in both triangles, that 
in the sectional view being for the jack and common bars and 
that in the valley section for the valley bars. The figures to 12 
in the sectional view have been numbered from left to right, 
which is an advantage when obtaining the length of the jack bar, 
because the jack bars run from ridge downward to the valley 
bar. However, it makes no difference which way the figures 
run, the lengths will be the same. 



CHAPTER XXVII 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Louvres 



III many cases the ventilator placed at the ridge of the skylight 
will answer for ventilation, but sometimes more ventilation is 
required and can be obtained by placing under the fixed skylight, 
stationary louvres or movable louvres operated by quandrants 
attached on one side to the louvres and on the other to an upright 
bar which is pulled up or down by cords or chains from below. 
Different shapes of louvres can he employed, three stationary 
shapes being shown in Fig. 406, A, B and C, and two movable 
shapes in Fig. 407, D and E. 

In Fig. 406 the louvres or slats 
y I y in A are bent in the brake and 

\,'\ ,1^ ~\ are spaced as to allow the foul 

air to pass out at a. In B the 



■Sf,^ 



t^ 



>^ H p^ 



-9: 



-'} 



-.. 407. Two Tren of MuvabEc 



louvres are S shaped, being rolled right and left in the pipe 
rollers, the air escaping at b. The louvre or slat generally used 
is shown in C, This allows a greater amount of space for ven- 
tilation at c and is the style the student should employ for his 
model. 

In Fig. 407, D shows one style of movable louvre in which 
3/16-in. wires are passed through c. c and c, over which the lower 
part of the louvres closes at d and d. The quadrants a are riveted 
to the louvres and pivoted to bar b. When bar b is drawn down- 



286 Home Isstkuctios for Sheet Metal Wokkebs 

ward, as at b' the slats open, turning on the vin pivots c" c* to 
the position e e, allowing the air to escape at /. 

Another style is shown closed at E. Here the slats have wire 
pivots, with a V formed in each slat, into which the lower part 
o{ the slat fits at ;. The position of the open louvre is omitted, 
because it wilt be taken up in the detail drawing, from which the 
student is to construct a working model. 

This model should contain four movable louvres and the curb 
should measure 1 ft. 8% in. X 2 ft. 8^ in,, to allow the hipped 
skylight, made from measurements in Fig, 377, to 6t over the 
louvres constructed from patterns shown in Fig. 409 (see Folder 



9). The hipped skylight rtferrtd to measures I ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 
9 ill., showing that the curb of the skylight must be J^ in. larger 
all anjund so as to fit over the louvres. 

The complctffl niudel, Fig. 408, is of a movable louvred sky- 
hght made by a studt-nt at the Xl-w York Trade School, The 
height of the louvres from n to b can be made as required, the 
more height given the more louvres being required. To show the 
constructive features of the stationary and movable louvres as 
well as the method of developing the patterns, the student should 
draw a full size working detail from Fig. 409, in which the quarter 
.size sections of the stationary louvres are shown, each containing 
four slats. It will be noticed that the first slat in the stationary 
section is formed on to the curb A, 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Louvres 287 

The first step after finding the size of the wood curb over 
which the metal curb A is to set, is to make a rough diagram, B, 
showing the number of corner (C) and middle (D") posts re- 
quired, as well as the length to cut the louvres. In this case the 
size of the curb will be 1 ft. 8^ in. X 2 ft. 8^^ in. The comer 
posts will be Ij^ in. wide and the center posts Ij^ in, A post 
will be placed on each corner and a middle post in the center of 
the long side. In this case one long side is to have stationary 
louvres, while the opposite side is to have movable louvres, the 
two ends to remain open to show construction. 

In practice, of course, the two ends would be finished with 
louvres. From the long side measuring 2 ft. 8J4 in. deduct the 
comer and middle post dimensions, 1J4 -[- \yi -\- 1^ z= 5, 2 ft. 
8M in. — 5 = 2 ft. 3}i in.; divide this by 2, and I ft. 1% in. is 
the distance between posts. From this distance deduct J4 in., 
making the length for either movable or stationary louvres 1 ft, 
1J4 'f. If louvres are to be placed in the ends they would be 
cut 1 ft. 5j4 '•>■ length. 

By making diagram B, Fig. 409, a great amount of time is 
saved; for by referring to it at any time a glance gives the size 
of the curb, number of posts, length of louvres and distances 
between posts. Whatever the length of the sides they should 
be so spaced as not to have the louvres over 36 in. wide. 

At any convenient part of the detail draw the section of the 
comer post C 1% in. square, ihe joint being locked as at o. 
Directly below this draw the middle post D, I'/i in. face width, 
locking the back as at b. In line with corner post C, draw the 
sectional view of the stationary louvres, making the shape of 
the curb as at A and of the louvre as at E, having the point 12 
of the louvre E in a horizontal line with 1 2 of the top. Make 
the post extend ^ in. above the top of the upi)er louvre. Over 
this post the curb of the skylight will set as shown by F. This 
section is all that is required in developing the patterns. 

To obtain the pattern for middle post D, take the girth of the 
front part of post D and place it from G to j on the line G H, 
Draw the usual measuring lines, intersected by horizontal lines 
drawn from similar points in the sectional view. A line traced 
through points thus obtained, as J G p' e f. will give the desired 
pattern. The girth of the back b of middle post D, including the 
locks, is placed on line G H from K to L and made as long as 
from J to /, thus forming the pattern for the back of the middle 
post D. 



288 Home Instkuction for Sheet Metal Wokkess 

Take the girth of corner post C and place it on the line G H 
from M to N. Draw the perpendicular measuring lines, inter- 
sected by lines drawn from the sectional view, and M N A 
is the pattern for the corner post. Take the girth of a in comer 
post C, and place it on G H from O to H, and make it as long 
as N to ;' in the corner post, which completes the pattern for 
the back of the comer post. 

The top of these four patterns are cut square, on which the 
skylight curb rests, the lower part having the bevel as in A in 
the sectional view. Laps are allowed in the patterns, shown 
by the dotted lines. From the lower bends in the louvres at 
k, /and 11, in the sectional view, horizontal dotted lines are drawn 
across the patterns, cutting the bends in the comer and middle 
posts, shown by the heavy dots. These dots should be pricked on 
to the metal, as they show the location for the' louvres when 
soldered in position, without further measurements. Whatever 
the length of these posts may be, the height is measured from e to 
.: in the middle post and from h to i in the comer post. 

Take the girth of louvre E in the sectional view, from 10 to 
15, and place it on the vertical line IC to 15', Through these 
points draw horizontal lines, making the rectangular shape 
shown by 10", 15', 15", 10", allowing laps. The lengths of the 
louvres are measured from m to n according to measurements 
-in diagram B. 

The pattern for curb A in the sectional view is obtained as 
follows: Take the girth from 1 to 9 in A and place it on the 
vertical line R S, from 1 to 9. Through these small figures at 
right angles to R S draw lines indefinitely, and draw the per- 
pendicular lines T W and U V at any desired distance apart. 
Measuring from line 7 3 in the sectional view A take the hori- 
zontal distances to points 4, 5 and 6, and in the pattern place 
them on similar lines on either side of lines U V and T W.. 
measuring in each instance from U V and T W. From points 
3' on botli sides creel the vc-riical lines 3' L' and 3' T, These lines 
do nol miter, but are cut off at right angles so that when they 
are formed lo tlieir rc<|uired shape they will lie against the post 
as indicate<l by a. Fig. 410. 

Connect the points of intersection previously obtained in the 
pattern for cnrb A, l-'ig, 409, then V V \V T will be the desired 
paiierii, with lajis sliovvn by the doited lines. When laying out 
the full lengths of tlic curb, measure from o lo p in the pattern. 
When center posts are to be placed on the curb, as in the diagram 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Louvres 289 

B at D", then the divisions between the posts must be measured 
off on the full size metal pattern from 3' lo e' and /' to 3' in tlie 
pattern for curb A, and the shaded part, C d' C f', must be 
notched out V/, in. lo allow the center post to set at its proper 
place in the upper part of the curb louvre. This completes the 
full set of patterns for stationary louvres. 

To facilitate the use of the patterns for the corner and middle 
posts for both stationary and movable louvres, curb A in the sec- 
tional view from 3 to 9, Fig. 409, has been traced in the lower 
section of Fig. 409A (see Folder 9), as shown in line with post 
sections from 14 to 20 in curb section P and the snow and rain 
guard A', from 14 to 9, added to it. The height of the post is made 
similar to that in the stationary louvre and the movable louvres are 
formed to the shape B'. This louvre, B', as will be noticed, turns 
on the wire pivot s, but has a V-shaped angle, (, bent in it, to re- 
ceive the lower part of the hem-edged angle «, 

These louvres can be made any width from 3 to 4, but care 
must be taken that the lower angle « tits into the V-shaped for- 
mation /. Below this the quadrant C is riveted at v on one side 
and pivoted to the upright bar D' on the other at w. Under no 
circumstances should bolts be used at v, for they loosen in time 
and make a poor job. The pivot at it' is riveted so that it turns 
easily while the bar is held firmly. 

The holes in the posts to receive the wires or pivots of the 
louvres, shown by the letters s, should be punched into both 
sides of the posts before forming and the proper location is trans- 
ferred to the patterns from a tracing of d^, c", /", c", in the sec- 
tional view, on which the centers are marked s. Therefore, in 
the patterns for the posts Fig. 409, the heavy dots s indicate the 
holes for the pivots and would be placed in patterns for the posts 
bounding the movable louvres. In the patterns for the posts 
bounding the stationary louvres these heavy dots s are omitted 
and the lighter ones shown like on line d'' C substituted as men- 
tioned before. 

The pattern for movable louvre B' in sectional view, Fig. 409A, 
is obtained by taking Ihe girth of B' from 1 to 8 and placing 
it on the vertical line in the pattern for movable louvre B' from 
1 to 8, making the distance from 7 to 8 as much as is required 
for the wire which acts as the pivot. Complete the rectangle of 
any desired length and lay out the true length of the louvre, ob- 
taining measurements from diagram B, Fig. 409, and measuring 
from y to /" in the pattern B' in 409A. Using one of the quad- 



290 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

rants C in the sectional view, set it below line 4 in the pattern for 
movable louvre, and mark off the rivet holes h" and i", which 
should be punched before bending. 

As the profile for the movable louvre curb P, from 14 to 20 is 
the same as the profile A, Fig. 409, in the stationary louvre curb 
from 3 to 9, then the pattern for P from 14 to 19 in Fig. 409A, 
will be the same as the pattern for A from 3 to 9 in Fig. 409, 
The pattern for curb P in Fig. 409A from 14' to O" and 14' to n", 
and is obtained in the same way as curb A, Fig. 409. Above 14' 
in the pattern for curb P, Fig. 409A, add the girth from 14 to 9 in 
curb r in the sectional view as shown by similar numbers on the 
vertical line G' E'. From 14' on both sides draw the perpendicu- 
lar lines 14' r^ and 14' m", which, when formed to shape, will lie 
against the side of the post a. Fig. 410. 

When A' in ihe sectional view in Fig. 409A has been formed 
as shown in curb P, Fig. 409A, and the louvres are opened 
in the sectional view H' P', snow or rain is likely to gather 
in the angle A', To allow this to escape small holes are 
punched at the arrow a" in both profiles P and P". There- 
fore, before bending the pattern for curb P punch small holes 
about 12 in. apart on line 11, j" and it/*'. The shaded part 
m'. A', i', /' is notched out lyi in. wide down to line 13 to re- 
ceive the middle post as explained in the pattern for curb A 
in Fig. 409. In laying out the pattern for curb P, Fig, 409A meas- 
ure from arrow points W and l". 

The quadrants to open and close the louvres can be bought 
from dealers in skylight gearings, while the upright bars are 
made from band iron about %x}i in. When a large nuinber of 
louvres are to be raised and lowered heavier band iron is required. 

Care must be taken when punching the holes in the band iron 
to have them equally .spaced, a.s in the drawing. The section on 
the right shows the bar up, which closes the louvres; while the 
section on the left shows the bar down, which opens them. The 
holes a' in the to]) of tht band in both sections, as well as Ihe 
holes />'' at the bottom, are used to fasten operating cords or 
chains. 

Having developed the necessary patterns for the movable 
louvre ventilator, the student sliould now lay out on sheet tnelal 
the necessary pieces. Using the pattern for curb A, Fig. 409, for 
the stationary louvre, measuring from points o and p, cut two 
pieces 1 ft. 8-}^ in. long for the ends without lap, and one piece 
2 ft. 8^ in, long with lap for one long side to receive stationary 



292 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



The forming of curb P in the movable louvres. Fig. 409A. 
needs no further explanation than is given by the two diagrams 
in Fig. 412. The numbers in A, Fig. 409, correspond to the 



HTITT 

Fic. 411. Bending Cornrr and Mid.llf Pt 




412. F.rming Curb P ir 



numbers in P, Fig. 409A and are similar in Fig. 412. Bend that 
part from 9 lo 13 according to the slay, also that part from 13 tol6 
and from 16 to 20. Clamp together in the brake the bends 13 and 
16 and the result will be shape 
B. When bending the mov- 
able louvre B' in sectioanl 
view, Fig. 409A, the upper 




wired edf;c s and lowt-r licni (.-dgc 1 2 should be made, before any 
forming is startL-d. as iti ])fispectivf Fig. 413, after which the 
Ix-nds are niadt- on 3 4 5 and 6. When all is formed the curb 
a h i. Fig. 414, is set tof-ctht'r sipiare, after which the corner posts 
b c and a d. and the middle ]iost e f are soldered to the curb at 
right angles to a b. Care must be taken that these posts are set 
nerfeclly sijiiare to the liase, otherwise the louvres will not fit. 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Louvres 293 

The laps on the slationary louvres are then turned at right angles 
and soldered to the sides of the post. 

Sometimes, instead of soldering the louvres against the post, 
ing, the posts have wood cores, to which the louvres are screwed 
as in Fig. 415. When the movable louvres have the wire in- 
serted, h i, in F, Fig. 416, they are inserted between the posts as 
follows: When corner posts A and C have been set square, and 
before the center post is soldered tight, the wire pivot /i i in 
each louvre is inserted in the hole punched in the sides of the post. 
a b and b c, and when all louvres arc inserted, the middle posts 
are soldered square, in position. 



(UorVrtBofMiildta 
fojt 

Flo. 41S. LoDtrt Scrcwnt In Post. Fk,. -116. Wire Hns tntrrtcd in Hovable LouvrH. 

Sometimes it is desirable that the movable louvres be placed 
in the skylight frame last, when all posts are soldered tight and 
plumb when a wire rod of the length of the side is inserted from 
the outside of the post C at c, the louvres held in their proper po- 
sition so that when rod c d is pushed through the holes in the 
posts, it will pass through the wire edge on the louvres. This 
leaves a hole on the outside of a corner post, as at C, Fig. 410, on 
each side and this is closed by soldering over it a concave metal 
button. 

The quadrants must be riveted to the movable louvres before 
they are placed in position, and after the louvres are in place 
the operating bar is riveted lo them, as in the sectional view. 
Fig. 409A. When this has been done the finished louvres will 
look as in Fig, 410, which shows ihe stationary louvres on the 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Louvres 295 

slipping outward. The upper rail, A B, Fig. 418, is shown by 
a b c d in Fig. 419, and simply has square bends at b and c and 
affords a support to which the louvre posts are fastened and over 
which the skylight curb, E F G, is set. 

When the length of the louvres sides are great it becomes neces- 
sary to brace them in the center to hold them rigid. Assuming 




h - 


...s/o-. 


-■t «*■ 


...+ 


..^: 
















i 






<-7/»/?ooS.- 
































' a^o' 


... 






..-.^ 



:;."Er.". 



Setflenal View 



-"-X 



that the side is 18 fl., Fig. 420, two tic rods would be required, 
making the distance 6 ft. apart, as indicated in the diagram. The 
simplest way of fastening these tie rods wilhout any angle iron 
construction is shown in Fig. 421, in which the tic rod is fastened 
to the posts marked a b c and d in Fig. 420. These posts have 
wood cores, Fig. 415. Iron gas pipe J^ in. in diameter and 3^ 
in. shorter than from b to c. Fig. 420, is used for the tie rod, and 
have threads cut on each end as far as C, Fig, 421, with hexagon 
nuts to fit. A hole. A, is cut in the lop metal angle, X, and 
the front of the metal post ^ in. larger than the hexagon nut. 



i-Tiei ^vi.-»T■^^T7:3s i»:« : 



r Uetai. \V4 



»fr i5ac3 ibt fipc E. is on f rmn the 

5 £k-tgc i'i ibc top aa^. 

1 r.n -s 3;-« :»:*rM .o ic ><«t<wlc. o( Ac sire and to 

.cT.-a^ WIkd dns is done another 

b.3ue ^ )K««>d drongfa the entire core 

re £9^smi dae lie Fod. B. This being 

tkcx-. ibr mt. C. is screwed to each 

<^ of tbc tie rod, D, the rod in- 

iC7Te<G io ■Ac iwo posts and the nut. 

F. iirrevvd in positiaQ. Adjust Uie 

T-vo mns^ F and D. until the sides 

^^asd jiaaA and die tie rods are 

irszi. i^HvT this opening. A. the 

carti. H I J, is id. which ctoses and 

"""^" hidtj- ihe bote. 

The ?*'}!:£:hi oTfT the icavnes Seing large, some anangement 

nms: be nude :•> fa-ce^ :o 'he Icqitv I'runes and to prevent 

V. from j^rcid:r^. Thre* meiJxJs are gi\ien. Fig. 422 shows 

b&w iHirb E i-. •i-.-.trx^f :o :Se -.vp angle A. b>- biass boUs a fast- 





•■u':'] ill The boiioni ai ^ and then iol.'.cred over the head a in this 
m;iriritr; After the curb I> ha> Wen sci over the iranic A, holes 
:iT'- |/umht-d upward alxiui 18 iiutie? a|ian. through the two thick- 
jji-.c' 1,1 ihe metal from the Imtiom l\ using a lat^e size rivet 
jjuiKh. and a -trip of wood C. after which, brass bolts 3/16 
inili thick, are in>ened from the top and nuts screwed on the 
itiMdc at ti. 

■ mc-ihod in Fig. 423 is similar to that in Fig. 421, except- 
[ the lie ro<l K passes through the skylight curb in addi- 



Construction of Stationakv and Movable Louvres 297 



tioii to the louvre iKwts, and the skylight curb is formed as shown 
by A B C D, thus having a flange over the outside of the post 
at A and one over the inside at B. The tie rod can be employed 
as in Fig. 424 with an angle iron frame placed in the condensa- 
tion gutter of the skylight curb. The skylight curb in this case 
is formed by A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H. Note how this is formed, 
the bend E being made after F was clamped. The angle iron J 
fits inside of gutter C, E, F and the tie rod is fastened with nuts 
at a and b. The skylight is then bolted to the frame as in Fig. 





Fig. 42B. Louv 



^22. Where the angles join at the corners, they are mitered at 
X, Y and reinforced by the angle V riveted at c and d. 

In Fig. 409A the movable louvres had beaded edges into which 
wires were placed for the pivots. If desired these beaded edges 
can be omitted and the upper edges bent square, B, D, Fig. 425, 
with a hem edge c to stiffen and a pivot C, riveted at each end 
with two tinned (4 lb.) rivets at a and b. These pivots can be 
made from 3/16 inch rod. heated at one end and flattened out 
and two holes punched in them, after which they should be 
tinned or galvanized. When the louvres are long, the pivots 
have a tendency to wear out the thin melal or pivot bearings. 
To overcome this tinned washers are soldered on the inside of 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Louvres 299 

they close. A frame having this construction and made by a 
New Yorlc Trade School student is shown in Fig. 417 with the 
louvres open, viewing it from the outside. The same frame, 
viewing it from the rear, with the quadrants and bar in position 
is shown in Fig. 429. The foregoing exercise on louvre work 
forms an interesting study for the student as well as the me- 
chanic, and should be thoroughly mastered before going on with 
the final work of skylight construction. 



CoNSTKirCTlUN <J! StATIU.NAKS AM' MiiVABi-t SaSHES 301 

lower halt of movable sash and pos; i~ drawn Ijelow the pivot 
line. Note how this jiost i^ formed «Tth the sides and back in 
one piece, and locked to a separaie from piece. This makes easy 
bendinf; and avoids a twist in ihe )>osi Arotmd the standing 
seam of this post the section No \" of the lower part of the mov- 
able sash is dran-n. Note that 1.2, 3, 4. 5 i~ beni to receive the 
^lass which lies against the rabbet 4 5. the glass bein^' 3/16 in. 
thick. Should thicker or thinner pias^ be used, it would only lie 
necessan,- to make the anglt- ] 2 ,i more obtuse or more acute. 
TTien 4 5 6 doubles together and i'jrm- the rabl»ct and 6, 7, 8, 9 
forms the lock which doses over the standing seam of the post 
No. I\'a shows a section thruiijrh llie u]j\n^ half of the movable 
sash and post. Thi> ])Osi i^ similar in section to Nu I\', hut the 
upper half of the sash Nu \"a above iIk- pivot, is only formed ah 
far as 10, over which i!k- interlocking caji No. VI is placed, as at 
a, Fig. 430. Underneath tlie hanging' gutter 111. Fig. 431.^, a 
square leader No, \'1I. is placed, tin.- leader having ati cHmjw at 
the bottom at r y with a hem along i i" stiffen it 

In line with sections No \" and \'a of tlie side of the moval)le 
sash draw the section of liie Ujttimi a> indicated b> No, \'III. 
Note thai !•« in, pla> room iia- been given at the Uittoni at h and 
that the flap 7 6 laps over the low.T '.-uriy ,^^ 2. 3. 4. 5 arrange- 
ment is made to receive the hinge and Hie boil-, which will not 
interfere with the glass. In a -.imilar ujanner. in line with No. 
V and Va, the Miction of tli- U)iper ^m-n of ib-- iiinv^ible sash i*. 
drawn as shown by No, IX. Tiia; i^ -<, arranged thai the flap 
2 3 doses a|^inst Su. II and thai 4 5 6 of Xo. iX ran he Item 
obtuse or acute to sun the lid'.-lni'.-^'- of the gla^^., 'ihon sections 
of which are shown in liie differeni seciionh. 

In post No. I\" the wire iitvul i' shown, indicating in whai jian 
of the pt«l and sasii pivoi fioles iiiusi l>e punt:hed through which 
the pivot is to pass and on which ihe sash open^ and closes. In 
line with the jiivut in p-jsi No. I\' the seaior of the i)ivot is drawn 
in the cemer between '.-urbs No. I and ]]. inchciiied hy the heavy 
circular dot marked pivoi. The studenl should note ihat the sidc 
eleratkffl) of the post _f, 3. /i 4 is cui along the standing scam 
I, ;. k, 1, and the side elevation of ihe sash is nil as indicated hy 
/, u, t, h''. When the sash is (ij.ened. ihe angle ai /. strikes 
against ;'. k of the side of ihe j>o>l and prevents ihc s^sh from 
opening farther. How these ctjis are determined, ro snil any 
desired angle of sash i>].>eninc is explained in oonnootion with 
the enlai^ed sketch in Fig. 4,i2, in which a panial side of t 



)UE Instruction for Sheet Metal Wokxebs 



sash is shown, being a reproduction of the center pari 
; the pivot in Fig. 431A. 




4M is tilt piv(Jt lidk' in llic side of ihc sash, obtaine 
usly dcscrihc-il. 'I'hrongh ihe jiivot A draw the hr 
ly anglt which the sash shall have when opened. Tali 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Sashes 303 

the horizontal distance from A to / and A to fc and place it from 
A to o' and A to b' on a line drawn at right angles to B C. 
Through a' draw a line parallel to B C until it conies within a 
horizontal distance of 1/16 in. to the left of the vertical line 
dropped from the front of the post D, as at t". From (' draw 
the horizontal line t' u' until it meets the line from the outer 
edge of section G at «'. From (' drop the vertical line (' n, until 
it intersects the line drawn from «" in the section F parallel to 
B C at M. Then (' n n" is the proper angle to be cut on the flange 
F n'. This point « is shown in the closed sash ir Fig. 431A, at s. 
Now through b'. Fig. 432, draw a line parallel to B C which com- 
pletes a partial view of the opened sash. The amount to cut 
from the standing seam E in the post is determined as follows : 
Where the line from D meets the line (' u' at k, erect the verti- 
cal line k j not less than J4 i"- and draw,' the horizontal line 
;■ » until it meets the vertical line from E at i. The angle 
j k I is obtained by placing the point I far enough below k so 
that when sash F G closes it will easily pass over / as indicated by 
the sash V W, shown dotted. These cuts having been obtained in 
Fig. 431A, draw the quarter circle t d° in the sectional view, 
which represents the finish added to the' sides 7 8 and 1 2 of the 
interlocking cap No. VI, Fig. 431A, as clearly shown at a, Fig. 
430, which covers the wire pivot. In drawing this sectional view 
in Fig. 431A each section should be distinctly shown in the detail. 
The sash opened, as A^ B% shows that the side below the pivot up 
to ( is formed as indicated by A^ which, when closed, locks around 
the standing seams 7, 8, 9, of post No. IV. The upper part of the 
sash above the pivot is formed as B' and, when closed, slips inside 
of the interlocking cap No. VI at 7. 

The patterns are now in order and the home student will start 
with No. I, Fig. 431A, which is the lower curb. Number the 
bends in this lower section No. 1 from 1 to 7, from which points 
draw horizontal lines, until Ihey intersect any vertical line at 
D' E*. Draw any vertical D E, Fig. 431B, upon which place the 
girth of curb No. 1 from 1 to 7 on D. E (see Folder 11). Through 
these points at right angles lo D E, draw the usual measuring lines 
indefinitely. Measuring from the line D' E', Fig. 431A, take the 
projections to points 1 lo 7 in curb No. 1 and place them on similar 
numbered lines, measuring in each distance from the line D E, 
Fig. 431B. Trace a line through the points thus obtained, which 
will be the pattern for the miter cut for curb No. 1. When laying 
out the full length patterns on the metal, measure from'point C 



.WH U(»MK Instruction kor Sheet Metal W 

llii- shv of ilu- frame in the roof, allowing laps as shown br the 
flf.ltf<1 lines. As ihe widlh of the post No. IV or IVa, F^. 431.^, 
is 2 inrlies. scl o(T on [^tlcrn for No. 1, Fig. 431B, 1 in. as shown 
\>y tlie time dirts. In all the |>atterns to be (levekq>ed, the profile 
or Nlay after which the pattern will be formed, will be shown on 
the pattern; this will show at a glance what part of the mo^-able 
sash the gMttiTn represents. 

Take the j;irth of the upiH;r curb No. II, Fig. 431A, and place 
it on iIk' verlieal line C D, Fig. 43IB, shown by the small 
ti|{iires 1 to 6, tlirniigh which draw the usual measorii^ lines 
imielinilcly. MeasurinK from any vertical line as C D' in No. 
n ciirli. in I'ig. 43IA. take the horizontal distances to points I to 
fi, iind pliu'e iheni on .similar lines in the pattern, measuring 
frfifii the line C I), l-'ifj- 431M. Trace a line through points thus 
oliliiineil, wliiili will he the iMttern for the upper curb No. II. 
Wlirn laying cmt full Ivngth pattcrn.s, always measure from arrow 
I', tiiakint; them the same size as the lower curb No. I. 

The jiiiltern for the skylight curh and gutter combined. No. 
Ill, I'ig. l.ill!. is (levelopcd as follows: Divide the curve from 
4 lo 7 iiilii einiJil parts and innnbcr the bends from I to 14. .M 
pleasni'i' 'haw any vertical line as /\ It, upon which place the 
girlli of No. Ill ;is shown liy similar numbers. Al right angles 

10 A M. ihaw lines intersected by lines parallel to A B, from sim- 
ihii Tniinhcieil inl<'iscctions in the |>rofile No, III (partly shown). 
A litM' timed ihronKh piiinis tluis obtained will be the desired 
patti'in. Thr measniiiiK point in this i>attern is taken from a 
nu(] Ihi' full si/i' lengllis should W- J4 inch longer than curb No. I 
111 II. 'llic sliadcd portion tr l>'' c'- is cut out to receive the 
learlm N.i. \'ll in Imk- 431A. 

Since M-etioiis No. 1\' or l\'a, Fig. 431A, are similar, the 
pattern fin the back and sides of post No. IVa will be developed. 
1 In any Imri/.t.ntal line as H J, l-"ig. 4311!. place the girth 1 to 6 
of the posl No. l\'a. l'"if;. 431.\. shown by similar numbers on 

11 J. I'lironKh these small liKurcs al ri^ht angles to H J. draw 
liiir> indetiiiitcly. .\l jilcasurc draw any horizontal line, K' L', 
ill the >eelional view, V\ji. 43l.\, and measure from this line 
K' 1.' I" the Imitom of curli \o. 11. .At the same distance from 
the girth line II J. l-'ig. 4.1111, draw the horizontal line L* K'. 
Measuring from the line K' 1,', I"ig. 431A. take the various dis- 
lances lo ])iiints /( and 4. which represent the intersection between 
the side of the posl .and wash of lower curb No. 1. Place them 
in the pattern on corresponding lines, measuring in each instance, 



Construction of Stationary and Movablk Sashes 305 

from the line K^ L-, thus ohlahiing the points o£ intersect ions h' 4' 
on botli sides. Now take a tracing of the cut i / it /, Fig. 431A, in- 
cluding the pivot center in the sectional view, anil place it in 
similar position in the itattern on both sides, i' j' k' I', Fig. 
431B. The upper cut on the post is square. Allow laps and in- 
dicate the center of the post by two dots on each end. The 
bevel h' It" is similar to It' 4'. Lines connected then represent 
the pattern for the back and sides of post No. IV or IVa. For 
the pattern for the front of this post take the girth of 7 8 9 10 
in No. IVa, Fig. 431A, and place it on the tine H j from 7 to 10, 
Fig. 431B. Draw the usual measuring lines at right angles to 
H J making them as long as 6 h" in pattern for back and sides 
of post. Cut out m n in the pattern for front of post on both 
sides, in width equal to i' / in the a<ljoining pattern as indicated 
by the dotted lines. Allow laps and notch off the corners it', 
which allows the pivot to pass when the front is double seamed 
to the back. This represents the pattern for the front of post 
No. IV or IVa. These posts can be made as high or low as de- 
sired, but care must be taken to have the pivot hole in the center 
of the height and the two holes in the same |)osition horizontally, 
as in the pattern. 

The pattern for the side of movable sash No, V or Va is ob- 
tained by taking the girth of section No. V, Fig. 431A, and plac- 
ing it on any line as K L, Fig. 43!C, from 1 to 9, through which 
perpendicular lines are drawn indefinitely. From the small 
figures 1 to 9 in section No. V, Fig. 431A, vertical lines are 
dropped until they cut the wash of 7 6 of the lower part of sash 
No. VIII ; then from the line K' L' measure the distances to 
these intersections and place them on similar lines in the pattern 
No. V, Fig. 43IC. The height 6° 5° is obtained from 6 5 in sec- 
tion No. VIII, Fig. 431A. Trace a line through points thus 
obtained in the pattern, which will be the lower cut for the side of 
the movable sash. Measuring from the line K' I,' in the sectional 
view in Fig. 431.'\ take the various heights to points s. I and u. and 
place them on corresponding lines in pattern No. V, Fig. 431C, 
measuring always from hne K L, thus obtaing s 1 1 and u, the point 
I* being placed on the line 10* previously obtained from 9 to 10 in 
section Va., Fig. 431A. Kstablish the pivot hole r in the pattern 
for side of sa,sh obtaining its proi>er position from the sectional 
view. From the center of the pivot s. Fig. 43IA, take height to / 
and place it from r to o in the pattern. Connect lines and make 
the notch 4° 5° as deep as the distance from 4 to 5 in section 



306 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

No. IX, Fig 431A, with which it is to miter. This completes the 
pattern for the side of the movable sash No. V or Va. When 
these sashes are made higher or lower, the distance from the 
pivot r to p and r to o should be 3/16 in. less on each end than 
from r to /i and r to o, in the pattern for post, Fig. 431B, While 
all of these patterns are shown in groups, the student can, if he 
so desires, place these patterns on separate sheets, if his drawing 
board is too small to receive them all; it is good practice too, 
because many shop drawings are laid out thus. 

The next ptitlcrn is the interlocking cap in section No. VI, Fig. 
431A. Take the girth of No. VI from 1 to 8. Fig. 431A, and 
place it on any line as R S as shown by similar numbers. Fig. 431C 
(see Folder 11). At right angles to R S through these small 
figures draw lines and make the distance from c' to d^, as long as 
from r to o in the pattern for side of movable sash No. V. The 
distance from T to U in pattern No. VI is the girth added for the 
half bead which forms a cap over the pivot s in the sectional view 
in Fig. 431C. With c" in pattern No. VI Fig. 431C as centers 
describe the quarter circles V and W which form the sides 
to cover the pivot end, t d", in the sectional view, Fig, 431A. 
This completes the [wltem for the interlocking cap No. VI for 
the up])cr part of the movable sash. 

The pattern for leader No. VII, including the elbow at the bot- 
tom, is made in one piece, by taking the girth of 1 to 6 in section 
No. VII, Fig. 431A, and placing it on the horizontal line M N as 
shown by similar immbcrs in Fig. 431C. Perpendicular lines are 
drawn from tliesc points and line V 7 thereon, is placed the dis- 
tance from M N tliat V is from the bottom of the hanging gut- 
ter, Fig. 431A. From V also draw the horizontal hne V 7; 
measuring from this line take (he various projections to points 
1 to 6 on llie miter line V 5, and place them on similar lines in 
pattern No. VII, Fig. 431C, measuring in each instance from 
the line V 7, tlius obtaining the miter cut W X. Take the distance 
from X to the line 7 and set it off below from X to 7' and 
draw the Juirizontal line 7' V and in similar manner as before, 
obtain the miter cut W W' X, and make the distance from X y 
and W lo v' equal to v to _v" in Fig. 431.'\. Allow a lap below 
the upper miter cut in paltcrn No. VII, and when cutting this 
pallern, cut from W (o \V" to W° at the lop and from W to 
W' to W° at the Iwttoni, thus loosing ijic sliaded portion, so 
ihat when Ix'nding the leader a slight bend is made along W° X 
to complcic the angle. Allow laps top and side and hem at bottom. 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Sashes 307 

The next pattern to be developed is the bottom of sash No, 
VIII of the sectional view in Fig. 431A. Take the girth of this 
section from 1 to 9 and place it on any vertical line as F G as 
shown by similar numbers in Fig. 431C. At right angles to F G 
though these small figures draw the usual measuring tine as long 
as, from e to d, and complete the rectangle. On the line 5 notch 
out a distance equal to 2 3 in section No. V, Fig. 431A, as shown 
by 2° 3° on each side in pattern No. VIII. This completes the pat- 
tern for the bottom of the movable sash, and in laying out full size 
lengths make the dislatice from rf lo c J4 i"' less than between 
the posts in Figs. 433 and 434. The pattern for the top of the 
movable sash No. IX, Fig. 431A, is obtained in a similar man- 
ner. Take the girth from 1 to 6 in No. IX and place it from 
1 to 6 on the vertical line O P, Fig. 431C. Through these points 
draw lines to form a rectangle, as long as from a* to 6*. On both 
ends of the lines 5 and 6 cut out 1°, 2° 3°, making from 3" to 1° 
and 3° to 2° equal to the distance measured from the line 3, 4, 
section No. V, Fig. 431A, to points 1 and 2, with which the top 
of the sash No. IX is to miter. When laying out the full size 
length patterns for top of sash No. IX make the distance from 
o' to b^. Fig. 421C, J^ in. less than between the posts in Figs. 
433 and 434. This completes all the jKitterns required for the 
movable sash. 

To obtain the patterns for the various pieces required to make 
up the stationary sash in end b. Fig. 430, the full size detail in 
Fig. 433 must be prepared (see Folder 10). This represents the de- 
tail of the stationary sash, showing the horizontal section below 
the pivot line of the stationary and movable sashes, and also the 
full size developed patterns. 

The method of computing the width of the sashes is also 
shown in this detail. In this case a curb 18 X 24 in. has been 
taken as an example and it is well for the student to lay it out 
the full size, as it will give him a better knowledge of the con- 
structive features of the stationary and movable sash, as well as 
the construction at the corners. When once understood and the 
patterns are developed, the curb need not be laid out full size, 
but only a rough diagram made, as in Fig. 434. 

Draw the outline of the curb, C D E F, in Fig. 433 18 X 24 in., 
and outside of it, in the upper left hand corner, place in its 
proper position a duplicate of the lower curb No. I, Fig 431A, 
as shown by No. I, Fig. 433. As shown by the dotted lines, 
complete the plan view of the lower curb, G H I J, being the 



308 Home Instbi'ction for Sheet Metal Workers 

innermost outline of it. Referring to Fig. 431A, in the sectional 
view, it will be found that the Itack of ])Ost No. IV sets against 
3 4 of curb No. 1 ; therefore, take a tracing of post No. IV and 
place it on similar line in plan in Fig. 433 as shown by K on each 
comer. In similar manner place a [wst, K", in the center of the 
long sides. Take a tracing of the section of the movable sash 
No, V, Fig. 431A, and place it on either side of posts K and K°, 
Fig. 433 as L. Connect the two comer posts by the watertight cap 
No. X and place this cap on each corner marked X. Take a part 
tracing of L, as much as is shown by No. XI, and place it as 
shown on the ends of curb, each section being marked XI. Draw 
a section of the glass to lie against S 6 of section No. XI and 
draw the section \o. XII, which must be soldered against the 
side of the post at 9. This section XII is placed on both ends, 
indicated by XII, It will be observed that section No. XII is first 
soldered against the posts right and left, before they are soldered 
to the curb, and when the posts are in position, the glass is laid 
against No. XII, and held in position by cap No. XI. This con- 
stitutes all that is required for the stationary sash. 

On the movable sashes. M indicates the hinges bolted to the bot- 
tom of the sash as in Xo. VIII, Fig. 431A. The pivot between 
the strap and hinge is shown in Fig. 433. By means of these 
straps, hinges and gearings the movable sashes can be operated, 
as will be explained later. 

Having completed this horizontal section or plan, the patterns 
for \o. X, XI and XII arc now in order, and are shown in- 
side of the plan view. To obtain the pattern for comer cap 
Xo, X take the girth from 1 to a" to 1 and place it on the 
line .V B from 1 to a" to 1. Draw ])erijendicular lines indefinitely 
and make the line 2 2- as long as h' 2 in pattern for post No. IV, 
Fig. 431B. From the various spaces from a° to 1 in the lower 
half of section Xo, X, I-'ig. 433. erect lines indefinitely until 
Ibey cut the wa.^h of curb Xo, I. .\t pleasure draw any hori- 
zontal line as a b, then take the distance from point 2 on the wash 
No. I to the line a b and place it from 2' (o 2' in pattern N'o, X 
and draw the horizuntal line u' b'. Measuring from the line a b 
in section Xo. I. take the various distances to points a to 3 on 
the wash, and place ihcm on similar lines in pattern No. X on 
each side, mcasuriuf; in cacii instance from the line a' b', thus 
points, which will represent the lower cut. This completes the 
pattern for the corner cap Xo, .\. 

For the pattern for the cap on stationary sash No. XI, take 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Sashes 309 

tlie girth of the section from 1 to 6 and place it on line A B, 
from I to 6. From these points draw i>eri>endiciilar lines, mak- 
ing the length from 2 to 2' as long as the line 2 2" in pattern 
for corner cap No. X. The bevel 2' 1' and 3^ 4* in pattern 
No. XI should be similar to 3' 4* in pattern No. X, and 4* fr 
in jjattern No. XI should be a horizontal line. This completes 
the pattern for the cap on stationary sash No. XI. For the pat- 
tern for the s€[>arate rabbet in section No. XII, take the stretch- 
out from 7 to 10 and place it on the line A B, from 7 10, from 
which perpendicular lines are drawn, equal in length to a° ay in 
pattern for comer cap No, X, which completes the pattern. This 
completes all the patterns required for the stationary sash. 

Sometimes there are objections to soldering rabbet No. XII 
against the post, which can be overcome by bending the comer 
(K)st as in diagram N, in which the rabbet O is bent direct to the 
post, and making the outer cap as at XI". Using this method of 
construction, the center posts for the stationary sashes would have 
to be formed as in diagram P on which two rabbets are bent 
as indicated by R and S. The outside cap in this case would 
be bent in one piece, from T to U. 

The method of computing the widths of the sashes is as fol- 
lows: As the projection of the lower curb No. 1, to the rear 
post line, is 2j^ in.. Figs. 431A and 433, and as the width of 
the post is 2 in., then the width of the stationary sash on the 
18-in. side will he 2}i -\- 2 -\- 2 -\- 2-}i = 8H- 18 — 8J4 gives 
9% in. as the width between posts, which is also the width 
of the stationary sashes. In the long side of the curb the com- 
putation is 2^ +2-1-2 + 2 + 2j^^lOJ4. 24—10^=-^ 

- f ^ 
— 6}i, the distance between posts, 6^ — J4 — 6^. the width 
in inches to make the movable sashes. While the size in Fig. 
430 was made 18 X 24 in., with one stationary sash on each 
end and two movable sashes in each side the home student can 
get sufficient practice by (placing one stationary sash at the end 
and one movable sash in the side. 

The size of the curb to be made by the student should meas- 
ure 15 X 18 in., and, if he desires, he can make a hipped .sky- 
light over it with a ridge bar. Having decided upon the size, a 
rough diagram is made, giving the desired dimensions, as in 
Fig. 434. Using dimensions for the curb and post in Fig. 433 a 
distance, as in Fig. 434, is found of 614 i"- fo'' the stationary sash 
and 9 in. for the movable sash, after making the allowance of '/^ 



310 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



in. for play room. The Student should cut from sheet metal 
the various full and part patterns, including stays, as in Figs, 
431A, 431B, 431C and 433, in a similar manner as was explained 
in the hipped skylight patterns in Fig. 387, after which the 
length of patterns in Fig. 434 should be laid out as follows : 

Using pattern No. I, Fig. 431B, and measuring from the arrov 
point c, lay off two pieces from metal, with miters on both ends, 
without laps 1 ft. 3 in. long; also two pieces with laps 1 ft. 6 in. 
long. These pieces are formed after the stay shown, and require 
no description. 

Using pattern No. II and measuring from arrow point b, lay 
off two ends and two sides of similar size. The bending of these 
pieces recjuircs no description except to say that the first bend 
should be made on dot 2 in 
the pattern, 2f in the stay. 
Using pattern No, III for 
skylight curb and gutter, 
measuring from arrow 
point a, cut two end pieces 
without laps 1 ft. 3J4 in. 
and two side pieces with 
laps 1 ft. 6J4 in- ; the J4 '"■ 
ad<ted being the allowance 
made to slip over the posts 
easily. When forming this 
gutter, bend and flatten the 
lieiii edge, 1, 2, 3, Fig. 435, 
then form the gutter starting at 3, in the usual manner as explained 
in the second exercise on "Moulded Gutter," and complete the 
bends to 10, Fig. 435. From 10 make the right angle bends as 
in the stay up to 14, shown by dotted lines, after which put 10 
11 in the brake, close ibe top clamp to bring 11-14 in the position 
11° 14°, which completes the gutter and skylight curb. 

.'\.s tlie height of the sash is to be the same as in the sectional 
view in Fig. 431.\, cut eight po.'^ts of pultern.s No. IV, Fig. 431B. 
cutting off the portion shown by hi h and i' }' k' I', and punching 
out the pivot holes with the jiroper size rivet punch on a block of 
lead, before starting to form. The rivet punch should be of a size 
to easily admit the pivot, so that there will he no loss of time in 
reaming out the holes afterwards. The method of forming the 
post is shown in Figs. 436 to 439. 

The two locks on the ]K>st are bent in the brake, making 



\ 


p_ U^M,S„^ p. 


/ 


lis 






1 


<s 






X 


r 






1' 


/U 


MS !_ 


\^_ 



r^'"^ ■ 



"■^1\ 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Sashes 311 

each side appear as shown by 1 2 in B, Fig. 436, Take a strip 
of metal, 2 in. wide and a little longer than the length of the 
post and about 1/16 in. thick, and bend off J/^ in. lengthwise, 
as at b. Press down 1 2 in the brake over the strip a, as shown 
by 2' a", diagram A, after which the strip a" is removed as in C 
using it over and over again for the purjKJse of keeping the locks 
from being pressed together. Dy having the edge b' bent up, it 
keeps the strip rigid and ea.sy to handle. When the two locks 
have been closed, the metal sheet of the iwst will look like A, 
Fig. 437. 

This is now placed in the brake and bend 3 made ; then drawn 

out to dot 4, the top clamp closed and the bend 4 3' made, which 

completes the bending of the back and sides. The front of the 

sides of the post. Fig. 438, 

J* after which the locks a and 

' "^ b are closed tight in the 

brake. Fig. 439. 

The pattern for the side 
of movable sash No. V or 
V", Fig. 431C, shows its 
true length, eight of which 
must be cut, formed four 
right and four left, being 
careful to punch out the 
F.c. 435. MMh»d «i FnrmmK sk,ii«h, Curb. P'^o^ ^^ole r before bcndjng. 
If the sashes will con- 
tain J^-'f- thick glass, it is well to solder a tinned washer over 
the pivot hole on the outside to reinforce the metal, and keep it 
from tearing. Great care must be taken in bending these sides, 
and will be explained in detail. Assume that 1 9, Fig. 440, is the 
side of the sash to be formed, tarting to bend on dot 2 which 
represents bend 2 in section No. V, Fig. 431.A, make the angle 
1°, Fig. 440, as called for by the stay, by closing the top clamp A 
on dot 2, and raising the bending leaf B to the proper angle. 
This angle is determined by the thickness of glass which will 
be placed in section Ko. V, Fig. 431A. If the glass is thinner 
than that shown the angle nmst be tuntcd up more, while if it 
is thicker it will be bent less, so that point 1 of No. V will lie 
well against the glass to keep it from rattling in a storm. This 
explanation applies lo bend 5 in section No. IX in Fig 431A. and 
to bend 8 in section No. XII of the stationary sash. Fig. 433. 
Draw out the sheet and close the top clamp on dot 3 as 




312 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



shown by 1° 9, Fig. 441, ami make tlic s<iuare bend C. Leaving 
tlie sheet in the brake, draw it out to dot 4 at C, Fig. 442, 
and make a square bend as far as it will go, 1). 

Take out the side, reverse it in the position D, Fig. 443, and 
close brake on dot 5, and make a bend as far as it will go as 
indicated by E. While in this position press down 2 E, in the 
position b, tapping along the angle at a with the hammer, until 
the angle is square. Again reverse the side of the sash in posi- 



.^2Z^^ 




MnhDil of Fni 



tion E, Fig. 444, and close the brake on dot 6, on which make 
the square bend F. Reverse the side in i)o.sitton. Fig, 445, and 
make a square bend on dot 7 at G. Draw out the metat to dot 8 
as G, Fig. 446, close the top clamp, and niake a bend on 8 as far 
as possible, as H. 

Place the acute angle a in the jaws of the brake, Fig. 447. 
close the top clamp so that II will be pressed down as J. Obtain 
for this ]>urpose for any sash a piece of band iron as thick as J, 
as long as ro(iuircd, and place it in position (j inside of J. Fig. 
448. Place J in the jaws of the brake, close the top clamp firmly. 
bringing J down to L, which completes the forming of the side of 
the .-^ash. 



Construction of Stationarv and Movable Sasues 313 

The pattern for the interlocking cap Xo. \'l. Fig. 431C, shows 
its true length, four of which will be required from 1 to 6 only, 
cutting off on the line 6 fr. The full pattern is only used for 
the middle posts K" K", Fig. 433. but on the comer posts, K" 
K", the portion rroni line 6 fr to line 1 tn pattern No. VI, Fig. 
431C, is all that is required, as flange 5 6 of the pattern will be 
capped by the corner cap Xo, X, Fig. 433. When bending pat- 




tern No. VI, P'ig. 431C, start on either bend 4 or 5. bcmling U 
U° on hatchet stake and turning the half bead on the proper 
size rod with a mallet. 

When bending the four leaders, shown by pattern Xo. VII, 
Fig. 431C, turn off the hem edge and close in the l)rake, after 
which bend the pipe in the usual manner, forcing it to the proper 
shape by using a square iron bar X a trifle smaller than the 
pipe, as in Fig, 449. When the pi|je has its proper square profile 
and is soldered along the joint at a, it will look as shown by A R. 
Turn B toward A on C, and the leader and elbow in one piece 
will look as shown by A' B'. Solder the miter along C, which 
completes it. 



314 Home Instruction for Sueet Metal Workers 



Referring to Fig. 431C lay out the pattern for bottom of sash 
No, VIII and top of sash Ko. IX, measuring from points d to 
e in No. VIII and from a' to b* in No. IX, making both }4 in, 
less than the distance between the posts in Fig. 434, or 9 inches 
long, two of each being required. These pieces are formed in the 
usual manner and require no description. Four pieces like pat- 
tern No. X, No. XI and No. XII, Fig. 433, will be required, bend- 
ing the square locks as explained in connection with Fig. 448. 
Section No. XII in the horizontal section in Fig. 433 must be 
soldered to the posts, before the posts are soldered to the curbs, 
unless |josts N and P are used, on which no soldering will be re- 
quired. 
After the work is formed, the posts are soldered in position as 
follows: First tack the 
posts to curb II, as in Fig. 
450, being careful to fol- 
low the dimensions in 
Fig. 434 and that the posts 




are perfectly square nith the curb, using the steel square a b. 
Fig. 450. When po;ls are tacked square to upper curb, tack 
them to lower curD 1, being careful thai each angle is a right 
angle, otherwise the uaslies will not oiKrate. In this case only 
corner posts arc usdl, hut where the ends and sides are long 
and contain middle posts, then all are soldered in position, as 
in the louvre work in Fig. 418, and the sides are joined at the 
corners on the buildi:Lg. as in the horizontal section in Fig. 433, 
and made watertight by the corner cap No. X. Care must be 
taken in making the model to place the posts for the stationary 
sash on the short side and for the posts for the movable sash on 
the long side. 

The four sides being conqileted, movable sashes are set to- 
gether, joining one right and one left side of pattern No. V, 



CONSTXUCTION OF STATIONARY AND MOVABLE SaSHES 317 

and the upper skylight glazed. Sometimes in very large lights 
the upper skylight is glazed first, to prevent breakage of glass in 
the sashes, when the building mechanics have not completed their 
work on the roof. While the sashes can be glazed from the in- 
side, it involves an extra amount of labor, which is to be avoided. 
Fastening the gearing to the sashes is explained farther on in the 
text. 

When the turret sides are in long lengths, it is sometimes neces- 
sary to insert a tie rod at the top and bottom to keep them rigid, 
when the skylight is set over it, as in Fig. 420, but when the sky- 
light is small all that is necessary is to solder the skylight curb, 
No. Ill, Fig. 431A, to the upper curb, No. II at 10. When 



Fm. <S6. Hip Ridge VcniiUting Skylight wiib UovMc SmIi Turrel. 

the sides are long, the skylight can be made rigid by means 
of tie rods secured as in Fig. 457, which shows the curb or 
top rail of the turret. No. II, into which an angle iron 1J4 
X IJ^ X V*^ '"- '^ fitted, the corners being reinforced as in 
Fig. 424. In Fig. 457 angle F is bolted to the lower part 
of curb No. II, being careful to have the holes counter sunk 
at a so as to have a smooth surface on the outside, which 
will not interfere with the operation of the top part of the 
sash. At intervals of not less than 6 ft. holes are drilled in angle 
F to admit the tie rod H, which is threaded at the ends to receive 
the outer nut J. More rigidity can be obtained by placing another 
nut on the inside, shown dotted by K, 



318 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workebs 

To keep the bottom curb. No. I, Fig. 431A, from spreading, 
its formation can be modified as shown by curb No. I, Fig. 458. 
In this case the curb is formed in one piece, from A to B to C, 
with screws passed into the wood curb at a and b. If, however, 
the roof curb was of angle iron, as shown by D E, then the inside 
flange C would be turned around the angle iron at d e, before the 
fire blocks were in position. 

The method of operating the movable sashes in Figs. 454 and 
456 is by means of gearings, the various pieces of -which are 
shown in Fig. 352. When these gearings are to be fastened to the 
roof curb, use the same construction as in Fig, 353, or if an 
obstruction hinders the operation of the movable sash, the uni- 




U 



1. Ab7. Tie Rod 



1 Upper Curb 



.. 458. Modilicd Curb. 



versal joint should be used as explained in connection with Fig. 
356, or when the sashes in the sides and ends are to be operated 
with one lifting power, use the miter wheels shown in Fig. 357. 
When rods or pole hooks cannot be used to operate the sash 
owing to the height, or if more power is required, then the chain 
can be used to open and close the sashes, Fig. 355. Sometimes 
the gearinf^s arc fastened direct to the posts of the movable 
sashes, as in Fig. 459, in which case the posts must have a wood 
core into which bracket 1 is screwed at 2 and 3. The exten- 
sion 4 is fastened to the roof curb at 5 and 6. Otherwise the 
gearings arc assembled as explained in connection with Fig. 353. 
A perspective and sectional view showing the gearing in position. 
with the brackets fastened to the posts, and the extension fas- 
Icned to the roof curb, is given in Fig. 460, in which the strap A. 
arm B and bracket C in the sectional view are shown by A', B' 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Sashes 319 



320 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

and C in the perspective view. If it was desired to swing sash 
D E out farther it would only be necessary to lengthen the strap 
A and use a longer arm at B. 

Fig. 459 is a one-quarter full size section of movable and sta- 
tionary sash, showing different construction from that in Fig. 
431A, and Fig. 461 shows a still different construction. While 
various shops have different methods, the two different con- 
structions are given, from which the home student can obtain 
practical hints which only years of experience can bring. 

The construction of the two types in Figs. 459 and 461 will be 
explained briefly, and the student is advised to work out these 
sections full size, as done at the school by students. Referring 
to Fig. 459, in the vertical section through the skylight: 7 8 rep- 
resents the lower metal curb, with a beaded edge at 7 and a hem 
edge at 8, resting upon the roof curb 5 6. P represents the 
upper part of the curb, bent in one piece, with a lock at 9 and a 
drip at 9' against which the sash closes. The skylight curb and 
gutter, 10, 11, R, 12, rests upon P and the bend R is doubled over 
to form the curb, R, 12, to receive the skylight bar in section 13. 
The vertical section shows the sash open, also the elevation of the 
side of the post and side of the interlocking cap, with the snow- 
proof hood b' attached, as 17, 16, b, a, b, 18, in diagram No. 14. 

This diagram is a seciion of the post, sash and interlocking cap 
through C D in the vertical seciion when the sash is closed. 
Notice that the post is bent in one piece, with a standing lock at 
16, the metal post having a wood core, to which bracket 1 in the 
sectional view is screwed. The side of the operating sash at the 
lop is formed as indicated by IS 16, the glass sliding in the groove 
shown. 

The interlocking cap is bent as 17 a 18, the projections b 
and b indicating the view looking down on b' in the vertical sec- 
lion. The screw a in No. 14 is used to hold or fasten cap 17 18, 
shown in the front elevation by a', in which is shown the pivot F 
of the vertical section, also marked F, and requiring a hole bored 
through the wood core for 'its insertion. The section taken 
through the line of pivot A R when the sash is closed is shown 
in diagram Xo. 19, in which the posts is bent in one piece with 
joint at /, the seciion of the sash below the pivot line being shown 
by 20 21 ; lock 20 indicating where the sash locks around the 
standing edge of the post when closed. Diagram No. 22 shows 
n section through the stationary post, on which rabbets 23 and 24 
have been bent in one piece, against which the glass d e rests and 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Sashes 323 

Referring to Fig, 461 it will be noticed that it is of different 
construction, in which, as in the former construction, the gearing 
bracket O is screwed to the wood core in the post. The gas 
pipe P to which arm R is fastened, is shown with the strap S 
hinged to the arm R as ■well as to the hinge not shown. The 
home student can with care successfully work out his full size 
section of this sash. A section drawn to a scale of 4 in. to the 



foot or one-third full size is given in Fig. 463. Using a 4-in. 
scale, every inch will represent 6 in.; yi in. will equal 3 in. ; J4 
in. will equal lJ/2 in. and so on, always three times larger than the 
diagram. 

A section of the top curb is shown at A locked at a ; in large 
lights a wood core is placed in it, to secure the tie rod. The sky- 
light curb B is bent in one piece from t to c to d, fastened to the 
top curb A by screws in / if a wood core is used, and solder- 



324 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

ing a button over it to preyent leakage by condensation, or 
soldering in the angle between a and d if no wood core is em- 
ployed. A section of the bar is at h and e is the condensation 
tube. Notice that the top of the gutter at 6 is lower than tube e, 
so that in case of an overflow the water will flow over b before it 
enters the tube e to the inside of the building. A flange C is 
soldered to the bottom of the top curb A against which the sash 
closes. What has just been described 
represents the section through A B, 
Fig. 461. 

The bottom curb D, Fig. 463, is 
formed from / to t and represents the 
section through C D, Fig. 461. The 
section through E F, Fig. 461, is 
shown by E, Fig. 463. The bottom 
of the sash F is bent from / to m, 
with the hinge secured at n and rep- 
resents the section through G H, Fig. 
461. 

A section through B J, Fig. 461, is 
shown in Fig. 463 by the post H and 
the angle L which is soldered thereto 
only above the pivot, as in Fig. 461 at 
a. Notice that post H, Fig. 463, is 
bent in one piece with a standing lock 
at J ; when bending the strip L it is 
formed as in diagram X, which has a 
semi-bead at the bottom x which 
covers the pivot as indicated by a. 
Fig. 461. 

The section through C K is similar 
to the post already decribed. The sec- 
tion through L M above the pivot is 
F":- ,*"i ».At Ri*!"' B'?,""'" shown in Fig. 463 at M. The section 

side Sf«ioiu Through PI lines ^ 

in Fig. 461. >] of the side of the sash below the 

pivot is formed as indicated by m t. Through N the pivot P is 
placed. The pivot P should pass through the wooden core P to 
the other side of the sash, in this case partly shown. This con- 
stitutes the section through G N, Fig. 461. 

The method of fastening the hinge by rivets to the side of 
the sash is shown in Fig. 464, A. represents the hinge made from 
brass or galvanized band iron 1/16 in. thick by J4 in. wide, the 



Construction of Stationary and Movable Sashes 325 

curve at c corresponding to the size of pivot and is riveted to the 
side of the sash B at a and b. In practice the holes a and b in the 



sash and hinge are punched before forming. 

The height of the post in Fig, 463 can be made as desired, 
allowing the standing lock J to extend at the top to o, and to the 
bottom to r, which makes a rigid construction. The student 
should study the various constructions shown, which will enable 
him to devise different constructions and shapes, as occasion may 
demand. 



CHAPTER XXIX 
Drawing Details in the Construction of Bay Windows 

The final exercise in Part II will now be taken up by the stu- 
dent and for this a 1-in, scale drawing is given in Fig. 465. It 
gives a one-half front elevation, a vertical section through the 
center line A B and a horizontal section through C D. Notice 
that the front elevation in the mullions X are broken, but the 
length that they should be made is given as 2 ft. 9 in. from a' to 
&', The small letters from a to n represent the various centers 
from which to strike the arcs of the different molds. 

While a front elevation is shown in the scale drawing, this is 
not necessary when laying out the full size detail, but is only 
given to show what is to be made, the same as any architect's 
drawing would show. When laying out the full size detail, the 
only elevation necessary is that of the bracket E in front eleva- 
tion. In the sectional view A° B° represents the sheathing line of 
the bay window when the framing is wood; or represents the 
face line when the framing is angle iron filled with fireproof 
blocks. This sheathing or face line A" B' is also known as the 
measuring line for the various sections of the bay window. 

When the bay window is one story high or about 10 ft. and 
not more than 5 or 6 ft. wide, and can be transported to the 
building, it is usually made complete in the shop, then set on the 
projecting beams at the building as in Fig. 466 in which A is the 
beam, B the base of the bay and C the J4 XlM"'"- band iron 
braces placed 2 ft. apart, bent to the shape shown, bolted to the 
window base at a, b and c, witli an angle turned at the bottom at 
D, which rests upon the beam, and fastened with the anchor 
nail d. 

After the other parts of the bay window have been securely 
fastened to the wall as at /, the carpenter proceeds to construct 
the framing from the inside. The finish made at the bottom H, 
with a metal panel, will be shown in other diagrams. This 
is the stjle of bay window tJiat the student is to be taught 
to construct, put together complete in the shop, as in Fig. 467, 
with the student's initial on each side and the year in the center. 

The right way to construct bay windows when they must be 
326 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 



32; 



fastened to the buildings, either wood or iron framing, and the 
proper way to take the measurements from the rough framing 
at the building will be explained. 

Let it be supposed that in this case the bay window is made 
complete in the shop and the framing built in against it at the 




building after it is set; then the size of the metal bay must first 
be known and is given in the section through C D Fig 465 along 
the line A' B", and also shown in the vertical section A" B", 
Where line A" B" passes through any member of the bay, it 
become the measuring point for laying out the sizes shown in the 
horizontal section. 



328 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



At pleasure designate the points from which the measurements 
shall be taken, as at H for the bottom and at J for the top. Also 
L and A* in the horizontal section, show the profiles of the 
middle and end mullions. 

The student is now ready to 
proceed with the shop detail and 
will draw the bottom of the bay 
window from F to B", Fig. 465. 
Using the 1-in. scale rule, ob- 
tain the heights of the members 
in the bottom of the bay, taking 
the measurements from the center 
line A B in the front elevation, 
and placing them as showo by 
full size measurements on the 
line A B, Fig. 468 (See FoUer 
10). Notice that the entire 
height from the top of all to 
bottom of base is 1 ft. 4^ in. 

At right angles to A B from 
these measurements, draw hori- 
zontal lines iudefinitety and at a 
distance of 3 in. from and paral- 
lel to A B draw the line C D. 
Measuring from the vertical line 
II li" in the scale drawing, Fig. 
465, take the various projections, 
using the 1-in. scale rule, and 
place these measurements on 
tlicir i)roper lines in the shop de- 
tail, ]'"ig. 468, as shown by the 
full size measurements. 

I "hv student should carefully 
take from the scale drawing in 
I'lj;. 4(>5 lacli measurement and 
piK it full si/f on liis drawing of I-'i^. 4C)8, and not copy them, as 
thai would lint Hive liiiu tlie iiuK-li iK-ciled practice. The measure- 
i;ifnts (-ivcTi tu eiialjlf him U> vt-rify the measurements which he 
takes from lliv scale drawinf;. 

The tenters cj ami /' in the detail in Vi^. 468 represent the cen- 
ters for (li'scriliiuK ili"^ ^'"^''^ ^"*1 ([uartcr roimd. Connect the 
points obtained, by lines sliown shaded. That part from 1 to 13 




330 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

at 14 and 20 in the sectional view, as 14' and 20', which allows 
the water to pass over it. These seams are riveted or they can 
be locked, as shown by 14* and 20*. Through the various points 
on the girth line J K and at right angles to it lines are drawn 
indefinitely. 

Measuring from line 2 28, in part plan, take the projections to 
the various points on the miter line F H and transfer them on 
similar numbered lines, measuring in each instance from the girth 
line J K. A line traced through points thus obtained, from 1 to 
L' to /', and from /* to U, will be the octagon miter for that por- 
tion of the molds above and below the panels, in the part eleva- 
tion in Fig. 465. 

As the part from e to /, Fig. 465, is a panel or face miter, the 
short method for adding this to the miter cut in Fig, 468 is as fol- 
lows: Extend 16 17 and 20 21 in the sectional view until they in- 
tersect at /. Measuring from the line / 20 take the projections to 
points 17, 18 and 19, which represents the corners 16, 15 and 14 
on the opposite side, and place thera on similar numbered lines 
drawn through tlie girth line J K, measuring in' each instance 
from the line drawn from /' and /", to the left of the pattern. A 
line traced through points thus obtained, as shown by /', 14, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 19 and /', will be the miter cut for the square panel 
miter. 

To obtain the patterns for the panel heads simply take h as 
center and h h' as radius and describe the quadrant k' h". From 
h and It" erect perpendicular lines to the line 13 as h i and h" i'. 
Measuring from the line h i, take the various projections to points 
/', 14 anil 15 and place them lo the left of the line h" i' from /" 
to It". Allow a lap along /( It", which is soldered along h h' in the 
main ]);ittt'ni. Also a lap along / /', as shown and at right angles 
lo /' /" draw the lines /' o and /" r a distance of 3 in, as required 
by diagram A", Along r o allow a lap. This finishes the three 
paltcnis for paiid heads. One. shown from i" to /, of which two 
are rciniircd, to he soldered to the 18-in. side of the base at a. Fig. 
467. The second sluuvs from / to fr. Fig. 468, which includes the 
la]>, two (if which are rwniircd, to be soldered to the 12-in. sides 
at !', iMg. 467, and ihe third from in to n. Fig. 468, to which the 
3-in. rclLini has been added and a lap, as required by diagram 
A", .'iiid as shown at a. Fig. 469. 

Having decided that 11, Fig. 465. should be the measuring 
point, it is shown by L in the sectional view in Fig. 468, between 
points 3 and 4. Measure from similar points in the pattern shown 



332 Home Instkuction fob Sheet MEr.Ai, W 

was of such a size that the half pattern conld not be devekped 
on paper, it would only be necessary to use a short (nece of the 
miter as V 1 U W, and then lay out the sheets any desired length, 
as explained in the Ornamental Coraira in a previous chapter. 

This completes all the patterns for the bottom of the bay win- 
dow in Fig. 468. Before they are cut from metal the upper part 
of the window as well as the mullions should be drawn and devel- 

OJK'd. 

The preparation of the detail of the upper part of the bay win- 
dow from L to H" in the vertical section in the l-in. scale draw- 
ing, Fig. 465, is now in order. It will be noticed that brackets 
are placed in the cornice, two on each side, requiring six in alL 
Using the l-in. scale rule obtain the heights of the cornice on the 
reiilcr line A B including the muUion head P, and place 
Ihcni on the line A B as shown in Fig. 470 (sec Folder 11). 
Notice that the height of the cornice is 11^ in. and of the mullion 
head 2^ in. Measuring from the line A° B" in the vertical sec- 
tion, Fig. 465, scale the projections from L to H", and place 
them on corresponding lines in the shop detail in Fig, 470, as 
shown by full-size measurements. Note that the extreme pro- 
j<rlinn of ihe cornice from the hne A B is 6j^ in. and of the 
nmllion head Ij-i in. Also that a, b, c and d represent the centers 
for licscrihing ihc various arcs in the molds. If the detail of the 
main cortiicc was of such size that it could not be laid out in one 
piece, seams would have to be located in different parts of the 
i-rirnice as indicated in the sketches, given in the plain and oma- 
nii^nlal cornice in previous chapters. Notice that a seam is made 
between the mullion and bottom of cornice at C, which is a 
lapjH'd joint, riveted and then soldered on the inside. 

Having completed the detail of the cornice, the side view of 
the bracket is now drawn. Scale the various heights and projec- 
lioiis from the vertical section, Fig. 465, and place them as shown 
by full-size ineasurcnieiits in the sectional view. Fig. 470. The 
center point of ibe I in. radius from which to draw the arc k i 
of the bracket is also the ccnier, using the proper radius, from 
which U< draw the arc / ) of the raised dentil. 

'I'lie arc from 9 to I.i in the side of the bracket is drawn free 
band. I'Voni this side view of the bracket draw the front eleva- 
tion C°, ibc face to be lyi in. wide. The dotted lines projected 
from ibe side view show the drawing of the face of the bracket. 
Note that Ihc dentil is I'/i in. wide and that the drop is struck 
from the center e with a J^-in. radius. 



Details in Coxstri-ctios of Bay Wintjows 333 

While the full size measaretnents are given to the student as 
a guide, to verify his when scaling, and which can easily be 
copied when drawing the detail, he should, however, scale all of 
his measurements from the drawing so that he may become pro- 
ficient in taking scale measurements. 

Having completed the sectional view of the cornice and side 
elevation of the bracket in Fig. 470, the patterns are developed, 
starting with the bracket. The pattern for the side of the 
bracket is shown in the sectional view by I 12 13 16 17 18 
m 9 i A 3 /, but to show it more clearly, it has been reproduced 
in diagram B° with the necessary laps allowed. Of this pattern 
B", twelve pieces should be cut from metal, forming the sides 
right and left. A reproduaion of the side of the face dentil in 
the sectional view h i j f is given in diagram D°, twleve of which 
must be cut. 

For the pattern for the upper face of the bracket and drop, 
take the girth from I to 9 in the side elevation of the bracket 
and place it on the vertical line in E", shown by similar numbers, 
and complete the rectangle Zyi in. wide, this being the width of 
the face. Bisect the line 9 and obtain e', which is the center from 
which to strike the semi circle or face of drop with a radius 
equal to that in the front elevation of the bracket. In similar 
manner describe the small circle e', shaded in the pattern E°, 
which is to be sunk ^ in. 

For the pattern for the bottom face of the bracket, take the 
girth from 9 to 14 in the side elevation of the bracket and place 
it on the vertical line in F°, from 9 to IS ; make the width 2j/j in., 
which completes the pattern, the dots indicating where the bends 
will be made. The shaded part e" should be cut out of the pat- 
tern; this allows the sink of e' marked sunk, in pattern E°, to set 
back into F" at c", as in the side elevation of the bracket. 

For the pattern for the face of the raised dentil, take the girth 
from 16 to 22 in the side elevation of the bracket and place it on 
a line as shown by similar numbers in G° and complete the rec- 
tangle Ij4 in. wide as required by the front elevation. Six faces 
will be required of E°, F° and G°. 

For the pattern for the drop return, 9 /' 13 in the side eleva- 
tion, divide one-half of the face of the drop in front elevation 
into equal spaces from 1 to 5, from which draw horizontal lines 
to the left cutting the curve of the side of the bracket from 9 to 
13 as shown by the heavy dots and meeting the line 9 /', In line 
with f 9 erect a vertical line in H° upon which place the girth of 



Ji4 H:iii Ix?nvcTi;x p:-« Sheet Metal \V 

:he irtc •— ib: frrc sienSjc frcm 1 to 5 to 1. Tlirough these 
r.xn:5 in-* r-rrtrircnl lires. irrer^ected In- fines parallel to f 1, 
■■ncz i^n'^T ~zfr^:r=>zc< ;c ^he curve 9 13 m side elevation. A 
li=e tTic^i izric^ r»se r«;-t=j. I E 1. will be the pattern for the 
rjc^r^ : : ir:c. lii ; f wif^rh will i« required. This c(Miq>letes all 
;be ransms r^:=r5-i f.;r :=« bndcet?. 

?Tecan::.:ci .r «; the pircr:^ for the Tarioos pieces of the 
«rr;:vre ::r ±e "rar winiow ire made as foDows: A lock is al- 
Icw^i i; '-■ -';- :=« — .-^-g ;r gzner linh:^. the method of which 
trZ 're ;x^'-l:'■^- i= ^:c=ie-;t:oc wit!! aoother iOnst ration. As- 
f y— - -; ;hi; ;:'i: C wHl be Hveted and soldered, divide the 
i^o^is ^ rx cj— jc; ui e-i^a- ra.r:s, and rnmiber the divisions to 
25. -K-hich ir.cl-.:i?* ;he liT a: C ,\5 ±e angle of the hay is an 
ocs^jn i-.iimrr. A", rla^r; :h:i ir^.* in the position as F G H 
bei-g cirsiv:'. ;>-i: cne 5:<ie :: the ang;< is in line with the extreme 
prc-Kti-r. ::' :hi c-:r=x< a* 2, 3. no icaiter what the be\-el may 
l<. ?■«■-" the ir^^i F G H by the arcs ii o tad r as previously 
dijorfre-i ini :'m:r. the ~;ter-Iir.e G K, and cmnplcte the part- 

Fro— :he ir\i!" f.^.:rf* i- the secrlonal view to 25 drop ver- 
rical M-e;. -jr.r-l they ir.teriect the n::;er-!ioe G K. From point 
25 a: H^ht inii^e? tr G F dnw the line 25 3. which represents 
•he li"e fro~ whi^h rteiittrc—cr-ts btII be taken to the intersec- 
t:c>-j or. the r,v.;er-'.-r.e G K. Place the girth, 1 to 23, of the 
corr.t..-e cr. '.ir.e L M s.r.'. throu^ the small figures at right 
aT:g:e5 tv-- I. M driw hr.e> if-ier.r.hely. Measuring from the line 
Jl 25 :r. r"-ir., take the vjHo"> ?rv_'ect:or.s to the intersections on 
the mi:er-'.i:-.c G K and r'_ice th.en; or. similar numbered lines in 
the (vittem, TttciStirini: :n each -r.j^tance from the line L M. 
Trace a line th.roiijrh these point-:, X^' t,> 25, which will represent 
the miter ait for the ar.iilc K G It :r. plan. 

As 1 in the Si."alc drawing in Fit;. 4^15 represents the measuring 
point for the upper pan o: the My w:ndv->w, shown in the detail 
at C, Fig. 470 aiid at 2t in. the tn.iter j>a:;em, and as the lengths 
of the sides are to be sin-.ilar to thoi^e -a the bottom of the bay 
window, diagram .A', then measuring from the arrow point at 25 
ia die pattern, lay oft 5 :n. for the depth of the return ; 6 in, 
for oae-half oi the I2-in. si>!e and 9 in. for one-half of the 18-in. 
»de and erect ihe perpendicular Ii:-,es N T. O S and P R. repre- 
■enting the full pattern for the .^-iii. return: one-half pattern for 
Ae 12-in. side and one-halt for the IS-in. front. 

*Vhen cutting these pieces from sheet metal two 3-in. returns. 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 335 

T U 25 N will be required without laps. The pattern S U 
25 O will be reversed on the line O S, two of which will be re- 
quired with laps on both miters, as indicated by the dotted line 
along the miter cut. The pattern R U 25 P will be reversed 
opposite the line P R, thus making the complete pattern of the 
front piece, one of which is to be without laps. This completes 
the patterns for the cornice. Referring to Fig. 467 it will be 
noted that it bears the student's initials E M on the 12-in. sides 
of the bay and place for the date, on the 18-in. front. A majority 
of the students thus make dated souvenirs of their work. The 
letters and figures are to be of the block style, as expained in a 
previous exercise, "Ornamental Cornice," and are to be 3j4 ii. 
high. 

The last patterns required for the bay window are the mullions 
a' b'. Fig. 465, and the mullion heads P P". The sections of the 
mullions at X and X' in elevation are shown by L and A" in the 
horizontal section and are simply reproduclions of the profile of 
the mullion head in the vertical section from J to H°, shown in 
the shop detail in Fig. 470 from C to S. 

The patterns for the mullions and heads are on separate de- 
tails in Fig. 471A and Fig. 471B, in which the profile, A, Fig. 
471B, is a reproduction of C S, Fig. 470, and the bevel of the 
wash or sill line B C, Fig. 471B, of the wash 1 2 3 4 in the sec- 
tional view in Fig. 468. The distance between 8 in the section 
A, Fig. 471B, and the intersection 8 on the sill line B C can be 
made at pleasure, because all that is required are the miter cuts 
at top and bottom of the mullion, which can be cut any length 
desired by extending the distance between the miters. The sec- 
tion through the center mullion L, Fig. 471A, is a reproduction 
of two profiles, like A, Fig. 47in, joined at an octagonal angle at 
the corner 1 in L, Fig. 471A. The section of the end mullion A* 
has one profile like A in Fig. 471B joined at the corner 1 in A" 
in Fig, 471A with a flat portion 3 in. deep at an octagonal angle, 
and an angle or lap bent toward the inside at X to nail against the 
wall through Y, 

To obtain the face miter between the mullion and head at 1, 
Fig. 467, and the butt miter between the mullion and sill at 2, 
proceed by the short rule given in Fig. 471B, as follows: 

Divide the profile A, Fig. 471 B, into equal spaces shown by the 
small figures 1 to 9. Through these points drop vertical hues 
until they intersect the sill line B C by similar numbers. At right 
angles to O C as shown draw any line as £ D, upon which place 



336 



Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Wobkebs 



the girth of double the section A from 9 to 1 to 9. Through these 
points at right angles to E D draw lines, intersected by lines 
parallel to E D from similar numbered intersections id proiile 
A and on wash B C. A line traced through points F to G to H 
at the top, will be the square face miter ; while a line traced at 
the bottom I to J to K will be the butting tniter against the silL 
F G H I J K represents the miter cuts for the center mullioa 
L in Fig. 471A, also X X in Fig. 465, the lei^h of which from 
a' to h' should measure 1 ix,') in. 
Therefore when laying out the full 
size cut from sheet metal, a dupli- 
cate of F G H I J K, Fig. 471B, 
is used to scribe the miter cuts for 
the full size pieces, making the dis- 
tance from G to J, 2 ft. 9 in. and 
allow laps along the top from F to 
G to H and along the bottom from 
I to J to K; two of these mullions 
will he cut. 

As the end mullion A", Fig. 
471A, has a return of 3 in, added 
including the lap X, simply add to 
the mullion pattern, Fig. 471 B, 
at right angles to G J, 3 in., and 
draw the line L M and add the 
Deiaii. and lap o b. Ten M G H I J L is 
'" the pattern for the end mullion 

ade 2 ft. 9 in. long, as before described, allow- 
ing lap at the top from G to H and at the bottom from I to J ; 
two of these nntllion.s will bo cut from metal. 

Two mullion heads 12 in. long and one 18 in. long at the ex- 
treme points -will be recjuired for the top P" and P, Fig. 465, 
Using the snme miter cut G 1 1, Ftg. 471B, measure from the point 
G a distance of 6 in. and 9 in., shown by N and R, and at right 
angles to G J draw the tines N O and R P. Allow a small edge 
at c, shown by O 1 in (he profile A, representing the edge, placed 
to avoid buckles when the mullions are joined to the cornice at 
C in tlie sectional view, Fig. 470. Then G H O N in Fig. 471B 
is the half pattern for the 12-in. mullion head to be reversed on 
the line N O for the full pattern, two of which will be cut from 
metal without laps. The half pattern (or the 18-in. side is G R 
P H, reversed on the line R P for the full pattern, one of which 




which should be n 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 



is to be cut, without lap. 
quired for the bay window 

X 



This completes all the patterns re- 




When cutting the pieces from galvanized sheet iron care should 
be taken to have as little waste as possible, cutting the largest 
pieces first, and from the pieces left, cut the small pieces, such 



338 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Woxkess 

as the panel heads, bracket sides and faces, letters and figures. 
The student should use a little judgment and consider what pieces 
are to be cut, and waste can be reduced considerably. Nothing 
in a shop looks so bad and shows carelessness as a lot of scrap 
and waste under the benches, which could be avoided by a little 
foresight. 

Having cut all the various pieces, the forming of the parts is 
now in order. Bending the bracket sides B", Fig. 470, requires 
no further description than to say they are formed right and left 
with the laps turned toward the outside to allow them to be 
soldered to the cornice. The faces of the brackets are formed 
after the bracket side, from which the girth was taken. Form- 
ing the cornice in the sectional view is done as explained in a 
previous exercise on "Ornamental Cornice" to which the student 
should refer. 

The next work for the student is the cornice brake, and con- 
sists of forming the various parts. As the lower part of the 
bay window, Fig. 468, is to be bent in one piece, which includes 
the base, panel and sill, the method of making the bends will be 
described in Figs. 473 to 494. Let A, Fig. 472, represent the re- 
duced stay of the bottom of the bay similar to that in the sec- 
tional view in Fig. 468. The girth of A, Fig. 472, is shown to 
the right of A. 

When starting, make the first bend on either dot 22 or 26 as 
shown by the square bend on dot 22, Fig. 473. Place the proper 
size former A in position and press B down until it fits over 
the former A at C, having C 26' in a horizontal line. Now re- 
move the former A, take out the sheet, and place it in the brake 
as C, Fig. 474, close the top clamp on dot 26, and make a square 
bend, bringing C in the position D. Reverse D in the position 
D, Fig. 475, and fit the stay to see whether the angles at 22 and 
26 are accurate, and if so, make a square bend on dot 27 as E. 
Leave the sheet E in the position shown, but draw it out and 
close the top clamp on dot 28 as E, Fig. 476, and make a square 
bend bringing E in the position F. 

Place F in the position F, Fig. 477, and make a square bend 
on dot 21 as G. Reverse the sheet, close the lop clamp on dot 
20 as G, Fig. 478, and make the square bend indicated by the 
arrow to H. Leave H in the brake, but draw it out, and close top 
clamp on dot 19 as H, Fig. 479, and make a square bend at J. 
In making these square bends no stay is required to test the 
^n^les, jis the stop is set at the desired angle. 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 339 







340 Home Instruction for Sueet Metal Workers 



The ■work J is now taken out pf the brake, reversed and pUced 
as shown by the solid section J, Fig. 480, but, when closing the top 
damp on dot 18, bend C in J strikes against the bending leaf, and 
in forcing the sheet J to close on 
dot 18, the previous square bend 
made on dot 19 is pressed out of 
square as shown by a. The bend 
on dot 18 is now made to conform 
to the angle at 18 in the stay A, 
Fig. 472, as K, Fig. 480. 

As the angles 15, 16, 17 and 18 

'Molding. ' in stay A, Fig. 472, are equal, 

set the stop in Fig. 480 to the required angle, after which the 

corresponding bends can be made. With the sheet in position K, 





ng4S3 




ng-464 



press down slowly at d ; using the hammer c' in diagram U, tap 
along the corner a" until a" h" has a level surface and the sheet 




Rg48e 



is brought in the proper position shown by the dotted section 
L a'. 

Draw out the sheet and close on dot 17 as L, Fig. 481, and 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 341 

make the proper angle, M, using the required stop. Again draw 
out the sheet and close the top damp on dot 16 as M, Fig. 482, 
and make the proper angle N. Still leaving the sheet in the brake, 




Fig 487 



10.: 4S7-Sa. Operiiioni 



draw it out to dot 15 as N, Fig. 483, and make the proper bend 
indicated by O. 

Take out and reverse sheet O as O, Fig. 484, and close the 




top clamp on dot 14; in doing this the lower part of pane] a 
strikes against the bending leaf and causes the bend at b to spring, 
which will resume its original shape when the square bend is 
made on dot 14, as P. 

Leave the sheet P in the brake, draw out to dot 13 as P, Fig. 
485, and make a square bend on 13 as indicated by R. Reverse 
R, Fig. 486, and close top clamp on dot 12 ; in doing so the pre- 



342 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 



vious angle will be pressed out of shape at b, because panel a 
strikes against the bending leaf. 

Make a square bend on dot 12 as- S. Now press S down to 
obtain a square angle at b', using the hammer as in Fig. 480, 
which will bring the sheet as T, Fig. 486, Reverse T, Fig. 487, 
and make a square bend on dot 11, as U. Reverse U, Fig. 488, and 
dose top clamp on dot 10, which will cause the previous angle 
to spring slightly at b because the panel forces against the bend- 
ing leaf at a, and make a square bend on dot 10 as V. Draw out 
the sheet and close top clamp on dot 6 as V, Fig. 489, and make 




Figs. 491 to 494 Induiive. Final Open 



in Forming Hotdins. 



a square bend, previous to forming the cove from 6 to 10, stay A, 
Fig. 472. 

Leaving W, Fig. 489, in the position shown, place the proper 
size former A in position. Fig. 490, fasten with the clamp B 
and press W down in the position X, being careful in pressing 
\V down to press on the angle a in the direction of the arrow, be- 
ing careful not lo press angle b out of shape. 

Draw out the sheet to dot 5 as X, in Fig. 491, and make a bend 
to the required angle called for by the stay, as shown by Y, Re- 
verse Y, Fig. 492, close the top clamp on dot 4 and make the 
proper bend indicated by Z. Again reverse Z as A°, Fig, 493, 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 



and make the proper bend on dot 3, as B°, setting the stop as 
required. Reverse B°, Fig. 494, and make the final bend on dot 
2, as C, the completed molding. 





f=\q.49S 






Flg.496 






F19 


Fic. 49J. Section a 


id Ci. 


h Sir 


p of Mullion 


Figs. 4 


91,-97. 


Diflerer 






Fig SOI 

Fio. 501. Si»y (of Font 




In this way all of the base sides are formed, taking less time 
to form than to describe it. In bending the sides the student is 



344 Home Ikstkuction fob Sheet Metal W 

cautioned to bend each and ever>' angle and mold accaratelr to 
its proper sha{)C, without which no proper miter can be jofaied. 
Itc sure to have all forming accurate and true to their respectJTC 
stays, and time will be saved in joining the comers. 

The last i>art of the bay window to be formed by the student 
is the mullion 1 2, Fig. 467, or sections L and A', Fig. 471A. In 
Fig. 495, A is a rcducc<l section of the center mullion and B its 
girth. The liemling of section A from 1 to 9' is done in the usual 
manner, but the npiHtsilc jxirtion, I to 9, needs some explanation. 
After the sliajic A has been formed from 1 to 9", place it in the 
brake as A, I-'ig. 496, close top clamp on dot 1 and make the re- 
({uired angle according to the stay, which will bring A in the 
position H. 

Ix-ave I) in the brake, but draw it out and close the top clamp 
on (lot 2, as It, Fig. 497, and make a square bend; in doing this 
o of C strikes against the tup clamp and in making bend 2 the 
flat surfaces in angle 2 i> 2' become curved, which however will 
spring back to its original position when the sheet is released 
from the brake. 

I-<raving C on the brake, draw it out to dot 7, as C, Fig. 498, 
and when making the Mjuarc bend on dot 7, the opposite end of 
tile tmilliun will strike against the upper clamp at a, so that when 
lifting the beniling leaf J, it will press the surface 2 7 in C in . 
a sliajic similar lo 2' 7 in 1). 

t.<'aviiig I) clamped in the brake, place the proper size former a 
in position, I'ig. 499, and place the fingers in the corner 2 in D 
and press in the direction of the arrow, bringing D in the posi- 
tion K. 

Some students make the mistake of pressing against e, which 
presses llic angle 2 out of shape, as indicaed by the dotted sec- 
tion I", The sl;iy nuist he used to see whether the mullion c, 2, 
7 lias the proper formation, and if true the last bend can be made. 

I<ev<rsc V. and jdace il in the brake, as E, Fig. 500, where it 
will he noticed lliiit in pressing IC in the brake to close the top 
clamp on ilot 8, the lower part of the mullion strikes against the 
bending leaf, making the surfaces 2 1 and 1 2' curved and flat- 
tening angle 2 1 2' 

After a sipiare bond lias been made on dot 8, the angle 2 12' 
will spring back as F. but not in its original position, and there- 
fore innst Ik? pressed together by hand, along the bend b, pressing 
the two sides 2° h and b 2'' in the direction of the arrow c and 
testing with the stay unlil the proper shape is obtained, as G. 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 345 

While the soldering coppers are being heated the laps on the 
miters are turned up with the pliers, using the octagon angle 
stay, Fig. 501, obtained from the plan o G n. Fig. 470, as a guide 
to show how far outward the laps should be bent. Solder the 
small work together first, such as the date and initial in the frieze. 
Fig. 467, making the strip as wide as the face of the letters. 

Next complete the brackets, setting them together, as indicated 
by the various parts in Fig. 502. Solder the ^-in. sink strip 
around circle A and back it up with metal, then solder on the re- 
turn of the drop B. Now solder the upper face C and lower face 
D to the sides of the bracket, C and D', then set the raised dentil 
E in position F. Care must be taken not to have any twist in the 
bracket, and all bends in the face of the bracket must run parallel 
to each other. 

In large work the brackets are set in their proper position in 
the sides of the cornice, before the corner miters are joined; in 
this case as the bay is small in size the corner mJters can be 
joined first and the brackets set in last. Set on to the 12-in. 
sides of ihc cornice the 3-in. returns, e. Fig. 469, one right and 
one left, after which join the two 12-in. sides to the 1-ft. 6-in. 
front piece, Fig. 467, where A and A are the 12-in. sides and B 
the 1-ft. 6-m. front. 

When joining the corners, two students usually work together, 
one helping the other to tack the miters to the proper stay in Fig. 
501, after which the joint can be soldered by one student, being 
careful not to open the tacks when soldering. 

After the miters have been joined, the cornice is reversed, set- 
ting the top on the bench and soldering in the six brackets, each 
one placed Y^ in. from the corner, as in the scale drawing. Fig, 
465, The brackets being in position the initials and date are 
placed in the frieze, as in Fig. 467. 

IScfore soldering the base miters together, the small panel 
heads as at a and b. Fig. 467. are soldered in position as well as 
the relurn panel lica<l a. Fig. 469. 

After this, as in Fig. 467, the 3-in. return base mold 1 and sill 
mold 2 are joined to the return panel head a, when the 12 and 
18-in. sides are joined, being careful to have the angles true to the 
stay in Fig. 501. 

Setting together the mullions or window openings is next in 
order, and the following is the best Avay of doing it. Take 
the end mullion, or the one to which the 3-in. return has been 
added. A, Fig. 503, and join it to the 12-in. mullion head, B, being 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 



347 



would follow down, pass over flange a, which is flashed water- 
tight to the wall on the inside, then follow the inclination of the 
wash, running out at i over the flashing D and drip down at E. 
To the fiat return F a flange is turned outward and nailed at /. 
When the flange on the mullion is turned toward the outside. 




Flo. 507. Mrthnd of fi 



as n 0, flashing D must be put in, over which n o is placed, shown 
dotted, bending and nailing the flange n o. In Fig. 506A 
shows how the end mullion is bent in the brake, the nail passing 
through at a, after which edge b is closed, diagram B, which hides 
the nail heads, and prevents the nail c from pulling out. 




Fic, S08. C<JvcrinB Top of Bay Wiiidi 

The flashing D, Fig. 505, represents the method of obtaining 
tight joints between the metal and wall and is the one to be ap- 
plied on all projecting moldings, no matter at what part of the 
bay they may be. 

When the wall of the building against which the bay is to be 
fastened is of wood, covered with shingles or clapboards, the 
flashing is flashed against the rough sheathing. Fig. 507, in which 



34S Home Ikstsuction for Sheet Metal Wokzzks 



A represents the sheathing, against which the flashings B, C and 
D are nailed, flashing D of the mullion overlapping flashing C of 
the sill. 

Then when all flashing has been nailed against the sheathing 
and the comers, e to /, soldered watertight, the shingles or clap 
boarding E are placed in position, butting against the metal work 
at a b, or cutting them to the shape of the mold where they butt 
against the metal work. 

The method of covering the top or roof of the bay is shown 
in Fig. 508, in which A represents the top or main cornice of the 
hay, with a lock attached, into which to lock the metal roofing 
and carried to the wall C, then up not less than 6 in. and flashed 
into joint D. 

If the wall is of sheathing the 
angle D is not required, the flash- 
ing remaining in a vertical posi- 
tion, C, over which the shingles 
or clapboards are fastened. 

When a gutter is required in- 
side of the cornice, it must be 
constructed as indicated in Fig. 
509, after which it is hned with 
tin, galvanized iron or copper. 
When the bay is very large, the 
cornice at the top requies iron 
bracing, Fig, 510, in which A is 
the main cornice, supported by 
band iron braces B C, which in 
turn are fastened to the metal cornice by the bolts indicated by 
the dash lines, and to which an anchor D is bolted at a b, turned 
np at the back and nailed to the framing at c. This method holds 
the cornice and secures it firmly, and inside of this bracing the 
gutter is framed, Fig. 509. To make a smooth job, the iron 
braces should be countersunk on the outside, so that when the 
J4 X M-'"' stove bolts are inserted the face of the molding will 
present a smooth surface. Should the bay be constructed from 
cold rolled copper, the iron braces should be painted before they 
are inserted and brass bolts used. This completes the method of 
fastening the bay to the wall, and covering the roof. 

The method of making a watertight joint between the mullion 
and wooden window sill and sash is similar to that explained in 
the dormer window article previously given. 




Details in Construction of Bay Windows 349 

Some students at the New York Trade School finish their bay 
at the bottom with a paneled soffit, others with a reversed ogee 
molding. Both constructions will be explained in reduced dia- 
grams, from which the home student can obtain the principle re- 
quired in laying out the patterns. 

Fig. 511 (see Folder 11) shows the method of fastening 
the base of the bay window at the bottom as well as the panel. 
Below this is a half plan showing the soffit of the panel ; also the 
patterns for the various pieces of molding forming the panel. 
The large surface inside of the panel is crimped. This crimped 
iron can be purchased from dealers if the shop has no crimping 
machine. The use of crimped iron takes away the waves and 
buckles in the metal, which would otherwise show when painted. 
In this case the base A has a drip formed at B, the panel C D be- 
ing fastened to the furring strips a a by brass screws c and d. 

A small edge should be bent downward at 1 to remove buckles, 
and another bent upward at b as shown. 

When laying out this half plan, full size, the student should 
make E F G H equal in lengths and angles to the size taken 
around the finished bay window on the base line X, Fig. 467. 
Care should be taken if a paneled soffit is desired to add the drip 
B, Fig. 511, to the patterns for the base previously obtained. 
Having drawn E F G H to the proper size and angles, draw the 
wall line H b, and between the wall line b and drip B draw the 
section of the panel desired. The home student is to use his 
own judgment in drawing this profile. He can use the one 
shown, or either of those in diagrams A', B' and C. After the 
profile is selected, the section at C must be exactly like the one at 
D. In drawing the half plan the drip continues along E F, F G, 
and G H, butting against the wail. In this space p K 1 1' / the 
paneled soffit is drawn, bisecting the angles to obtain the miter 
line as already explained. 

To obtain the four patterns in one, proceed as follows: Divide 
one of the profiles, C, into equal parts, shown by the small fig- 
ures 1 to 6, from which vertical lines are dropped until they in- 
tersect the miter line F h. 

From these intersections, parallel to F G, lines are drawn, cut- 
ting the miter line G i, and from intersections parallel to G H, 
lines are drawn intersecting the miter line 1' /. 

At right angles to G H draw the line R S upon which place 
the girth of the profile C, from 1 to 6. Through these small 
figures, at right angles to R S, draw lines indefinitely, intersected 



350 HouE Instruction for Sheet Metal Workess 

by lines drawn parallel to R S from similar numbered intersec- 
tions on the miter lines t 1 and / 1'. A line traced through 
points thus obtained, as shown by M N O P will be the pattern 
for the panel mold for the side A", 

In the pattern, N O represents the miter cut to make a square 
angle, while M P in the pattern is the miter cut to make an octa- 
gon angle. To bend 6 add a lap to which the crimped surface 
is riveted. 

To obtain the pattern for the half length B°, take the distance 
from r to / and place it from O to U in the pattern, and draw 
the vertical line U T. Then T U O N is the half pattern for 
B", To obtain the full pattern, reverse on the dots T and U, and 
add a lap along O U, which turns upward at b in the sectional 
view. Bisect the length of 1 K and obtain L ; take the distance 
from 1 to L and place it from P to W, and from W erect the 
vertical line W V. Then V W P M is the half pattern for the 
side C, and must be reversed on the line V W to obtain the full 
pattern. 

Take the distance from K to c, and place it from P to Y, and 
draw the vertical line Y X, then P M X Y is the half pattern for 
the full side D", and must be reversed on the line X Y to make 
the full pattern. Laps should be allowed on the miter cuts of 
sides C° and B°, but no laps on the miters of sides A" and D°. 

After the various pieces are cut they are formed after the stay, 
bending the pieces for the sides A° right and left, and soldered 
together after their proper angle. The crimped iron is riveted 
to the inside of the panel frame, as in the sectional view, and the 
panel riveted to the bottom of the bay window, which completes 
the paneled soffit. 

In building construction after the bay window has been se- 
cured to the wall the paneled soffit is fastened with brass screws, 
to llie furring c and d, sliown in the sectional view. 

When the bottom of the bay window is to have a molded fin- 
ish, the niiliTs tenniiiaiing in a common center, as in Fig. 512, 
(sec Fdlder 12), proceed as follows: Let A R C D E F represent 
the outline of the bottom of the bay window through X, Fig. 467, 
being careful when drawing this oulline or plan view to make it 
the size of the student's bay window at its base. At right angles 
to A F in Fig. 572 from A and F draw the vertical line A H and 
F G and draw at pleasure the horizontal line P /. Bisect P / and 
draw the center lino L K, Establish 1 on the line P / and 8° on 
the center line I. K and draw at pleasure the profile 1, 7, 8°, to full 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 351 

size, which is reversed on the opposite side at 8° I'. Where the 
center line L K crosses the wall line A F in plan at J, draw miter 
lines to the corners BCD and E, which represent the 
miter or joint lines in plan. While in the reduced drawing the 
full plan and elevation have been drawn, in the full size drawing 
but one-half is required, as both halves are symmetrical. At 
right angles to B C in plan from the center J, draw the line J b. 

If the student will measure on his full size drawing the length 
of lines a J, & J and c J in plan, he will find that each is different, 
showing that the profile 1,7,8° in elevation can only be used for 
obtaining the pattern for the sides A°, and before the patterns can 
be obtained for the sides B° and C° true profiles must be ob- 
tained on lines b J and c J in plan and he must proceed as fol- 
lows : Divide the profile 1 8° in elevation into equal spaces, from 
which points drop vertical lines into the plan until they intersect 
the miter line B J. From the intersections on B J parallel to B 
C draw lines until they cut the miter line C J, from which inter- 
sections parallel to C D lines are drawn cutting the center line 
J K, as shown by similar numbers. 

Where these lines intersect the lines b J and c J, take the vari- 
ous divisions from & to J and place them on the line I 1' in ele- 
vation extended, from P to O. In similar manner take the divi- 
sions on c J in plan and place it as shown by similar numbers on 
r 1 extended by O N. At right angles to N P from the various 
divisions in N O and O P draw lines, which intersect with lines 
drawn parallel to P N from similar numbered intersections in the 
profile 1 8° in elevation. 

Trace a line through points thus obtained, then B" will be the 
true profile through t J in plan and C" the true profile through c 
J, from which the girths must be taken in developing the patterns. 

To obtain patterns for the sides A", extend the line F A, upon 
which place the girth of the profile 1 8° in elevation as shown 
by similar numbers on the girth line 8 1°. At right angles to 
this line from the small figures, draw lines which intersect, by 
lines drawn parallel to A F from similar numbered intersections 
on the miter line B J. Trace a line through points thus ob- 
tained, then M 8 1° will be the pattern for the sides A". 

For the pattern for the sides B", take the girth of the profile 
B", being careful to measure each space separately, as all are un- 
equal, and place it on the line V W at right angles to B C in plan, 
as shown by similar figures. Through these small figures at 
right angles to V W draw lines which intersect lines draw 



352 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

right angles to B C from similar numbered intersections on the 
miter line B J and J C. A line traced through points between 
W X Y, will be the desired pattern. 

For tlie pattern for the front C°, take the girth of the profile 
C", measuring each space separately, and place it on the line R 
T at right angles to C D, as shown by the small figures 1 to 8. 
Through these small figures parallel to C D draw lines, which 
intersect lines drawn at right angles to C D from similar num- 
bered intersections on the miter line C J. As the whole of the 
plan is drawn in this reduced sketch, the points of intersections 
for the right side of the pattern could be obtained from the miter 
line D J. But where only one-half the plan is drawn, as in the 
student's detail, the projections of the various points are meas- 
ured from the line R T to the intersections in the miter cut 8 S, 
and transferred opposite R T, at 8 U. Then R S U is the pat- 
tern for the front C°. Laps are allowed over line 1 on all pat- 
terns, to allow the molding to be soldered to the base of the bay 
window P / in elevation. 

When cutting the pieces from sheet metal allow laps on the 
miter cuts of sides B", but none on sides A° and C°. Each side 
must be bent to its rL-sjieclive profile and soldered and riveted 
together as shown in plan, after which it is soldered to the bot- 
tom of the bay window. So that the molded finish can be well 
secured to the wall, a flange, d c f in elevation, is cut parallel to 
the profile of the mold, about Ij/^ in. wide, and thoroughly sol- 
dered to sides A", and nailed at intervals, which makes a neat 
finish and holds the profile of the mold in its true shape. If this 
molded finish would have to be secured to the bottom of the bay, 
after thf hay window was in place, then the bottom of the bay 
H G in front elevation could he bent as in diagram A' and the 
lower part slipped into the lock shown; or the lower part could 
be formed with a drip as in B' and the molded finish screwed 
to the wood furring C. Xo matter what size or angle the bay 
may have, nor whai profile ihe mold may have, the foregoing 
principles art applicable to any case. 

In t!ic hay window which the .student has completed, the size 
was known : that is, no measurement had to be taken from the 
building. When, however, the bay is of such size that it cannot be 
made complete in ihc shop, and measurements must be taken 
from the rough framing nt the building, then the method of 
obtaining iheni is the same as will he cxjilaincd in conneclion with 
Fig. 51,1 (_-.ee Folder 12). Whether the bay is one, two or more 



Details in Construction of Bay Windows 353 

stories in height, or the structure is other than a bay window, the 
same methods are used. The elevation of the rough framing of 
a one-story bay window is shown, with three window openings, 
one on each side, as in plan, the sides butting against the wall at 
angles of 45 deg. 

In taking measurements, first measure the entire height, which 
is assumed to be 18 ft. Prove this by measuring the height of 
the window opening, the space above and below it, as 10 ft. -|- 3 
ft. 4 in. -I- 4 ft. 8 in. = 18 ft. 

In similar manner obtain the widths ; the sides, which it is as- 
sumed, measure 4 ft. on the slant and 6 ft. on the front. These 
measurements are proved by measuring the window widths and 
the stiles. On the sides there are 8 in. + 2 ft. 8 in. 4- 8 in., which 
equals 4 ft. On the front there are 8 in. + 4 ft. 8 in. + 8in., 
which equals 6 ft., these measurements being shown in plan. 

While, the surface just measured is sheathed with wood and 
is free from projections, care must be taken if the framing is of 
angle iron, as in the lower plan. In this case measurements 
should not be taken on the surface of the angle iron, but along 
the projecting bolts or rivet heads (if any), as indicated by the 
dotted lines drawn flush with the head of the bohs a a, etc. This 
hint also appHes to obtaining the width of the window openings 
■ and of the angle- iron uprights, which would have to be measured 
from outside to outside of bolt heads b b for the windows, and 
from the outside of the head b to the corner i for the uprights. 

When taking these measurements a rough diagram is made in 
the note-book similar to the elevation. The bevel at the corners 
is obtained by using any ordinary bevel and holding it on the 
corners of the rough framing, as indicated by C and D, and then 
measuring from corner to corner the distance d. This latter 
operation should be done in exactly the same manner as was ex- 
plained in obtaining the bevels of pitched roofs in the exercise 
on dormer windows, to which the student is referred. 

The bevels can now be closed, and with the measurements 
obtained proceed lo lay out the full size <letails of the mullions 
E and F, around which the line of the metal is drawn as indi- 
cated by the heavy line, allowing J^ in. on sides and front, as in 
F and E. Allow a lock for blind nailing if ihe wall is brick, 
as at F. 

In similar manner draw the base of the bay Ci and the cornice 
H, In the sectional view, drawing the sections to fit over the 4-ft. 
8-in. and 3-ft. 4-in. measurements, making a J4-in. allowance 



354 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

where indicated. The distance below the cornice at r in the sec- 
tional view must be the same width as c in the plan view, as they 
form the joint between the muUions E and F in the lower part 
of the cornice H. The flange c of the tower part of the cornice 
H is nailed against the window frame, while the metal sill of the 
base G extends under the wooden sill of the window frame. For 
different ways of obtaining tight joints between the metal work 
and window frame, the student is referred toJhe exercises on 
"I'lain and Ornamental Window Caps," also on "Dormer Win- 
dows" previously given. 

As tlic length of the window opening was 10 ft., then the metal 
niullion F and E in plan will be 9 ft. 11}/^ in., or J^ in, less, which 
is deducted for two i4-in- allowances made in the sectional view. 
The gutter in the cornice H and roof over same are lined as 
previously explained. The paneled sofht under the base G is also 
constructed as before described. 

The measurenicnls on the sheathed bay were 4 ft., 6 ft. and 4 
ft., but nuist be slightly longer on the metal bay, because j/i-\n. 
allowance lias been made at e and / in the sectional view. The 
Ihies c and / in the metal bay represent the measuring lines when 
laying out the bay -window. How much longer the distance on 
c and / nui.st be llian the 4 ft. and 6 ft. obtained from the 
shcathe<l bay is found by referring to Fig. 514, which is a full 
si/e sketch, having the true angles at A and B and represents the 
line of the sheathed bay. 

1 f the alicuvancc is set off, whatever it may be, in this 
case 'y.\ ill., and lines arc drawn parallel, then by actual measure- 
iiii-iitN llic distance from a to ii will be }^ in. at the miter joint 
and from c to d }i in. where it butts against the wall. Then, 
when laying out the full size patterns on the lines e and / in the 
seiliunal view. Fig. 513, the true length of the 6-ft. side will be 
() ft. li in., notching out from tlic return flange c a distance of 
X;i|j in. from the i-nds, which leaves a distance of 4 ft. 7yi in. to 
turn in against Ihe window frame between the mullions. This 
4 ft. 7'/i ill, is y'i in. less than the window opening, and allows 
for the li ill. play rouiii on cither side of the mullion in plan. 
Then H-}^ in, ■\- 4 ft. 7; j in. + 8^ in. — 6 it. % in. The true 
Icngih of the 4 ft. side will be 4 ft. y^ in. 

Nolching out from the end nearest the joint miter a distance 
of 8^8 in., and from the end nearest the butt miter against the 
wall ayi in., leaving the portion which enters the window open- 
ing 2 ft, yy^ in., allows for J-i in. play between the mullions. 



Details in Construction of Bav Windows 



355 



Then 8?^ in. + 2 ft. 7^ in. + 8j4 in. =z 4 it. H in. Some- 
times only % in. allowance is given between the metal work and 
sheathing so as to have the metal lie close, but experience has 
shown that J4 i»' is ^^^ ^^*^ practice, as it makes allowance for 
the thickness of the metal, laps and rivet heads. No matter what 
allowance is made, the amount to add to the frame measurement 
is obtained as explained in Fig. 514. 

Where the sides of the bay in Fig. 513 butt against the wall, 
a different miter cut from that obtained in the previous bay win- 
dow is required, Fig. 515 (see Folder 12), has been prepared so 
the student may understand 
how to cut any butt miter oblique 
in plan, the same principle can 
be employed, whether the bay has 
a plan as in L, where the sides 
butt against a wall running paral- 
lel to the front of the bay, or 
whether the sides of the bay 
butt against brick or other piers 
at right angles to the front of 
the bay window as in diagram M. 
In either case the girth lines d e 
or m n are drawn at right angles 
to the face of the molding, and 
intersections obtained as shown by 
the dotted line. 

To show the principle involved, 
let A represent a portion of the 
profile of the cornice. Open the 
bevel to the required width as 
noted at the building when measurements were taken, and 
place it in the position a B C. Bisect the angle in the usual 
manner by the arcs a b c and draw the miter line B D. At any 
point on the line B C as C, draw the wall Une C N. Divide the 
profile A into equal spaces from 1 to 16, from which drop lines to 
the miter line B D. From these intersections parallel to B C lines 
are drawn intersecting the -wall line C N, 

For the pattern draw the line E F at right angles to B C, upon 
which place the girth of the mold A. Through the small figures 
on E F at right angles to it draw measuring lines, intersected 
by lines drawn at right angles to B C from similar numbered 
intersections on the miter line B D and butt line C N. A line 




PART m 



PKINCIPLES OF CURVED MOLDINGS 



CHAPTER XXX 
Construction and Patterns of a Ten-Inch Ball 

The student now comes to Part III, covering six exercises in 
the principles of curved moldings, when made either by hand or 
machine. The first three exercises will show how to use the 
various hand hammers and stakes and the position to hold the 
tools when the molds are to be curved by hand, followed by three 
exercises which will explain how the curvrd moldings are pro- 
duced by machine. 

The first exercise in hand work is that of hammering out the 
sections for a 10-in, ball from flat sheets. Balls are sometimes 
spun in the latiie or pressed on the drop press, a branch of work 
done in factories and not covered in this study. The Ij^-in. 
scale drawing in Fig. 517, in which is the elevation of a 10-in. 
ball, each half ball to be composed of four horizontal sections, 
A, B, C, and D. Through the center of the sphere is a center 
line, with which the various radii intersect at h, f and e, repre- 
senting the centers from which the patterns shown partly by A', 
B', C" and D" are struck. 

In obtaining the patterns or blanks for any curved work, 
whether hammered by hand or machine, the radial line method 
is employed, or the same rule as laying out the pattern for a cone, 
and the greatest care must he taken to average the hne correctly 
through the mold, which will form the radius to strike the 
pattern. 

The rule employed in averaging this line in either hand or 
macliine work will be explained to the student in proper order. 
The home student who has never used the raising hammer will 
probably think that the raising of a ball or other mold is a very 
difficult job. It may encourage the student to say that there is 
nothing difficult to it if the flare of the patterns are correctly 
drawn, as will be explained, and if he follows the explanations 
wliich will be given witli illustrations taken from practical work. 
TJie slio]) detail in Fig. 518 (see Folder 14) is now laid out full 
size. As the ball is to be 10 in. in diameter, set the compasses 
5 in., and with (i on the center line E F as center, draw the full 
circle. Tlirough the center G draw the diameter H J, and divide 
360 



Construction and Patterns of a Ten-Inch Ball 361 



the quarter-circle J L into as many parts as the semi-circle is to 
have pieces, in this case four, L M, M N, N O and O J. 

While a ball of the same size could be made in fewer sections, 
practice has shown that it is better to use a few more flares, or 
sections, and save time in raising. In other words, the semi- 
circle H L J will be made in four sections, or flares, making the 
depth to be raised in each flare as much as is indicated by a. If 
this same semi-circle had only two flares or three sections, ] c d, 
then the depth to be raised 
,V would be almost twice as 

'H much, or as shown by b. 

I }^ If the ball is smaller than 

/ I ' 10 in. less flares are em- 

/ \^ ployed, while if larger, 

/ I is. more are used, so as to re- 

I I 1^5 quire the least amount of 

' I >? labor with the raising ham- 

' I 15 mer, for it is quicker to 

cut an extra flare and get 
the ball to a truer circle 

01 ' \ \ than to raise to a greater 

>\ X\ 1^1 depth. 
I '^>\ ''"W / / Having divided the quar- 

'!>-- 'J il / / tcr circle into four parts, 
the radii to develop the 
patterns are obtained as 
follows : Draw a line 
through the intersections J 
and O until it meets the 
center line F E at S. In 
similar manner through O 
N, N M and M L draw 
lines which will intersect 
the center line at R P and L. Then S is the center from which 
to strike the pattern for the flare D; R the center for C; P for 
B, and L for the pattern for A. To obtain the pattern for the 
piece marked A, set the compass equal to L M and with L' as 
center draw the circle, to which allow an edge as indicated by 
the dotted line. Two of these circles will be required. 

Where the flares B and C join together on the line N" N, Fig. 
518, use T as center and with T N" as radius describe the quarter 
circle N" G T, which represents the half section through N" T. 




Flo. S17. Laying - 



362 Home Instruction foe Sheet Metal Wokkexs 



In similar manner G H K will be the half section through H G. 
Divide both sections into equal spaces from 1 to 7. When de- 
veloping the pattern for the flaring pieces, four times the spaces 
in the quarter circle N" G are placed on the outside curve of flare 
U and the same amount on the inside curve of flare C, because 
_ flares B and C will join on 

the line N° N. Four times 
the girth of the quarter 
circle H K will be placed 
on the outside curve of 
flare D. 

To obtain the pattern for 
flare B, use P' as center, 
and with radii equal to P 
M and P N draw the arcs 
M" M^ and N' 1". On the 
outer arc draw any radial 
line as N' P', and starting 

Ki... SIV. Shift Mtl;,l Trammels for Long f TOm N' Set off OH the OUlcr 

"■"'"■ arc four times the number 

(if sparis conlaincd in section N° G from 1 to 7 to 1 to 7 to 1° in 
the imtteni. l-'roni 1° draw a line to the center P', intersecting 
the inner arc at M'. Then M\ M", 1", N" will be the pattern 
desired, two nf which are required. Allow laps as shown by the 
(lulled lines. 





I'"(ir iIk- |);ittern for fl:ire C. use R as center and with R N and 
K I ) as railii, describe the arcs K 1° and O O'. At any point 
(111 ilie (mter arc as O^, draw a line to the center R, crossing the 
inner arc at 1". Starling from 1° in the pattern for C, lay off 
on llie inner arc four times the girlh of the quarter section N' G, 
friini 1" to 7 to 1 to 7 to N=, From R draw a radial line through 



Construction and Patterns of a Ten-Inch Ball 363 




N*, intersecting the outer arc at O'. Then O' O' 1* N* will be 

the pattern for flare C, two of which are required, allowing edges 

for soldering, as indicated by the dotted line. 

When striking- the pat- 
tern for flare D the beam 
compasses in Fig. 28 
should be employed. If, 
however, none is handy, a 
V-shaped metal trammel 
can be quickly made in the 
shop as in Fig, 519, bent as 
shown by A B, each side 
about 1 in. high. In the 
bend of the trammel prick 
marks are made at S, O 
and J to correspond to the 
radii S, O and J, Fig. 518. 
Using a scratch awl at S, 
Fig. 5 19, as center, and 
another at O and J, the 
arcs C D and E F are 

drawn. Assuming that such a trammel has been made as 

explained, then to obtain the pattern for flare D, Fig, 518, 

use S O and S J as radii, and with S' at the extreme right 

as center, draw arcs O' O' and J^ 1". 

As H K G in elevation represents the 

quarter section on the line H J, and arc 

J' 1' represents the pattern cut on this 

line (H J), then starting at any point 

on arc J' 1* as 1*', lay off four times 

the girth of the quadrant H K from 1*' 

to 7 to 1 to 7 to J', and from points 1" 

and J*, draw radial lines to the center 

S', intersecting the inner arc O', O' at 

O' and O'. Then will O' 1' J' O' be 

the pattern for flare D, two of which 

will be required, allowing edges for 

soldering. This completes all the pat- SoWtnd Previous to RaiHng. 

tcms required for the sphere, and it makes no difference what 
size the sphere may be, the same principle applies. 

When cutting these patterns or flares care should be taken to 
avoid waste in materia! by placing the patterns on the sheet as 



/ I'B \ 


/ h 


\ 


1 l" 


\ 


\ l" 


/ 


\ \c 


/ 


\ IB 


37 



364 Home Instrl-ctios for Sheet Metal Workess 

in Fig. 520; diagram X, shows how patterns A, B and C are laid 
in each other on a hne with the bottom of the sheet at a b, while 
in diagram Y the pattern for flare D is tnarked one under the 
other, tangent to the edge of sheet c d. In this way there is very 
httle waste. 

When all the pieces have been cut, they are rolled up either on 
the hlow-horn stake. Fig. 521, or the forming rolls, Fig. 5ZZ. 

When the blo\v-!iorii stake A in Fig. 521 is usedj the ends of 
the patterns arc shghtly rounded with the mallet, after whidi the 
flare 11 is rounded over the stake, using the hands to make the 
curvature. 

Wlien the flares are to be shajjed in the forming rolls. Fig. 522, 
one end. A, of the rear roll must be raised higher than the one 
at B, so that when flare C is passed between the two front rolls 



do 




tile rear roll will give the proper curve and flare. How mudi 
the riar roll at .\ must be raised will be determined when passif^ 
C throtiKh the rolls. If the ends of flare C do not meet after 
bciiij: passed ilirmigh, A must be raised higher; or if the ends in 
C pass liver c.-u-h oilier, .\ nnisl be lowered. 

Msporience will show how the rear roll must be set. If A is 
raised lui ihe rJKlil >iilc. ilu^n flare <.' must lie pasesd through the 
mils Willi tin- lartjcsi ourve I" the rij-Iit ; while if A were lowered 
ami I! raised, ihen the end at <i would have to be jiassed through 
witli lhi> jjrratesi curve loward II. 

.\l'ier llu' Hares have been rolled or [iirnie<i to a true circle 
llu-v are riveled and then M>ldered loKetlier on the inside. The 
>eaiii- arc lliormif-lilv sweaU'd tn aviiii! bursting when raising 
will) the hamnu-r. When tlie liuiiie student has all the flares 



366 HouB Instruction for Sheet Metal Workeks 



eter. When the lead blocks have been pretty well used they can 
be recast or the trunk of the tree sawed off as far as used, pre- 
senting a new surface to work on. 

Assuming that a lead block A is employed, the proper size rais- 
ing hammer must be used to form the shallow surface in the top 
of the lead block. These raising hammers can be obtained in 
different weights and sizes. See Fig. 525. In selectii^ a ham- 

mer. one should be taken 



'iiiiii'""- 



. 529. Bench Plate lor Holdios SUkti. 



the head of which will con- 
form to the outside stay 
A of the article to be 
raised. Having selected the 



proper hammer and with some help from shop tnates or fore- 
man the home student should proceed to form the concave sur- 
face in the lead block A, Fig. 524, as follows : Using the raising 
hammer in the right hand, strike steady, forceful blows until a 
smooth, hollow surface is obtained, in size equal to stay B", the 
stay being held in the hollow part to prove the accuracy of the 
curve, b and c c/ in B. As the article to be raised is a ball, and 
has the same curve when 
viewed in either direction, 
the hollow surface in the 
lead block must have the 
same profile no matter how 
the stay B is placed. If, 
however, a curved mold was 
to be hammered whose pro- 
file was other than that of 
a part of a sphere, the hol- 
lowed surface would be pre- 
iwrcd in a manner described 
further on. 

The method of raising 
flare D. Fig. 523, will be 
explained and is applicable 
lo the rest of tlic flares as well as to the disk A. The flare 
1) is held ill ihe left liand and placed over the hollowed 
surface in the lead block C Fig. 524, as shown by e. Light blows 
are -struck dircitly in the center of e with the raising hammer, 
which is htid in the right hand, which will bring the metal in the 
shape shown by h in D. Strike a httle harder, in the center of h. 
gradually turning the flaring piece as each blow is struck, so that 




¥\c.. AJil. Ajiivi.n 



Construction and Patterns of a Ten-Inch Ball 367 



the hammer touches all the surface of the metal along the center 
of the fJare. This will bring it to the required depth shown by 
i in E. 

When the metal has been brought to its proper shape along 
the center of the flare, it -will be found that the edges have 
buckled, as indicated by / and m, which must be dressed out on 
the block, striking lightly along the edges of the flare. 

Third Opera+ion 



S«eond Ope I 




Fm. iil. Aucsibling the Viiioui Flates Composmi Ihc Ball. 

Figs. 526 to 528, arc three pictures of a student at work 
raising flare D, In this case the flare has been raised to its deepest 
depth along the center and the buckles show as before described. 
Notice position of student's hands, and how the flare and ham- 
mer is held in Fig. 526. The buckles in Fig. 527 are being 
smoothed on block B, while Fig. 528 shows how the raised flare 
is dressed free from all marks 
or dents by using the wood 
mallet on the round head 
stake C. The latter is fas- 
tened to bench D by having 
the proper size square hole cut 
in it or by having a cast-iron 
bench plale fastened to the 
bench. Fig. 529. These bendi 
plates can be obtained with 
polished surface, and have 
holes for screwing to a bench, and with different size holes for 
holding stakes, bench shears, etc. They come in different sizes, 
contain more or less holes and can be obtained from dealers in 
sheet metal workers' tools. Notice how the operator holds the 
work and tool. 

In this manner all the flares should be raised and it might be 
well to add that in raising always start at the seam, for then the 
student knows where to start and finish his courses of blows. 
The mistake which the student is liable to make is to strike too 



SfmMf 


_i^ , 


\ • 






"J 


^'^"B 


...^ 



Construction and Patterns oe a Ten-Incii Ball 369 



spheres are then soldered together by tacking a quarter inch wide 
metal strip on the inside of one-half hemisphere, and then slip- 




Pottern for On, 



ping the other half over same with a butt edge, then scraping 
smooth, as in Fig. 533, which shows the finished ball with seam 



370 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Woskers 




A which joins the two halves. Another method o£ making a ball 
adapted to larger sizes will next be given. 

Sometimes a ball is made in vertical sections or gores, and 
while this method takes more time in raising, it saves material, 
especially if large balls are to be constructed from sheet copper. 
As an example of this method of construction, which the hon.e 
student should practice. The detail of developing a ball of this kind 
is shown quarter size in 
Fig. 534. First draw 
any center line as A B 
upon which establish at 
pleasure the center point 
C. Set the compasses to 
, a 5-in. radius, and, using 
C as center, describe 
the circle, which represents the elevation of the ball. Through 
C draw the diameter D E. Below the elevation, with.any point 
F, on the line A B, as center, with the s«ne 5-in. radius, describe 
the circle, which represents the plan view of the ball. In this 
case the ball is to have eight gore pieces, although any number 
of pieces can be used and the principle will apply. Therefore, 
divide the plan into eight spaces, GHJKLMNO, and draw 
miter or joint lines to 
the center F. In prac- 
tice it is not necessary 
to draw each gore in 
plan ; all that is required 
is one gore, F K L, 
from which to obtain 
the pattern. 

Having drawn the plan and elevation, the pattern is laid out 
as follows: Divide the one quarter circle in elevation into equal 
spaces, shown by the small figures 1 to 7. From these points 
parallel to the center line A B drop lines until they intersect the 
joint line F L, whith must be at a right angle to A B, shown by 
the small figures 1' to 7'. Using F as a center with radii equal 
to the distance from 2' to 7', draw arcs intersecting the joint line 
F K, also from 1' to /'. Bisect the curve L K at P and draw 
the line P F. Draw any vertical line, R S. upon which place the 
girth of the semicircle in elevation from 1 to 7 to 1 on R S. At 
right angles to R S through these small figures draw lines in- 




Construction and Patterns of a Ten-Inch Ball 373 

/ to whatever width edge is desired, in this case yi in., and B the 
handle for operating the machine. The standard A can be fast- 
ened to any bench up to 3 in. in thickness by the wrench a. In 
connecting the standard b sets into c, fastened by the set screw 
d. When the home student uses this machine for the first time, 
he should practice on small strips of metal, asking the advice 
and permission of the foreman in the shop. 

After the edges have been turned on all the gores, stays are 
tacked in four of the gores indicated by the dotted lines in Kig. 
540, placing the stays altemateiy. This is more clearly shown 
in Fig. 539, where two stays are shown lacked in at 1 and 2. 
These stays can remain in the ball as tliey keep the proper height 
from c to d, without which the ball would either be too flat or too 
pointed at top and bottom. The half-spheres are first completed, 
then joined, being careful that the joints have the proper curve 
along a & in gore 4. A finished view of an eight-piece ball made 
with gore sections is shown in Fig, 542, as made by the school 
student. 



CHAPTER XXXI 



Construction and Patterns for a Round Finial 



The second exercise on hand hammer work is a little more 

complicated, containing raised as well as stretched work. While 

in raised work the metal is bulged outward in the center of the 

flares and drawn inward at the edges, in stretched work the edges 

arc stretched outward, that is, 

stretching the metal to give more 

material, while the center of the 

flare remains stationary. 

The scale drawing given to the 
student. Fig. 543, is dr^wn to a 
scale of lyi in. to the foot. The 
full front elevation and half plan 
are shown, although in laying out 
the detail no plan will be em- 
ployed. The plan, however, is 
necessary in the scale drawing, 
to know whether the Bnial is to 
be round, square or oct^onal. 
a, b, c and d in the elevation are 
the centers with which the arcs 
for the molds are struck, while the 
horizontal lines through e, f, h, 
i and / show the seam lines or 
""'^ ^''"' the number of pieces which the 

* Kuunj' Fin"ai— Scale "lV]'''iiich"'i' to "lold wiU Contain. Using the V/z- 
•"'■ in. scale rule, measure off the 

heights on the center line and place them as shown by full size 
measurenienls on tlic cenler line \ B in Fig. 544 (See Folder 13). 
In similar manner obtain the various projections from the 
scale drawing in Fig. 543, measuring from the center hne, and 
|)l;ite these distances on each side of the center line A B, Fig. 
544, the full size of the projections being shown on the left side. 
Tlic various radii for drawing the molds are also scaled from the 
lesson drawing in Fig. 543 and are shown by full-size measure- 
nienls in the detail in Fig. 544, a and b representing the center 
374 




Construction and Patterns for a Round Finial 375 

points for the quarter round and cove. The center for the bead 
being on the horizontal dotted line marked Yi" R, R meaning 
radius. After e and f of the upper neck of the finial have been 
obtained, knowing that the ball is to be 5 in. in diameter, then 
with the compasses set 2j^ in., using either e or / as centers, draw 
an arc intersecting the cented line at d, which is the center for 
describing the bait. This completes the elevation of the round 
finial. 

The quarter round struck from a as center, will be raised in 
one piece; the cove struck from b will be made in three parts, 
and the curve is therefore divided into three equal spaces, N O, 
O P and P R on the right hand side of the drawing ; the horizon- 
tal lines through O and P represent the seam lines. The bead is 
made in two halves. The full ball will be made in six sections ; 
therefore the hemisphere is divided in three parts, as indicated by 
F H, H J and J G. The horizontal lines through F, H and J show 
the seam lines. 

Flaring patterns or blanks will be required for the different 
sections of the molds, marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, while the 
vertical strips required are marked C, D and E. 

In this connection it is proper to explain to the home student 
that while the cove will be made in three flaring sections, it could 
just as well be made in two, but would require more time and 
labor in stretching the flares. The point to bear in mind is this : 
If the mold in diagram X' were made in two flares, then the flare 
6' c* would have to be curved a distance from d" to c* and from 
d* to fc* equal to a depth shown at each end by a". 

By using more flares, the length of the curve is only from O^ 
to N^ and the depth equal to distance O' O or N' N in the front 
elevation. TRose who have not done work of this kind do not 
realize the amount of labor and time saved in stretching, by 
simply adding one or more flares. Before starting to lay out the 
patterns, diagram X has been prepared, showing in reduced size, 
a half sectional view of the finial, and where and how the joints 
are made. The parts of the different molds, and the vertical 
strips in the diagram, are numbered and lettered to correspond to 
the elevation. 

Starting at the bottom, E', this strip has a flange turned out- 
ward at x; F' is the ring with a burr turned over E', nnd 8' is 
the quarter round with a burr turning out on F', The vertical 
strip D' has edges at top and bottom; 5', 6' and 7' are joined 
tt^ther, forming the cove, an edge being allowed at the top of 



376 Home Instruction fok StiEn Metal W( 

5' to join to bcarl 4'. Bead 4' is made in two pieces and ttie 
vertical strip C is soldered raw edge to the bead and taQ. The 
joint!) in the b:dl arc joined in a manner similar to that given in 
tlic first cxcrcisie on the 10-in, ball. 

In developing; the various flares or patterns, start with the 
Imll. 'J'o obtain the radii from which to strike the flares, draw 
ft line from ]<* through 11 until it intersects the center line A B 
at 1,. In Hiinilar manner draw a line from H through J tmtil it 
intirrsects the line A B at K. 

I''or |i;itti-rii 1, tisc G J as radius and with G', shown in the 
lower riKbt-hanrj corner of Fig. 544, as center draw the circle 
J', which in the desired pattern two of which are to be cut 
lliiing K UK (l-iUit and radii erjual to K J and K H, draw 
the arcs J' J' an<l 1 1". From any point as 1 draw a radial line 
to K. With h as center and k il" as radius draw the quarter 
cirilr, which represents a half section through 1 h. Divide this 
Into cijiml spac<^s from 1 to 5, and starting from 1 on the outer 
arc 1 1" in jiuttcrn for 2, lay od four times the spaces contained 
in the (|tiarter circle through 1 It, from 1 to 5 to 1 to 5 to 1* in the 
imtlcni and draw a nidial line from 1" to the center K, crossing 
the inner arc at J'. Then 1" 1 J' J* will be the pattern for part 
2, two of which arc needed, allowing edges for joining, shown by 
the- clotted lines. 

Uxing 1. as crnter and radii equal to L H and L F, draw arcs 
I'' I'"" and II 1". l''r(nii any point on the outer arc as F' draw a 
radial line In the center L, crossing the inner arc at 1. Starting 
from poitu 1. lay oil four times the spaces contained in the sec- 
tiiin tliroiifjii 1 h, from 1 to 5 to 1 to 5 to 1" and draw a line from 
I. ihidiiKh I" inilil il intcrsccis the outer arc at F". Then 1 F' 
V" r will he th<' pallern for 3, with edges allowed for joining, 
shown by the ilnlled lines, two of which must be cut. The stu- 
dent slmnld utKhrstimil llial llic reason four times the girth of 
Ihe iiu;irler circle 1 h is jilaced on the outside curve of pattern 2 
and on the inner arc of pattern .1, is because the two flares join 
nn line II i 1" in elevaliiui ami It \ 5 represents the quarter section 
on lliat line. 

In (Irawinfi the Hare thninjjh the sections in the ball, no further 
calcnialions wore made in averaging this line, F H or H J, than 
lo draw il fnini corner to corner and then extend it until it met 
llie center line. This line is drawn from corner to corner be- 
cause the amount to be raised shown by 10 in 3 is so small. 

Wlieii, however, a (jnarter round is to be raised, as in 8, the 



Construction and Patterns for a Round Finial 377 

averaged line would not be drawn from corner to corner in get- 
ting the length of the radius, but the short practical rule would 
be employed as follows, no matter what diameter the mold may 
have. 

Thus to obtain the radius from which to draw the pattern for 
mold 8, draw a line from comer to corner, i to ; at the left of part 
8; bisect this and obtain K; from K draw the perpendicular K 4, 
and divide into as many parts as the distance from K to the center 
line contains inches, in this case 4j4, which counts 5. Any measure 
less than }4 does not count, while up to and over y^ counts one. 

If the distance from K to the center line were 4j^, use four; if 
4^, use S, and so on. In this case, as above stated, the distance 
from K to the center line measures 4j4 in. Therefore, divide 
the line K 4 into five equal spaces, through the first space or dot 
nearest to the mold, at / draw a line parallel to i j, extending it 
until it meets the center line A B at M. 

Divide mold i 4 / into equal spaces, and take the girth from 
4 to J and 4 to t and place it from / to ;' and Mo f on the aver- 
aged line just drawn. Then T / represents the amount of mate- 
rial required to form or hammer up the mold i 4 /. From the 
first dot / draw the horizontal line until it intersects the center 
line at A B at m. Using m as center, and m / as radius, describe 
the quarter circle / 8, divide into equal spaces, from 1 to 8. This 
quarter circle «t 1 8 represents the half section through / m, and 
is used for obtaining the girth in laying out the pattern. For 
the pattern use M' below the elevation as center, and with radii 
equal to M i', M /, and M j', draw the arcs i" t", V I"', and j" j'". 
From any point as t" draw the radial line to M', crossing the 
middle and inner arcs at T and ;'". 

Starting from /", set off on the middle arc four limes the num- 
ber of spaces contained in the section through / m, from 1 to 8 
to I to 8 to 1 in the pattern. From M' draw a line through 1 
cutting the inner arc at j'" and the outer arc at i'". Allow an 
edge on the outer arc, as in diagram X, 8' ; allow a lap for rivet- 
ing to one end of pattern for 8, shown by the dotted lines. Then 
*"/ i", }"'• }"• will be the pattern for 8, one of which is needed. 

The practical rule just given applies to obtaining the pattern 
for the half bead 4. Draw the seam line through the center of 
the bead, and a line from corner to corner in the half bead, from 
s to t. Bisect s t and obtain i*, from which erect the perpendicu- 
lar H V, and divide into as many parts as the horizontal distance 
u w has inches, m w measures V/i in. and counts 2. Therefore, 



378 Hoke Ixstscctiox fob. Sheet Metal Workers 

divide u r into two parts, and through the first part, 1, draw a 
line parallel to s I until it meets the center line A B at V, Take 
the girth from v to f and v to s and place it from 1 to t* and 1 to 
/, which represents the amount of material to fonn s v t. With 
radii equal V (', \' 1 and V s', with any point V as center, shown 
to the right of the ele\-ation, draw the arcs (* f, l" 1, and s" s". 

From any point as i* draw a radial line to the center, V, cut- 
ting the middle and inner arcs at 1" and f. Starting from 1' on 
the middle arc, lay off the girth of four times the spaces con- 
tained in the half section through u w (obtained by using w as 
center and w u as radius, describing the arc u 6), from 1" to 6 to 
1 to 6 to 1 in pattern for 4. From the center, V, draw a line 
through 1, intersecting the inner and outer arc at t' and S". Al- 
low laps and edges shown by the dotted lines. Then s" f f f 
win be the pattern for 4, two of which will be required to com- 
plete the full bead. 

The method to use, in averaging the line, when the mold is to 
be stretched, is explained in connection with molds 5 6 7 in ele- 
vation. The method of developing the flare for part 7 will be 
explained in detail and is the precise way that the flares for 6 
and 5 will be obtained. The student, therefore, should pay care- 
ful attention to that which follows, because the detailed explana- 
tions will be omitted in connection with parts 6 and 5. 

To obtain the pattern for 7, draw a line from N to O and bisect 
the curve O 1 N at 1. Through 1 draw a line parallel to N O 
until it intersects the center hne A B at S. Take the girth from 
1 to X and from 1 to O and place it, from 1 to N' and 1 to O'. 
Then O' N' represents the amount of material required to form 
curve O N. 

When stretching the surface O' N', the center of the surface 
at I remains stationary, while the portions 1 to O' and 1 to N' 
are stretched to conform to the curve 1 to O, and 1 to N, As 1 is 
the stationary point, then from 1 in the pattern the girth can be 
placed. 

From 1 draw a horizontal line until it intersects the center line 
.\ B at o. Using o as center and o 1 as radius, describe the 
quarter circle 1 6. Then o 1, 6 is the half section through o 1. 

Divide the quarter circle 1, 6 into equal parts, from 1 to 6. 
With radii equal to S O', S 1 and S X' and with S' in the pat- 
tern for 7 ds center, describe the arcs O' O', 1° I and N* N'. 

From any point on the outer arc, as N', draw a radial line to 
^e center S', crossing the middle and inner arcs at 1 and O'. 



COKSTBUCTION AND PATTERNS FOR A RoUND FiNIAL 379 

As the middle arc 1 1° represents the stationary point 1, in O' N' 
in elevation, take four times the number of spaces . contained in 
the half section through o 1, and, starting at point 1 in pattern 
for 7, set off the spaces, from 1 to 6 to 1 to 6 to 1°, From the 
center point S' draw a line through 1° cutting the inner arc at 
O* and the outer arc at N'. Allow lap on the end for riveting 
and an edge on the inside curve for joining as in diagram X for 
7'. Then N* N" O' O' will be the pattern for part 7 in front 
elevation. In part 6, O' P' represents the amount of material 
required to form up O P, while « 1, 5 represents the half section 
through 1 n. The radii used to strike the pattern for 6 are shown 
by T P', T 1 and T O* at the left of the elevation and by similar 
letters and figures in the pattern for 6, the girth being laid off 
along the arc 1 1° equal to four times the spaces contained in the 
half section through 1 n. Edges are allowed to this pattern, 
shown by the dotted lines, as in the diagram X. R' P' in 5 of 
the elevation is drawn parallel to R P and represents the girth 
required to form the mold RIP. 1 being the stationary point, 
r 1 5 represents the half section through r 1, while P' R' ex- 
tended to the center line at U gives the radii to strike the pattern. 
These radii are equal to U R', U 1 and U P', shown by similar 
letters and figures in pattern for 5 shown at the upper left hand 
comer. 

On the arc 1 1° in the pattern for 5, lay off four times the num- 
ber of spaces contained in the half section through r 1 in elevation 
and allow lap and edge to the pattern for 5 as in diagram X. This 
completes all the patterns required for the molds, cutting one of 5, 
6 and 7 from sheet metal to complete the cove struck from the 
center b in elevation. 

The length of the vertical strips C, D and E in the elevation 
are obtained as follows : As the distance from ^ to / for C is 2'/2 
in., multiply this by 3.1416, thus 2.5 X 3.1416 = 7.854 or 7 8/10; 
cut one strip 8 in. long whjch allows 2/10 in. lap, by the width 
from t to e which is J4 '"■ As the diameter of strip D is 8 in. 
then 8 X 3.1416 = 25.1328 in.; add 0.17 in. for lap, making the 
length 26 in. and the width J4 '"-> pl"s 14 in. on each side for 
edges, as called for by D' in diagram X. The length of strip E 
in the elevation is found by multiplying the diameter 12 by 3.1416, 
which equals 37.6992 in,; allowing 0.3 for lap, cut one strip 
38 in. by 3 in. plus ^ in. flange as in E', diagram X, or 38 
in. X 3)i in. The pattern for the ring F' in diagram X is 
obtained by using as radii W X and W Y in elevation and with 



380 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

L on the center line A B as center, describe the arcs X' X' and 
Y" Y^, heing careful that the radial lines Y' L and L Y' form a 
right angle. Add the outer edge shown by the dotted line, as 
in diagram X, and add a lap to one end of the pattern at X' Y'. 
Then X' Y' Y' X' will be the one quarter pattern for the ring, 
four of which will be required to complete the full circle. 

The student should now transfer the paper patterns to the 
metal, and if, for example, pattern for 8 were being transferred, 
then all that is necessary to prick through are the points i" f f" 
i" and the center point M'. The paper is removed, and, using 
dividers or sheet metal trammel as explanned in Fig. 519, arcs 
are struck. 

When cutting the flaring patterns, the largest flare should be 




cut first, and the smaller ones laid inside of it, to avoid waste, as 
explained in Fig. S20. • 

The vertical strips C, D and E in the elevation, Fig, 544, are 
shaped to the required circle on the forming rolls in Fig. 522, 
while the flaricig patterns can be formed or rolled on the blow- 
horn stake in Fig. 521 or the rolls in Fig. 522, 

The flares for the ball and vertical strips in Fig. 544 need only 
be soldered, but the flares required for the bead, cove and quarter 
round, numbered 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, must be tacked with solder, 
then rivet holes punched in the laps, placing two 1-lb. rivets in 
each lap. being careful that the laps are placed toward the inside. 

After ihe joints are rivetcil, the rivets as well as the flanges are 
soldered to avoid bursting the seam when the strain of raising 
and stretching is put on the various flares. The method of rais- 
ing the 5-in. ball is .'^intilar to that explained in raising the 10-in. 
ball except, of course, that a smaller raising hammer will be used 



Construction and Patterns for a Round Finial 381 




and that the concave surface hammered into the block must 
correspond in size to part of the profile of a S-in. ball. 

Wlien preparing the lead block to raise mold 8, Fig. 544, this 
should be done as in Fig. 545, in which B represents a lead block, 
A the finished fJare for mold 8 and the stay is shown in the lower 
left-hand corner, after which flare A is molded. 

In raising a ball, the concave 
surface can be hammered at any 
part in the block and is a part 
of the required size sphere; in 
raising mold 8 tlie concave sur- 
face is usually hammered along a 
corner of the block, making curve 
a correspond to the stay, and 

Fio. S4<. Dreiiing Quarter Round CUFVe b C tO CUrvC fc^ C' in fiarC 

""'''"*■ A. This curve or profile ham- 

mered in the block B represents the shape of the mold into which 
the outside of the flare A is laid and raised with the hammer, 
striking from the inside. If the distance of the curve in block B 
is about 3 in., this will be sufficient. The flare A is raised in a 
manner similar to diagrams 
C, D and E, Fig. 524, strik- 
ing along the center of the 
flare, gradually going 
deeper, until the proper 
depth is obtained. Care 
must be taken in raising a 
mold similar to 8, Fig. 544, 
or as shown reduced by X, 
Fig. 545, to keep the mold 
to a true circle, as its tend- 
ency is to become elliptical. 
If the operator when raising, would strike each blow of equal 
force, the result would be a true circle. But the chances are 
that some blows are struck with more force than others, and 
that part of the metal which is struck the hardest turns up the 
quickest and the result is an elliptical instead of a true circular 
shape. 

After the first operation has been gone through in raising, and 
the flare has a tendency to turn elliptical, it should be set upon 
the level bench, as in diagram C, and using the mallet D strike 
slight blows along the upper edge at c, until the flare becomes 




384 Horn iHsnvcnoii rat Shot Mital y/xmrnxas 



and fingers in the left hand, light steady blows are struck along 
the outer edges of the flare, shown by the amall dashes a to b. Fig. 
549. This is continued along the entire outer curve, striking aw 
blow next to the other, after which the flare is reversed and the 
same operations performed along the inner edge of the flare, beii^ 




Fio. 551. Jotninc dw SccticDt of Ibc IfoUinc Fio. SS3. 




Futi of FioU. 



careful to have a slight space between the flare and blow-horn 
stake at d, diagram A, Fig. 549, which allows the metal to turn 
so that when the outer an<1 inner edges of the flare have been 
stretched in the first o{>eration it will look similar to Z, Fig. 549. 
That is, having a slight curve at a and b. The slight blows on 




the lilow-lioni Mnkv arc cuiiiiniied. striking toward the center or 
stationary line of iho flare, tipping tbe flare slightly, so that when 
struck the metal will Kradii.illy stretch and turn to the required 
curvf, set- Kifj. 550. The slay is now in'ed, and if the flare has 
the proper curve, the stretching mallet H. Fig. 547, is used to 
dress or finish the mold smooth. Fig. 551, which shows the stu- 
'**nt using the mallet li to finish the mold. 



386 HouE Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

The vertical strips C, D and E are formed In the rolls and sold- 
ered. Strip C has no edges, but strip D should have an edge 
turned inward at e and another turned outward at d; as edges 
e and d are only to be % in. wide, they are turned as required 
on the small turner. Strip E must have a flange turned outward 
at a ^ in. wide, and this flange as well as any other which may 
occur in circular work, is done as follows : Set the gage on the 
small turner J^ in. from the edge of the face, and turn a slight 
groove in strip E, which acts as a guide in turning the flange on 
the square head stake. Solder ring F in position, which holds 
the strip to a true circle. 

The three operations in stretching the circular flange, whether 




id Strelcbed Moldinss. 



J^ in. or 1 inch wide, are shown in Fig. 554, In the illustrations 
F represents the ring soldered to the strip, a in the first opera- 
tion shows the slight groove previously obtained in the turner on 
strip a b. Placing strip a b in the position shown, with the guide 
groove a placed ovtT the corner of the square head stake A, slight 
blows are struck with the stretching hammer B, until flange a is 
in the position shown dotted by c. Kach blow must be struck 
with equal force alongside of the other, so that sufficient material 
is obtained to make the turn. After the flange has been turned 
to the position c b, it is placed on the stake d in the second opera- 
tion and flanged down with tlie hammer to the position e, after 
which the flange is dressed smooth and flat with the mallet, 
shown in the third operation. 



Construction and Patterns for a Round Finial 387 

In turning any flange of this kind, no more of the metal should 
be stretched than is absolutely necessary, so that when the flange 
is dressed with the mallet C, a smooth, even flange is the result 
and not wavy and uneven, caused by too much stretching of the 
metal. 

All the various parts are now ready to be assembled and are 
^hown ready to be joined in their relative positions in Fig. SS3, 
each part being numbered and lettered as in the detail drawing. 

Assuming that ball 1, 2, 3; bead 4, mold 5, 6, 7 have been 
joined and ring F soldered to strip E, then the balance of the 
finial is joined as follows : Solder strip D to the bottom of cove 
7; then the top of 5 to the bottom of bead 4. Solder strip 
C to the bottom of the ball; then strip C to bead 4. Solder 
strip D to the quarter-round 8, and 8 to ring F, which com- 
pletes it. 




Fio. 557. Eiamptei to Shew Diffcrcnee Bdweco Rabiid and Stretched Holdingg. 

Where the head of a rivet projects toward the outside on any 
of the riveted seams, it should be filed smooth, seams scraped 
and sand-papered, and when completed should show like the fin- 
ished round finial in Fig. 555. 

The student not having any experience outside of the finial 
completed in the previous exercise, he naturally does not know 
when a mold must be raised or stretched, if the profile of the 
mold was different from that in the finial just completed and 
to make him proficient in this, two rules are given in connection 
with Figs. 556 to 558 



388 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Rule I. ^^'hen the diameters of the edges of (fie averaged flare, 
C and D, Fig. 556, are less than the diameters of the edges of the 
finished mold, B and A, then flare C D must be stretched, so as 
to increase the diameters at C and D equal to those at B and A. 

Rule II. When the diameters of the edges of the averaged 
flare O and P are greater than the diameters of the edges of the 
finished mold A and J, then flare O P must be raised, so as to 
decrease the diameters at O and P, and draw them inward, equal 
to the diameters at A and J. 




To prove these two nilts the elevation of a round um has been 
drawn in l''ig. 556. liaviiig a profile different from those already 



Starting with ihe top mold 1. draw a line from A to B; bisect 
mold A D anil obtain u: through a parallel to A B draw D C and 
make ci C ami w P ci|nal to the curve a B and a A. By measure- 
nienis, it will Ix' found thai the somi-dianieters H C and F D are 
less than G H and E A. showini;. in Rule I, that flare C D must be 
stretched. In mold 2. one soani lias been placed along S J, but 
in practice more scams would be placed and developed as in Fig, 
544. Draw a line from A to J in mold 2, Fig. 556; bisect curve 
A J and obtain b ; through /> parallel to A J draw O P, making 



Construction and Patterns for a Round Finial 389 

b P and b O equal to the girth of the mold b J and b A. Notice 
that the distances from F to O and R to P are greater than E 
to A and S to J showing, as explained in Rule II, that flare O P 
must be raised or the edges O and P drawn inward. 

Following the same principle to the lower part of mold 2, 
notice that W T and V U of the flare are greater than S J and 
Y K of the mold, showing that flare T U must be raised. But 
one seam has been placed along /i M in mold 3. Obtain the bi- 
secting points V and w through which the averaged lines X i and 
n r are drawn. Notice that the distances V X and e i in the 
upper flare are less than V L and /i M in the mold, and that the 
distances m n and S r in the lower flare are less than h M and d 
N in the lower mold, showing that both the flares for mold 2 
must be stretched. 

To. obtain the center points to strike the patterns for these 
flares, it would only be necessary to extend the lines of the flares 
until they meet the center line of the urn and follow the rule for 
obtaining the girth of the flaring patterns, as explained ^^ Fig. 
544 in connection with raised molds 4 and 8 and stretched molds 
5, 6 and 7. 

Fig. 557 is another example giving the elevation of a round 
urn having an ogee, bead and an ogee reversed. Bead 5 is sim- 
ilar to the one made of metal in Fig. 544 and an explanation is 
omitted. Assuming that mold 4 will have a seam along M B and 
mold 6, a seam along i R. draw A B and B C in mold 4 and P R 
and R S in mold 6 and bisect each semi-mold as o b c and d. 
Through a fr c and d, draw flares E F. G H, W V and U T, fol- 
lowing the rules in the detail in Fig. S44, of their proper girth as 
previously explained, when Fig. 5S7 will show whether they are 
to be raised or stretched. Thus J E and L F are less than K A and 
M B, proving that F E must be stretched. N G and O H are 
greater than M B and X C, showing that flare G H must be raised. 
In the reversed ogee, / W and ; V are less than e P and i R, show- 
ing that V W must be stretched. Again, k U and k T are greater 
in semi-diameter than ( R and / S, showing that U T must be 
raised. 

Using this method the home student should have no difficulty 
in finding whether molds are to be raised or stretched in circular 
work when made by hand, obtaining the pattern and doing the 
mechanical work, as explained in connection with the finished 
finial in Fig. 555. 

Another profile not yet explained is a circular ogee made in 



390 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

one piece, as in Fig. 558, the rule also applying to a reversed 
ogee having this shape. It is seldom an t^ee is hammered in 
one piece, unless its center between the top and bottom curves 
runs on a flare as from C to 1. 

Assuming that the shape of the flare is from A to B, then the 
paltern is obtained as follows: Draw a line through flare C 1 
until it meets the center line at D. Take the girth of the upper 
mold from C to A, and place it on the averaged line from C to 
F, also the girth of the lower mold from I to B and place it from 
1 to E. Using D as center and radii equal to D E, D 1, D C and 
D F, draw arcs E E", 1 6', C C and F F'. As C and 1 will 
remain stationary, the stretchout of the pattern can be taken 
from either of these points, in this case from point 1. 

From 1 draw the horizontal line until it intersects the center 
line at a, using it as a center, and with a 1 as radius, describe the 
quarter circle I 6, which divide into equal spaces. On arc I 6', 
place the girth of the quarter circle 1 6, and through 6' draw a 
radial line to the center D, extending it upward until the outer 
arc is intersected at F' and the inner arc at E'. Then F F', E' 
E will be the one-quarter pattern. 

If the quarter circle had been drawn on the line C b, using b 
as center and 6 C as radius, the girth of quarter circle so drawn 
would be placed on the arc C C in the pattern. As C 1 is 
straight, it remains stationary, requiring no stretching, and to 
find which part of the ogee is to be raised or stretched bear in 
mind the two rules previously given. 

As the semi-diameter F G is less than A ), it shows that the 
flare from F to C must be stretched. As E H of the flare is 
greater than B L of the mold, it shows that the flare from 1 to E 
must be drawn inward or raised. The profiles given, cover all 
molds which may arise. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

Patterns for a Center Piece 

The third and last exercise in hand hammer work is shown in 
Fig. 559, which is the 2-in. scale drawing given to the student at 




the New York Trade School. It is called the center piece, such 
as might be used in a metal ceiling or circular panel in cornice 



392 Home Instruction fob Sheet Metal Workers 

work, and gives (he principles to be employed when making cir- 
cular molding by hand for pediments or window caps. 

In the center of the panel is an eight-pointed raised star. The 
method of obtaining the pattern for it can be applied to any star, 
having any number of points or any height, and will be solved 
by triangulation. 

Above the front elevation a section through center A B is 
shown, a and b representing the centers for striking the curves 
of the molds. The centers for striking the flares are c and e, , 
and the method of using them will be explained in Fig. 560, in 
which the center line A B is first drawn (see Folder 14). 

Scaling Ihe elevation in Fig. 559, the extreme diameter of the 
panel will be found to measure 1 ft. 6 in. Set the compasses to 
a 9-in. radius, and with C on the center line, A B, Fig. 560, as 
center, draw the semi-circle A" A'^ and through the center C, 
at right angles to A B, draw the line D E, as only one-half eleva- 
tion will be required in the detail. At right angles to D E from 
A" and A^ erect lines at pleasure at A" and A'^ in the sectional 
view. With the 2-in. scale rule take the various heights and pro- 
jections of the mold in the scale drawing in Fig. 559, as shown 
by full size nieasurements in Fig. 560. To the left of the center 
line, the centers with which the quarter round and cove are struck 
are shown by heavy dots, the one at a being for the quarter round. 

A tracing of this mold is placed in its proper position to the 
right of the center line. The solid line A" to D° to D^ to A^ 
then represents the sectional view of the center piece through 
line D E in elevation. From members B° C° and D" to the left 
project lines to the center line D E, as shown by similar letters. 
Using C as center, with radii equal to C B", C C* and C D°, draw 
the semi-circles, which completes the half elevation of the center 
piece, minus the star, which will now be drawn. 

Scale the diameters of the star in the drawing in Fig. 559 at 
both inner and outer potnls, also its height in the section, and draw 
the half stqr and its seciion in Fig. 560, as follows: Using C as 
center, with a radius equal to 4(4 in., draw semi-circle A E° in 
elevation. WitJi the same center with a 3-in. radius, draw an- 
other semi-circle F° K°. The former gives the length of the hip 
lines, and the latttr ihe valley lines. 

.•\s the star is to have eight points, divide the semi-circle A E° 

into four spaces. IJ° C D°, from which draw lines to the center 

point C, crossing the inner semi-circle at G° H" and J". Bisect 

G°, G° }I°, H" J° and ]" K°, obtaining points P", N°, 



Patterns for a Center Piece 393 

M" and L", and from these points, draw lines to the center point 
C. Connect by lines drawn from A to P" to B° to N", etc., 
which completes the half elevation of the star. Draw the sec- 
tion of the star directly above the elevation. A' C" A", its total 
hight being 2j^ in. 

The entire star will be made of eight separate points, the pat- 
tern for one point being developed as follows : The true length 
of the line CA in elevation is shown by C" A* in the sectional 
view. A P" in the elevation shows its true length. The true 
length of C P" in the elevation is found by taking this 
distance and placing it from C" to P" in the section; then a line 
drawn from P* to C will show the true length. These three 
true lengths are all that are needed in drawing the pattern. 

Draw any vertical line C A in diagram X equal to C* A* in the 
section. With radius equal to A P° in elevation and A in X , 
as center, draw arcs P and P'. With radius equal to C P* in 
the sectional view, and C, in X, as center, intersect the arcs 
previously drawn at P and P'. Draw lines from C to P to A to 
P' to C and at right angles to the lines P A and A P^ from 
points P, A and A, P', draw the lines Pr,As,As' and P' / equal 
to the distance of the rise A* B' in the sectional view or yi in. 
Connect the points in X from r" to s' and s to r. 

Bends are made along Ihe lines shown by heavy dots, as will 
be explained When bending the star along the line C A a stay 
is required to find at what angle the bend should be made, and is 
obtained as follows: At righl angles to the hip line E" C in the 
half elevation, from the point in the valley line L°, erect a ver- 
tical line until it intersects the base of the star at L* in the sec- 
tional view and from this intersection at right angles to A" C" 
draw the line L" L^. Take the distance from L" to L" and place 
it in the half elevation, L^ lo L* and make L' to L" equal to L' 
L°, Draw a line from L" to L' to L', shown shaded, and repre- 
sents the true section through any one of the points from L" to 
M" at right angles to the hip line, as A' C" in the sectional view. 

The student should bear in mind when finding this true sec- 
tion, that it must always be taken on a line drawn at right angles 
to hip line E° C on the line of the longest point of the star. 

If the pattern X is true, and the section L" L' L^ has been 
accurately drawn, then the distance in the pattern from P to t 
to P' will equal the girth in the section from L° to L' to L', and 
will prove the accuracy of both. Developing the patterns for 
the curved moldings is now in order. 



394 Home Instsuction fob Sheet Metal Workers 

The home student must remember what was said aoout de- 
termining whether the molds require raising or stretching, and 
find this by making a tracing of the molds in diagram Y, where, 
by following the rule previously given, it will be found that the 
edges of the flares at 1°, 2° and 3°, 4° are greater in diameter 
than the edges of the finished molds at 1, 2 and 3, 4, showing that 
the flares must be drawn inward or raised. 

Knowing that the work must be raised, the rule given for 
raising is now applied. Starting with the inner mold or cove 
at the right of the sectional view, draw a line from o to & ; bisect 
this line and obtain c. From c at right angles to a b draw the 
line c d until it intersects the mold at d. Divide this space c d 
into as many parts as there are inches in the half diameter c I, 
which contains 6^ in., showing that c d must be divided into 
seven parts, omitted for want of space. Through the first part 
nearest to mold d, draw a line parallel to o & until it inter- 
sects the center line A B at H. Take the girth of the mold from 
d to a and d to b and place it from d to a' and d to b'. From the 
first point d through which the averaged line was drawn, drop a 
line into the elevation, until it intersects the line D E at d'. Then 
using C as center with C rf* as radius, describe the quarter circle 
d" d" and divide it into equal spaces from 1 to 9. With any 
\Kimt II' as center and radii equal to H ft' H ef and H a', draw 
the arcs b" &", d° d'-' and a" a". Starting at 1 on the middle arc 
d" d'', because the quarter circle d' d' in elevation was taken on 
the middle point d in the flare in the sectional view, lay olT four 
times the number of spaces contained in the quarter circle d' (T 
as in the pattern for inside mold from 1 to 9 to 1 to 9 to I on 
the middle arc d° d''. From the center H' through the extreme 
points 1 and 1 draw radial lines, cutting the inner and outer arcs. 

Then o" a'' b" b' will be the pattern for the inner mold, to 
which a lap is allowed for riveting, shown by the dotted line. 
I( it is desired to make this mold in two or four parts it would 
only be necessary to lay olT on ihe middle arc rf° d", the number 
of spaas containod in the quarter circle d' d" for a one-fourth 
pattern, or twice the amount for the half i>attern. 

In precisely the same manner is the pattern obtained for the 
outer mold. A line is drawn from r to / at the left of the sec- 
tional view, bisected at i and the periiendicular ( /' drawn, which 
in turn is divided into eight parts, because the semi-diameter 
from ( to the center line m measures but 8>^ in. Through the 
part nearest to the mold ] the averaged line /' e' is drawn until 



Patterns for a Center Piece 395 

it meets the center line A B at J. From the point / a line is 
projected to the elevation at o' and the quarter circle o' o" drawn, 
using C as center, and the quadrant divided in equal parts. The 
girth of the semi-molds ;' e and ; / are placed as shown by ; c' and 
/ /'. With radii equal to J e', J ; and J /', using any point as J' as 
center, the arcs e° c", j° j'" and f° /" are drawn. On the center arc 
j° j" four times the girth of the quadrant o' o" in elevation is 
placed, and radial lines drawn from the center point J'. Then 
/° p C 6° with lap added, is the pattern for the outer curve. 

This completes the patterns for the molds and star, eight 
points like X being cut from sheet metal with prick-marks in 
same, and one of each of the flares. A flat disk of sheet metal 
must now be cut whose diameter will be 18 in. as in the half 
elevation, and on this metal disk the various circles must be 
drawn shown by B" C° and D° in the half elevation which were 
obtained from similar letters in the sectional view. When these 
circles are cut, there will then be three rings and one center disk, 
numbered r, 2, 3 and 4 in the half elevation. The circle marked 
S° in the elevation will not be cut out of the metal disk; it only 
shows the line on which the lower edge of the outer mold will be 
soldered by the J^-in. margin A° in the sectional view. Each of 
the rings 1, 2 and 3 will be stripped as indicated in diagram Z. 
in which the horizontal lines represent the rings, also numbered 
1, 2 and 3, and the vertical lines the heights of the strips to which 
1/16-in. edges are allowed, except that on the outer strip the 
lower edge is y% in. Full size widths are given, showing the edges 
allowed. 

When cutting these strips, they should be cut on the squaring 
shears, or must be cut carefully by hand to be perfectly straight, 
if no squaring shears are available. The length of each strip 
is found by multiplying its diameter by 3.1416 as explained in the 
exercise on the round finial. 

For example, the 15/16 in. strip required in diagram Z is 18 
in. in diameter as in the sectional view. Therefore 18 X 3.1416 
^ 56.5488. Cut this strip 57 in. long, which will allow for a 
lap of 0.46 in. for soldering. Strips of this kind need not be in 
one continuous length, but are usually cut the width of the sheet 
or 30 in., cutting as many as are required. 

How rings 1, 2, 3 and disk 4 in Fig. 560 are cut out with the 
hand shears is explained in connection with Fig. 561, in which a 
reduced reproduction of the full size elevation and section of the 
strips are shown. After cutting the metal disk, cut a slot from the 



396 Home Instruction for Sheet .Vetal Workers 



outer edge to ring 3, from A to B, then turning the shears, cut 
along the various circles and obtain rings 1, 2, 3 and disk 4, on 
which the star is soldered. The full reduced section of the 
vertical strips in their various positions is shown by similar num- 
bers in the section. After the proper strips have been cut and 
the l/I6-in, edges turned up on the folder or cornice brake, they 
are passed through the forming rolls 
xfii ^ 4 ^ Al '" ^"'S- ^^2' '" which A is the strip and 

t1 i ; Swition \ \ " a' and b' each a 1/16-in. edge. Before 
passing the strip through the rolls, 
the top and bottom rolls are opened 
to the width of a, or as much as the 
combined width of a' and b', then 
raising the rear roll until the proper 
diameter is obtained. The best way 
to proceed in soldering these strips is 
to lay the ring on a smooth, flat sur- 
Eievotion face on the bench, then set the edge on 

Km. S6t, '-"""jy^^"'^ "'"K' ""^ the inside and tack on the proper strip, 
being careful that the outer surface of 
the ring is smooth and flat, without buckles, after which the joint 
is soldered on the inside. Join these strips as in Fig, 563. Join 
the strips to ring 2, the inner strip to ring 3, then the star, when 
con) pie ted, to disk 4. 

^.^ /l 4 -_i-r5^^ 1 

^^P^^ i.U^v::::J..i 

Fio. 562. Forming Edjffd Sirii>j. FiQ, S63. Soldering Snip* lo Rinji. 




Join the outer strip to ring 1, turning the lower J^-in. flange a 
in the position b after the strip lias been soldered to ring 1. 
When flanging a to the position b, use the same methods as ex- 
plained with Fig. 554. Having soldered the strips as in Fig. 
563, drop disk 4 on edges d d and solder inside; drop ring 3 3 
into edges e c and solder inside, then drop ring 1 I into edges 
c c, also soldering on the inside. When this is completed the 
square angles will look as in the photograph in Fig, 566, which 

minus the star. 



398 Home Instruction fok Sheet Metai. Wobkeks 

a ceiling piece a hole must be cut through the star to receive the 
gas pipe or electric -wires, then nailed to the furring strips and 
the metal ceiling titted around it. 

Should the molds be different from those in Fig. 560, tbey are 
averaged in a manner similar to those in Figs. 556, 557 and 558 
and developed as explained in connection with Fig. 560. When, 
however, a mold or bead E is required as in diagram D, Fig. 568, 
which would necessitate too much time and labor in hammering; 
this is usually overcome by sub- 
stituting a zinc or lead pipe, bend- 
ing it to the required curve in the 
manner explained in connecticm 
with bending the zinc stems in 
the exercise on the upper part of 
the ornamental finial. 

Having bent the bead to the 

proper curve, small copper cleats 

^^^_^^____ about J^ in. long and J4 '"- wide 

f*^ ^fWlIir ^^^ soldered to the bead at in- 

with a sharp narrow chisel in the 
\'m. 568. Adichini > Cufvrd Br»d. positiou c iu the bead F and sol- 
dering therein the copper cleat 
d. In corresponding position in the stripped panel, slots are cut 
as shown by b in diagram C, after which bead B is fastened by 
drawing taut the copper cleat and turning over at a in diagram A. 
The cove A is fastened as explained by c d. Fig. 565. 

While a full circle in the work just completed forms a circu- 
l;ir p.iiicl or renter piece, the arc of the panel or center piece 
also forniK wlut is known as a circular pediment in cornice and 
wintliiw cap work. 




CHAPTER XXXIII 
Making Curved Moldings and Window Caps 

The application of circular molding to window caps and arch 
work is explained in Fig. 569 (see Folder 14). This includes the 
method of finding the radii for developing the patterns and de- 
termining which flare must be raised or stretched. 

The rule to be employed in developing the molds when made 
by hand in circular pediments or window caps, whether the mold 
has the shape of a cove, quarter round or ogee will be explained. 

Assume that V i i' h W is the background of a pediment or the 
shape of the window opening over which the mold is to be placed, 
the arc t t' h being struck from the center point C. Through C 
draw the vertical center line A B and at right angles to A B from 
i' draw the horizontal line to the right indefinitely. Above this 
line at o* draw the section of the mold a' V containing the cove 
mold D E. 

As the mold will be made by hand and soldered in separately 
as shown, construct the square angles as at 2'. From the various 
members in the cove mold project lines to the center line A B, 
shown by the heavy dots, using C as center with the various dots 
as radii, draw arcs. Take the vertical heights of the mold indi- 
cated by the dots on the line / k, and place point / upon hne i V, as 
shown by the various dots on /' k'. Through these dots parallel 
to t k' draw lines intersecting similar arcs a d c i on the left and 
b c f h on the right, which gives the miter line or line of joint 
between the curved and horizontal molds. 

In making this curved mold by hand, a h h i would be cut from 
sheet metal, allowing laps along the miter a i and k b, after which 
arcs d c and e f are cut. Arc a b c d \s shown in section by 1'; 
the arc d e f chy the vertical face 2', and arc e f It i by 3'. Strips 
would be soldered to these arcs as high as indicated by the hori- 
zontal lines in the cove mold section E, allowing edges for solder- 
ing as previously described. While the curved molding is 
stripped in squares as in section E, the horizontal molding is 
formed in one piece shown by section T, in its proper position 
and being a proper tracing of section E. 

The pattern for this horizontal mold is obtained as follows; 
399 



400 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

Divide the profile T into equal parts from 1 to 8, from which 
draw horizontal lines until they intersect the miter line b c f h. 
At right angles to the line of the mold, draw the girth line U V 
upon which place the girth of profile T, shown by similar num- 
bers. Through these small figures at right angles to U V draw 
lines which intersect lines drawn parallel to U V from similar 
intersections on the miter line b h. A line traced through points 
&' 1 8 h', will give the desired miter cut. 

The desired number of pieces are now cut and formed after 
the stay or profile T. When the curved mold has been stripped 
the horizontal molds are joined to it, being careful that the bends 
in both molds lie in horizontal planes, when a chalk line is held 
across same as from /' lo h'. The joints or miters are now sold- 
ered, after which the cove can be put in place. 

The pattern for the cove D E is obtained as follows : Draw a 
line from D to E, which bisect and obtain F, through which, paral- 
lel to E D, draw a line, until it meets the horizontal, line drawn 
through C, the center from which the arcs in elevation were 
struck, at P. Take the girth of the cove from F to D and F to 
E, and place it from F to H and F to G. From G or H (in this 
case G) draw a horizontal line until it meets the center line A B 
in elevation at 7. Then using C as center with C 7 as radius, 
draw the arc from miter line to miter line, shown dotted. Divide 
one-half of this into etjual spaces from 1 to 7, which is used in 
finding the girth for the pattern. Using P as center, with radii 
etjual to P G and P H, draw the arcs, and on the inner arc, set 
off twice the girth of I to 7 in elevation from 1 to 7 to 1 in the 
pattern, and add an extra space for lap 1 to 0. Draw a radial 
line from P through O, until it intersects the outer arc. Particu- 
lar care need not be taken in laying off the length in the pattern, 
as it is belter to have it a little longer, as the ends have a tendency 
to curl upward when being formed with t!ie hammer and require 
trimming at the ends to fit the miter on the horizontal mold. 
By referring lo the section, it will be found that the edges of 
the flare at H and G arc greater in diameter than the edges of 
the finished mold, showing that the blank or pattern must be 
raised as previously described. 

When the section has a quarter round, as section J, the girth 

N is obtained as before, and R becomes the center from which to 

strike the arcs M S. Either point O or N could be carried to the 

center line in elevation, and the arcs drawn, from which the 

•th of the pattern could be obtained as explained in connection 



Making Curved Moldings and Window Caps 401 

with curve 1 7 in elevation. As the upper edge of the flare N" 
N and the lower edge 0° O are less in diameter than correspond- 
ing edges from the center line to the finished mold at K and 
L, this shows that the pattern when fully developed must be 
stretched to increase its diameter. 

Section X shows an ogee mold hammered in one piece. A line 
is drawn through the flare a b until the center line is intersected 
at W. The girth is taken of the mold from b to c and a to d and 
placed from b to c' and from a to d'. As the diameter from the 
center line d" to d' is greater than the diameter to the finished 
mold at d, the outer part of pattern Y must be raised or drawn 
in to a smaller diameter, while the center flare from a to & re- 
mains stationary'. As the diameter from the center line c" to c' 
is less than the diameter to the finished mold at c, the inner part 
of the pattern must be stretched or increased to a larger diameter. 
That part of the pattern from a to d' is raised on the block, while 
the lower part from b to c' is stretched on the blow-hom stake, 
being careful that from a \o b remains stationary. 

While in the full circular panel special rules were employed 
for obtaining the patterns for raised and stretched work, it is not 
necessary where there are arcs of circles, as the rules given in 
Figs. 569, 570 and 571. are perfectly true and practical. If the 
home student, having made a detail drawing from Fig. 569 to 
whatever size desired, will again refer to the shop detail in Fig. 
560 and assume that D E is the center Hue of the window cap, 
D* A' H» E* the horizontal mold and D''" to A''" of the sectional 
view the section of the cap mold, it will prove that the principles 
heretofore stated are similar whether the mold has a full circle, 
forming a panel or has the arc of a circle, forming a window cap 
or pediment. The heights H= G» F» E' are obtained from A''' B° 
C° D", on the line D E at the left of the half elevation, and lines 
from these points, H', etc., are drawn at right angles to D E until 
they intersect similar curved lines at A» B* C* and D*, which 
forms the miter line. 

CURVED .MOLDINGS FOR CORNERS OF BUILDINGS 

In Fig. 570 (see Folder 14} are shown the various methods of 
construction and developments of different shaped molds made by 
hand when curved mtildings pass around the comer of a building 
as .shown in the inverted plan. 

Draw the plan view of the wall line 8 H / c »» n to its proper 
dimension, d' representing the center point from which the arc 



402 Home Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

I c is struck, the radius being obtained from the plans or meas- 
ured at the building, as described in a following exercise. In 
line with the wall H 8 place the profile of the curved mold A, 
showing the face, and sink strips, also the cove B C, which is 
put in separately. Below the section of the cur\'ed mold A, made 
up in pieces, draw the section ot the horizontal or straight mold- 
ing, shou-n in one piece by L. both profiles being similar in height 
and projection. As the angle 8 H / in plan is a right angle, then 
from H draw the miter line H J at an angle of 45 deg. Divide 
the profile L into equal spaces, from 1 to 8, from which points 
drop vertical lines in the plan until they intersect the miter line H J 
from 1 to 8. Parallel to H / from the intersections on H J, draw 
lines indefinitely. Take the projections of all the spaces on o fr 
and place them on any radial line, from the center if, from a' to 
b'. Using if' as center with the dots on a' b' as radii, describe 
arcs until they meet similar numbered lines drawn froin the miter 
fine II J. Trace a line from I to i, which will be the miter line 
between the curved and straight molds. 

A mistake often made by the student is to take the projection 
of the mold, as from a to b' , draw the arc through b' and where 
it intersects at i, to draw a miter line from i to /. By inspection 
of the drawing it will be found that the miter line i / is not a 
straight line but is irregular, caused by having different length 
radii when striking the arcs. In this case the full plan is drawn, 
which is not net.essiiry in developing the full-size patterns; all 
that is required is one-Iiali the plaii. which can be transferred to 
the opposite side when laying oui the curved mold on sheet metal. 
Cut from sheet metal that part indicated by I i h c in plan, allow- 
ing a lap at the miters, and along the arcs / k and g j; then e I k f 
represents that plane, in ihe section shown hy I; f k j g, that in 
section by II and g j i h that in section by HI. The heights of the 
vertical strips are shown by A. F, and X, allowing edges for 
s<»ldering. 

How the pattern for cove iwM it C is developed and the work- 
ing ot the cove doieniiiiicd is as follows: Draw a line from B tu 
C and parallel to this line thrmigli the center of the mold at D. 
draw ilie averaged line E I'. I'ind the girth from D to H and D to 
C and place it from D to E an<l \) to F. Take Ihe distance from 
the center point d' in plan to the wall line a' and place it from and 
at right angles to the wall line in the section from a" to d". 
Through d" draw the vertical line parallel to the wall line, marked 
"Tenter hue." This method saves time; the profile can be placed 



Making Curved Moldings and Window Caps 403 

on any part of the paper, and by simply taking the distance from 
a' to d' in plan and setting it off from a corresponding point in 
the section the line drawn through d" is obtained. Extend the 
averaged line E F until i; meets the line drawn through d" at G. 
Using G as center draw the two arcs from F and E, To find the 
amount of material to complete the curve in the pattern, drop a 
vertical line from F in the flare until it meets the miter line H J 
in plan, from which point parallel to H / draw a line until it cuts 
the miter line / i at 1. Then using d' as center and d' 1 as radius, 
draw the arc to the opposite miter line at 8, Divide 1, 8 into 
equal parts and place this girth in the pattern on the arc drawn 
from F, from 1 to 8, and add an extra space for lap 8 to 0. From 
G through O draw the radial line, meeting the outer arc, which 
completes the pattern. 

As the diameters of the edges of the flare E E' and F F', are 
less than the diameter of the finished mold at B and C, the pat- 
tern must be stretched so as to increase in diameter to meet B and 
C. This cove mold when completed is not soldered to the 
stripped work until the horizontal returns have been joined to 
the stripped curves, after which the cove is trimmed to fit the 
miter on the straight molds. While the pattern for the cove is 
in one piece, where the curve I e in plan is large, the curved mold 
pattern is cut from iron, in 30-in. lengths, which allows the pat- 
tern to be handled with ease. The joints in the curved mold 
must be neatly done so that Ihc seam will not be noticed. 

The method of obtaining the pattern for the return O in plan 
is as follows: At right angles to the line of the mold / H draw 
the line M N upon which place the girth of the mold L, at right 
angles to Si N, as shown by similar numbers on M N, through 
which intersect with lines drawn parallel to M N from similar 
numbered intersections on the miter lines H J and i /. A line 
traced through points will give P R S T will be the pattern for the 
return O. The cut from R to S also answers for the miter cut on 
the molding O' in plan on the miter line J II. 

If this curved mold contained a quarter round as in section W 
the pattern would be obtained by drawing a line from atob and 
parallel ia a b through the bisection of the mold draw the line a' 
b' equal to the girth oi a c b, extending a b' until it intersects the 
center hne at F', the center point from which to strike the pattern. 
The edges of the flare a' b' are greater in diameter than the edges 
of the finished mold at a and b, consequently the flare will be 
drawn inward al the eilges lu a smaller dianidiT; 



404 Home: Instruction for Sheet Metal Workers 

When the section contains an ogee mold as in U, the flare of 
the ogee in the center being such that it can be made in one piece, 
then a line is drawn through the flaring part and extended until 
it meets the center line at V which becomes the center from 
which to strike the pattern. The girth of the lower part of the 
ogee from ^ to ij is placed from b to d' and the girth of the upper 
part from a to c placed from a to c'. As the semi-diameter of 
the upper part of the flare from the center line c" to c" is less than 
the scnii-diametcr to the upper edge of the finished <^ee at c, 
then the upper jiart of the pattern from a to c* will be stretched 
and the middle i>art from a to 6 remains stationary. The semi- 
diamc'tcr d' d" of the lower part of the flare is greater than the 
scmi-dianictcr to the finished mold d, showing that the pattern 
from i to (f will be raised. 

The home stu<lent will do well to study what has been de- 
Bcribed in Figs. 569 and 570, for it will bring to mind other prob- 
lems of similar work and make him think. 



Acid brush, method of making. . 23 

killed 22 

muriatic 22 

Angle iron, edge 61 

Angle iron, for edges 61 

Angle, transferring of 37 

Angles, bisecting of 37 

Assembling, cornice 120 

Assembling, cross 152 

Assembling, square article 128 

Assembling, ventilators 270 

Avoiding waste in cutting 17 

B 

Ball, construction of 360-369 

Band iron edge 61 

Band irT>n. for edges 61 

Bay window 326 

attaching to building 328 

bracket, assembling of 343 

leveling of 356 

mullions 326 

molding 339 

Bead, forming of 56-61 

hollow - 61 

wired 61 

Beam compass 33 

Bench plate 366 

Bench shears 16 

Bending, caps 128 

Bending, zinc stems 143 

Bisecting a straight line 34 

any given angle 34 

Blow horn stake 363 

Brace bender 98 

Bracket 109 

Brake, cornice, operation of 28 

Brush (acid), method of making 23 

C 

Capital, finished 58 

Capital, plain 47 

Center piece, patterns 391 

Circle, finding circumference of 69 

Circles, cutting 14 

drawing of 39-40 

Circular panel, joining of 92 

Circular snips 16 

Circumference of circles 69 

Compass, beam 33 

Condensation, skylights 191 

Connecting, tube 70 

Omstrueiion of ball 360-369 

Cornice brake, operation o( 28 

Cornice, fastening of 99 

finished 114 

dimensions of 122 

locking of seams 121 

ornamental 101-465 



plain 94 

putting together 120 

Coppers, soldering 21 

Cove, forming of 56 

Cross, assembling parts of 152 

paneled 146 

paneled, finished 153 

Curb, bending operation 231 

skylight, assembling of 270 

Curved face scroll snips 16 

moldings 399 

sink work 1 19 

Curves, cutting 14 " 

Cutting, avokimg waste 17 

Cutting curves and circles 14 

Cuttii^, with chisel 115 

D 

Dipping solution, for cleaning 

coppers 22 

Dividers 31 

Dividing a tine, equal parts 36 

Dormer window 160 

assembling parts of 176 

details of 162 

finished 177 

Double cutting shears 16 

Double pitched, skylight 207 

Drawing board 31 

geometrical problems 34 

paper 34 

a perpendicular to a given hne. 35 

tools and uses 31 

Drawings, full size 51 

scale 47 

Drawing an ellipse 43 

Drawing of circles 39-40 

Drawing, outfit 13 

Drawing, parallel lines 36 

Drawing triangles 37-38 

E 

Edges, band and angle iron 61 

Ellipse 42-43 

Errors, in forming 57 

Exhaust ventilator 188 

F 

Fastening of cornices 99 

Fastening, skylights 204-222 

Finial, fastening of 145 

finished 130 

ornamental 130 

roimd, construction of 374 

Flanges, roof 63 

Flanging, tube 69 

Flat, skylight 190 

Flat seams, soldering 26 

Fluxes 22 

Forging soldering coppers 21 



F'lrtnitiK iif Iwad 56-61 

iH-iul S6 

IhwI, .111 l>rakc 60 

.-■ivu 56 

rrnirsiii S7 

in.xlilli.ni fncc 97 

.«<-.• 1!6 

l.lllK-1 117 

ri-lls 23 

( irariiiK. skylif(lit 235 

( ilaKH, tikyliKhl Z73 

f iiilliic iiuiM-l, tiu-lluxl ii[ !itri|i|iitiK. 128 

f Iravi'l rcHif, HaiiKC 63 

(JIltttT. CI HI IKY til IK ttilic to 70 

(ilillcr, t)M>lilf<l with n miter 59 

H 

1 {ntninur, NlrclchiitK 381 

I Umtiu'r.i. raisiiiK 364 

IUM.n»<>1s n 

Hi-xaui.!. 41 

(IrawiiiK "i 41 

1 lfXiiK"<i'>1 vriililatiir, lini.shoil 181 

lliiiiH-d kkylioht 240 

II<>li<iw biwl 61 

litincli 16 

JiiiiiiiiK-iiiiliTs 57 

K 

Kilk.l (ii.-i,l) 22 

1. 

Ulis. k'tidiriK 111 128 

IxiiiliT Ill-nil. L-initu-i-liiiK tiilu' 70 

mli.K..ii 71 

siinarc 64 

U-aiUr, s<(n;in-, inu-ralinu in tnim- 

iiiK 68 

I*(t liaixl Mii|.s 16 

l-ciiKlh ..f skvliRht liars 25'» 

1.1-ttiTs, makiriK i>f 105 

l.im-. <iivisi..ii .if 36 

l.iiii'. tlivisiiiii iif. with. ml ^ladiiK- 36 

l.iiii's. iiiirall.'l. <lr;iwinK ..f M> 

Lotivr.'s, stiitioimry ami ni.ivahU-. 285 

M 

Mai-liiiir. liLriiliiK 372 

M^irkitiM >.>liiliMU. ,.n inotal 25 

M.'I^il nuif liaiiui- M 

MilhiHl .if scaliiiR drawitiKs,.,. 47 
Mi'tlioiU .ij lii'Uting soMi^riiiK c»|i- 

11-rs 21 

111* IraiisftrritiK patterns on 



Fiat 

Miters, joining of 57 

handling on bench 58 

Modillion face, forming of 97 

Molding, bay window 336 

Moldii^s, curved making of 399 

M.ivabk louvres 285 

Movable sashes 300 

Mulliuns, bay window 326 

N 

Numbers, making of 105 

O 

Octagon 41 

drawing of 41 

Octagonal, leader head 71 

Ogee, forming of 116 

(JlJcration of cornice brake 28 

Ornamenlal cornice 10m6S 

finial 130 

window cap 82 

Oval, pgg shapfd 43 

P 

Panel, circular, joining of 92 

forming of 117 

gothic, method of stripping 128 

raised 90 

triangular, joining of 92 

I'annclled cross 146 

finished 153 

Paper, drawing . . . .- 34 

Parallel lines, drawing of 36 

Patterns for center piece 391 

Pediment, assembling details 139 

on a wash 154 

Per|)endicular, drawing of 35 

Pilch, skylights 242 

Plain cornice !M 

Plain capital 47 

I'lain window cap 76 

Pri'iaring, raising blocks 364 

Prohlenis, geometrical 34 

Punch, hollow 16 

solid 186 

R 

Haised panel 90 

Katsod i«nel, finished view 93 

Kaising, blocks, preparation of... 364 

liammers 304 

Kiinforcid, skyliglil bar 210 

Right hand bench shears 16 

Rivet set 186 

Riveting 186 

Roll former 23 

Roof flanges 6J 

Rosette, raising of 143 

Rosin 21 

R"sin, fJiix 22 

Ri'iind. tiuial IJQ 

Round head stake 365 

Rulers, scale 4g 



Sal-ammoniac 22 

Sash turret! 317 

Sashes, stationary and movable. . . 300 

Scale drawings 47 

Scale rules 48 

Seams, locking of. cornice 121 

Seams, sweating of 26 

Shears, bench 16 

circular 16 

curved face scroll 16 

double cutting 16 

left hand 16 

Shingle roof flange 63 

Sink strips, curved 119 

Skylight, bar, reinforced 210 

bar caps, fastening of 205 

l>ar clips 205 

bars, length of 259 

chain o|ierating device 237 

condensation 191 

curb, assembling of 270 

curb, bending operation 231 

double pitched 207 

double pitched, sectional view. 214 

fastening of 204-222 

fiat 190 

gearing 235 

Sklight, gearing bar operating dc- 

glass, siie'of'!.'!,',"!.'.'.^'.'.'.''.'.* 273 

hipped, making of 240 

hipped, different form 248-250 

method of raising 216 

miter or bevel gear 239 

parts, dimensions 253 

pitch 242 

sash, raising of 216-224 

gearing (lifting allachmcnts), 

235-236 

single pitch 209 

universal joint, application of.. 238 

valley bar 276 

ventilator, assembling of 270 

ventilators 248 

Snijis (circular) 16 

Soldering 21 

conier. for upright work 23 

copper, position of ^'*?? 

c<i|iper, wedge-sliaped 26 

copiiers. method of heating 21 

aii)i)ers, tinning of 22 

coppers, to avoid pitting 21 

coppers, weight of 22 

flat and upright seams 26 

fluxes 22 

Solid punch 186 

Solution for dipping soldering cop- 



Solution for marking on gal. iron 25 

Spring center hollow punch 16 

Square artick, assembling 128 

head stake 69 

leader head 64 

Square leader, operations in form- 
ing 68 

Square, testing of 34 

Squares 40-41 

Stake (blow horn) 363 

Stake, round head 365 

Stationary- louvres 285 

Stationary, sashes 300 

Stems, zinc, bending of 143 

Straight edge 55 

Straight line (bisecting of) 34 

Stretching hammer 381 

Stripping ornaments 24 

Strips, .sink work curved 119 

Sweating scams 26 

T 

"T" Square 31 

Tacking 26 

Templet 129 

Testing a square 34 

Tinning soldering coppers 21-22 

Tools, drawing 31 

Tools, hand U 

Transferring angles 37 

Triangle, finding center of 35 

Triangles 31 

drawing of 37-38 

Triangular panel, joining of 92 

Tube, connecting 70 

flanging of 69 

Turning machine 372 

Turret sash 317 

sqiwrc 124 

V 

Valley bar, developing of. .*, 276 

Ventilator, exhaust 188 

hexagonal 178 

side laps 184 

skylight 248 

W 
Waste, avoiding of, in cutting. ... 17 

Window, bay 326 

Window, bay, mullions 326 

cap, connecting to wall 81 

cap, ornamental 82 

cap, plain 76 

dormer 160 

dormer, assembling parts of 176 

Wired bead 61 

Z 
Zinc stems, bending of 143